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*f979.451 1l7 567590 




Illustrated Atlas and History 






History of Yolo County from 1825 to 1880^ 


Statistics of Agriculture, Education, Cliurclies, Elections, 
' Litliograpliic Views of Earms, Eesiclences,Mills, &c 






» Co. PmHTBna. *I7 Clav Stnm, Sah Fn^umco. _ 




, c,s\hL 


.^. TO THE u. 

•« iPiFBM@ &mm @WM 

mi'm %^ 




In the pnblication of tbiB work wc hnvo songlit to produce a book tlint should poBsesa suJadent merit to wanant its becoming the futnre 
Btnndurd by whioh, in the coming time, may be viewed the past nnd present of tliiit trcttted within its pages. Peifeclion v.f do not claim, bnl 
have striven to aiiproneh as near that point us imssiblo in ouch of the several depnttmeuls. In the ninp Bome iuacenrades mny be found, itnd 
if this wore not bo, it wonid be the flrsL witliont errors ever pnbliHbed; but we do rJnim thnt it ■nill compare fiivorably iu this particular 
with any like publication ever produced on this coast. It ia arrunged to Hbow the county divided into qunrter-sectiona, and the owner of eiwh. 
The colors represent the voting prcdincta, two or moro of which combine to make every other legal snbdivieion of the county. The names 
read to the north, anil the range and number of townships are given on tho margin of each of the six sections into which if is divided. The 
views, in some instances, have been drawu contrary to the conception of the artJBts, becanso of the demands of the patrons; but we are 
pleased to be able to say that there are but few illuHtmtions of this kind. The artists who have sketched tor this work are masters in their 
line, and by comparison with like pnblieatious, this fact could be moro fully appreciated. It will also bo observed that in the biographies 
some persons have been given more space than others — a fact due, not to partiality, hut to the limited infommtioa fnnufihed by some from 
which to write. The portraits are from pliotogmphs tumiKhcd by the subjects or their friends, and are very accurate rcprodnctions, hot in 
some instances they represent tho parties as they looked Bcvcral years prior to 1870. Of the history, we need make no comment, the name 
of the author guaranteeing sufEcicntly its vitlue. 

We regret that so long a time has elnjiBcd since the inauguration of the enterprise— much longer than at first was deemed necessary 
to complete tho work; but it soon became eiident that thu dilKenlties Ij-ing in the way of producing a correct history would neccssitote an 
oxtonaion of time to make tho work a superior one, but what we have lust in this way, with its consequent expense, is gain to tho subscribers. 

In conclosion, wo would return our sincere Ihajika to our patrons for their generous subscriptions, and to tho people generally of 
Yolo county lor tbe nnivcrsul courtesies extended to ns. 










C O ILT T El 3^ T S - 



Discoyery of and fniluro to occupy OnUfoniin l.y the Spwiieli 


Concineatot Upper CiUitomm by the FrcmoiBcanB 


Downfall of tlio MisBionn 


SpaiiiBli ililitary Occ»P»^'°" 


Fourtaeu of the twenty-four years tbat Califcmia v,-n. a Mexican Temtory , , . . 

Tho last tcu yeoiB that California was a Moncan Territory 


Tlio Bear-flug War. and wliat led to it 

The mvconunoncl by the Eea^fiag party end. iu the eo,..ue.tof California by the 

CHAPTEE X. .... 18 

The Elores IiiBurreotioii 



OHAl'TBE 1. 

Inb^dnction and Plan o£ the Work 

Occupation of UiB fltrantry by Trappore 

Settlemont of the VaUoy from 1839 to the organi7.ation ol the County, in 1850 

ElcotionB, with BtatiBlicB - , 

Stoclt-miBinE and Stoak-fitealing 

AgricnltnrD. with fltatiBtica - , 



■ United Stotea 1" 

The Grange Movement 

The ■Winds, EaioB ana SeaeoiiB 

Floods, SnowatomiB andEarthquokuH. . 
Swamp Lanila and Beolamation 

The ChuicheB of Yolo County 

Sec-ret and other Sad^He^ in Yo.n Co,u>ty, with brief hi.tory of the origin of each. 

History of Schools, n-itb statistics ' 






To\™b, SetHemoHts and County-sent Contests 

Newspapers and Editors ■ ■ - 

Irrigation FaoiliticM, and results o! 




Adajim, D. (i 

Aldmch, J. W - 

Bkuieh. R. L 

Bka-mi!b. E. H 

BtJiiSs, D.5I 

BuLt.iBU. W. G . . . 
Bi.'i.i.-uU'. Frank.. 
Bbows, p. II 

Eaioos, J. E-- 

B\nNEs, F-'I 

Bullock, J. P — 

EaocH, T. H 

BnowsELL, W. W. 
Bestlev, S. a.. 











Phle iV". Ftwimj poijc. 

31 32 

30 43 






Caldweli., Saucel 

Cl4Y, CHAnLK) ■ • ■ 

Clauses, Hksiiv A 

Casipbeli., Bahil 

CoopKB. MaJ. Stbchkn 

Chase, S.U- 

Con-, Cdableh 

Cauh, Joskpb E ■ ■ 

Cbaic ■losKPK. . . 

Cbaih. Db. TiionsTos 


CoBTiBa, StnH. W, C 

Coii-BLL, AiSiir.D H 

ch,aft hoohe 

CaI'AV V.\ ■ ■ ■ 


(;A<-irEViu.B Pom.i': SMieoL 

CounT-iioOTEovYoM County . 

Chilkh, L'.a 

Ciiii.KH, Mus- P- W 

CbILKM, JAltF.rt F ■ 

Ciiir-M, W. U 

Cakhow, Wm, H 

DaKo*K.W.1I. • J^ 

IJUKCAV, W.ll ^^ 

DukcaN. H. I' ffj 


Dorroif, Ja«b« M 













Elstos, Pbof- Alles il. 

Ely, Bksjasiis 

EvEHtTt, p. G 





PUiU So. F'leiiiQ page. 

25 71 

31 -13 

FnEESL\>-, J- W -- - 

FuEEMAK. F. 8 

FrsKE, Gko.B ■■■ 

FanKiiAN Block (Woodland) 
















Oassneb, John 

Glascock, Geouce 

Guvai, Jacou 

Gniaos, W. B 

GoBooK, E. E 

GoBDOS, William 

G.WLK, Amos W 

Gable, HAnvEV 


Gkifpin, Nanov 

HoLTON, Stephen B... 
Hkrsubv, Hon. D. N.. 


Holmes. Dr. L. B.... 

Hansom, W.W 

Hamilton, Davip . . - ■> Hon. Jos. H . 
Hespkbias Colleob . . 




Jaoksoh, Baniel A 

,Ta[:k.son, Dh. GkohoeH... 

Jknnisiw, Elijah 

lUoKflON, Mas. C. 


Lkman, Michael 

lobahokb, i. e 

Lauornouh, Johh D 

Lawson, JoiinD 

Levy, WoLi' 

MkhWi, SasioklN . 
Mhohk, James, ...^■- 
MEBiinT, Db. HI'" 

































MoBBia, Asa W 

11a:;ob, W. I». - 

IUedis. H. L 

SLos Street. Woodlasd 

PowBii, A. Q ■■- 

Pettit. Asa 

Powell, Abbaham 

PlUTBKR, Db. W. J 

pobteh, a. d 

Pabbamoue, Db. E. L - ■ 

Reed, C. F 

EiTJisEV, D. C 

EicBEi, Jons 

EC'S, Db. Thomas 

EnoDES, John JI 

Snowball, John W. .-- 

Spect, Jonas - 

Sharpsack, Gko 

Stephens. B.W 


Stepkenh, Geo.D 

Stuoso. Db. A^■DEBSt^^■. 
Sadsbbbs. Wio-iAM — 

Thomas, S 

Tavlob, Jons E 

ToDu, Mrs. O. G 


Tadlock, E. G 

Tadloce, Eluebt 
Tboop, Wm. H 


Tows ov Wbtkib 

TuKonAiais, W. W 

WooDAiu), Geo. W 

WlNNK, W. U -. 

Wkvasii, TiiKorOBB . . . 

WnKBBV, Geo. F 

Woottbm, S — 


WoLWHiLL. Jobs — 

























.. 20 

. 27 





J'Mk So. Paring p'W- 








n 32 

















AuAMsos, John... 
AnMsrnoKC., H. 11 . . 
Asmti:\vs, G. W 
Ai,i^. O. D 

^ Abhev, Gkobiik 

AonKTT. Joshua 

^I.K.V, 5Im. El.THABKTR , 

Alles. CnAai.EH 

Amuuju, J.J 

EouBi CimisTiAN. -- 

liBoWN, .Iachhon, , , . 

BAnsEn, S. 

Bk,u., Mrs. J- M. .. 
EAnSKTT, "Wil 

Babei., Fbedebick . . 

BcpoiiD, S. H>-. E. W 

BcsH. Jddoe E. R 
Blodgktt, O 



.. 31! 

.- SJG 

.. !l(i 



. . lli; 



BunoKd, Edhusd G 96-7 

Bkck, Piiri.BMON '07 

Bakkr, Francib E 97 

Bkli.. Dr. W. T 37 

BiDWELL, Ckas. T 97 

BvRVB, Jons , 97 

Blaib, 3Ik3. Mahv R 97 

Black, J.J 37 

BoBK, C. H 97 

Babb. 97 

BEinc, Chaklis T 97 

Bbacb, J. W 97 

Bakdv, J. ^Y !t7 

Bkhebly, Mrs. Agnes 97 

RAfiSfs. E. K 97 

Bauii, Rohebt 97 

Cabd, W, D 07 

Cii.iKiiLKR, Gates S 97 

CAMroELL, Jajied R 97 

Cbabwick, Johs 97 

GnAMKB, Lkvvls 97 

CnAPPELr., WrLi.iASi . . 97 

Cole. Warbks , . 97 


CoRsisn, Geo. F , !I7 

Clauk, Jultos A !)7 

CoLK, G.J 37 

Cecil, EuBLis i)7 

CusNiNoiiAsi Bbos , . !17 

Clastos, DBL'nv R {i7 

Clabk, W. J {I7 

CuAr.MAK, LBwas 08 

CllAld, FUKDEltJCH Oa 

CbaPmai;, Geo. A\" !)S 

Cavb, Huai) 1)8 

DUNM<1AN, A. \V. . . . 

De Bosb, Johk J, 


Du Boise, Thob. L. . 
Dbksdacu. William 
DBviLBifiH, Jons , . . 
Pdscaw, H. C... . 
Du Bowk, J. li. 
DiNwiDDiK, JoirN. . , , 

Day, RdbheIjL 

Dbumuond, J. 


Dessis, B. S 

Dat, Chah. G 

Emon, D. W . 

Evehbtt, L. P 

Ely.1. J -- 


Esob, W. S 

EmvABM. D, P. 

EusTTCE, G. E 

FiuHcisco, Dasikl . . 

I^'lsHBti, p. IV . . , 

Fleming, Patuick, W, B ..... . 

Fbanck. I. G. L 

Fowleb, Joiis E 

Poiin'AiiD, Walter. , , 
Fapek, E 




... 98 


.. 98 











Flandbb-s. W. A 99 

Fablow, Georgk 99 

Fbedericiw, J. H 99 

FiTz, Kbphes 99 

GaiFFrrH, Adbam 99 

GnEOOBY, Dr. J. D 99 

Gardner, Robt 911 

Gabouttb, CuAS. H 99 

Gray, Geo. W 99 

Gbiffin, Michabl 99 

Gbeisbb, Jacob 99 


GERUKaaAusEN, Jo3ErH it!' 

GiouEitRE, Louis 911 

GiopEBRE, Hen-ey 99 

Gbkene, CiiAH. E 99 

Gbeen, Jay 99 

GWY>-K', WlLLIAJf . 99 

Gapfobd, J. W 99 

Gbioqs, J. G 99 

GwisN, ILuiBiaos 99 

GnKGG, W 99 

Gbaptos, J. P 99 

GniTFLV-, Jab. T 11)0 

Gilliam, J. W 100 

Glide, J.H 100 

Grans, S. S . 100 

HuST, W. G 

H.iTCHEB, William 

Haklev, E 



HouoEN. Dr. I. N 

Heiszk, LoilESK 

Hn-L. F. S 

Hext, Richabu . 

Hkst, TaoM-w 

HoLcoii, W. D , 

HicKH, Hi'MfiiUKV. . 

Hevkl, Jacol 

HowABD, JIiu. M. E. 
Hadley, Jah. T. 

Hesrv. Jacob 

Haiiuimah, B. M 

Hkrbick. Edgab 


Hablas, Bens. P 

Hahulh, J.iMEs C 

Hildebbamd, John 

Hyskr, Hkniiy 






Hbinhicii, Fbbd. N, , . 

Henlev, Albbut 

HARiw, Hen'bv 

HlNHDlLL, S. 8 

Jackbon. B. F 

Joh'EK, M. F 

JtniL, FCTRnil 


., lOI 
. . 101 

,. 101 

., lOI 
. 101 
.. 101 

Kanohb, D. W 

KiUKHAJf, Sasiubl - 

Kbull, a. a 

Krhlllvodkbo, p.. 

Kbi.lbv, J. M 

Kane, A. C 






Kaht, Henbi' 

KffHS, HSBUAK • 1"^ 

Laivbon, B. C 1"! 

Leroh, REfmBif ^^'^ 

Laitkek, M 101 

LixcoLS.N.M Ifl 

LB\m,G.B.... l"*! 

LILLABD, JA3. T ini 

Lacgenoub. T. F 1"! 

Labuk, H. M 1«V 

Lano. John l"* 

LiNLEiisiAN. G. W ll'l 

Lkmas. Chah. E 1"! 

LpsK, W. H l"l 

Lato>.-,M.F I'>1. 102 

McJIauok, James 1"^ 

MoBRLs. .Tons S 102 

Mosu.tcHEB, Jacob 1'*- 

lI.;CLisnc, Mas. J. P 1"2 

Mabtin, H. P 102 

MosKB, W. F. 102 

Menas, J- P 102 

Maxwell, J. 192 

jrALTBY, Jobs- E - 1"- 

McMiu^N, Mas. JIabo't lii-2 

Majobs, Ebbsezeb 102 

Morris, Ve.vable . 102 

ItABTIN, JOHS, . - . . . — 102 

JIabtis. W.u.tki( E 102 

Mabn-k.H.E 102 

McClitbc.. Jube in2 

JIt.'ns, Andbew 102 

McCdtiLouoh, William 102 

Minor. N t02 

McKb!.-s-a, Joirs J ... 102 

M.UIDEN, W. H .102 

McCloby, Andrew ...... 102 

Megowan, B.W 102 

ilosaiY, S. L 102 

McDoS-u,n. L.W Iii2 

1Ie<io«.u;, David li'2 

SIouiiiH, Levi . . 103 

JIcHbnkv, James, . 103 

N.\GLEY, S. E... . 


NisoN, A. H 
Newtos, R. M 

Ou^'EB, J, A 

OvEBilOCHK, Wm . . 

Porter, .\lei . . 
PoWBLL. Mr.1. S. ,V 







Fomuuit, J, B . - 


pALiis. Adoi-ph 
Parkkb, O, E 
Paeker, G. h 
Parihh. Barnki 
Pond, S. P. . 

Easm. M. A 


Riciiter, A.... 


RnssELL, F. G 
Ryon. a. D. . - 
robebi^t bobt. . 

Bollisb, Jab. S 

Rb-vdy. B. P , 

BiBM, F. M 

buesell, f. e 

Belvea, S, Bakee 

RrDEE, Thiw. H 

Ridley, James 

Heabdon, Maubice 

Rugules, a. C 

Sill, Gils E 

SpcbgeoV, Miui. Ann. 

Shbyock, Samijel 

St. Locls, Chableh 

Sntdeb, JiroB 

Stowe. C. E 


Smith, J. C 

Saux, Jas. B 

Scott, C.W , 

Smith, K.W 

St. Locis, Geo. C 

Speights, X. E 

SwciOLE, Geo. H 

Sandbbs. J. G 

Steobacb. Henry 

Scorr, Geo.W 

Smttb, -Jam^K 

ScHLEDiAN, Feed. .... . . . 

Snx, S.J , 

See. D.F 


ScHUE&LEY, John K . . . . 

ScHLCBE, Otto . 

Shoet. Lewk 

Tackney, John, . . 

TuTT, E. E 



Terr, Johns 

YiNCE.s-r. David 

Weilgee. Feedkkick . . . 

Wood, Albebt H 

Wejvkb. N. M 

Wyckopp, SicnoLAS ... . _ 

WiSTBBs. John G. . 
Watkiss J.^'S" 
We.\vki:. J.W 

WEi,ca, B. F , 

Watebbitby, Jamki 

Wedeioiolt, CintisTOPHSit 


YoBK. M. E - 
y.uucK. HSSliV 



. im 

1 03 


- 103 

. 103 

. 103 
-- 103 
.. 103 

- 103 
.- 103 

-- 1U3 
. . Ifil 
. 104 
.. IW 
-. 10* 
.. IW 


.. KM 
.. 104 
. HM 

. IDJ 

. 1"4 
. . IW 
.. 1« 
.. 104 

.. lot 
.. 104 
,. 104 
. 101 

- 104 


. I'M 


. K.^ 

.. 104 
.- I(« 
,. liM 

. Ii.4 

. I'.e 

. 105 
. 105 

11 L, 



. I'l-J 

1. ". 

, I'-o 

. 105 




Plate H?l 

YOLO COUNTY, FROM 1825 TO 1880, 

By frank T. gilbert. 

Discovery of and Failure to Occupy California by Spain. 

DUmtgij of th« PaoiEc OMSn-Fate of the Di>co«Hi-A Vtw Ioreiill« for DI«:ovBri« 
-Stnila of MngDlhn- Pacific Ocwq Sam=a-L6tlM by Coil«-An HUnfl of AmB. 
MDB-A Connlry AhouDiine in Peirl. nod Qrid-Fir.t IntlmalioQ o£ OallforDln Bnfl 
IlB Onlf-lK)wet CnJlforais Dlwewrea-Faio of tie DiKOTerM-Cortei SfiIId, aid 
EateUiiliM tho riiBt Ooknj Da tho EoninBak-Eegarding lU Origin of tho Niuno 
ot Callforaia-ColQar by CortM AtandoiiB tho Conntij-Eipaditlon h, Eiplora Ibo Pa- 
cific Co^iEt in 1543-Spanteh Pfllicy in the Pacific OcsEin-Sir PranclB DmkM- Eipcdl- 
tlon-Ho Abandon His PUot on tbe Show, of Oregon-Ho Anchore for Thirly-rii Day. 
in a Bi.v tbat now Beaw Hu Name, and Takw PosfcsBion of thn Oonntry-Tho IndnHs- 
msnts for tho Occupilion at CaUfomia-Kiag Philip's M.ssaga-Ba GlvM i E«awn: 
DmIim a Supply Station on tho Goart ot OaU(omia-A QuMlionablo Btet^msnt as to 
tho lodlani!, Mid What Thsy Prodn«d--A Qllltoring Soono in tho King's KaloidoECopo 
-Voaegaa aUo Qi«8 a Eeason-Ho Tbinka tho Pacific Co^t a Swoot HotmI for tho 
LipB ot Kings-HisWty of tho Saventonth Oontnry CommBncea with the Voyage ot 
ViLino-Ho SsaichBa tor a Harbor whoro Can & Ertahli.hod a Bopply Btalion; hat 
Hia Qenins Sands Him Ont to Sm, aid Ho Paas«> tha Bay of San Prand^co wilhont 
BlBccorlnglt-H. Anchors in Drako's Bay-Th» Wr=ok of tho Ship Ban Aignatmo ■ 
-A Coancil Oolleai but Pivs Abl^.Eoajri Mon H«t«nd-Th= Strait, ot Anian-Bnf- 
taring from Bcotbntic DiKaaaa-Tha B«tnrn-Eipeditlon of Admiral Otondo-Pinal 
AbanJoament ot Fortbar EffarM to Occnpy OiJitornlii by tha QoTStnmant, 

Over three and a baU centuries have pussisd since a rep- 
resentative of the civilized race, standing upon the heights 
of Panama, beheld for the first time the placid bosom of 
our Pacific Ocean. It was a Spaniard that destiny had 
selected to stand in history at the threshold of a now era, 
and part the screen that hid from the world a stage on 
which mankind were to commence a new act in the drama 
of life Vasco Nunez de Balboa was the name of that 
fortunate man. In 1513. he was guided by aa Indian to 
the place where, spread out before him, lay sleeping the 
, legendary waters " beyond America," that conqt.erors and 
. kings had sought for in vain. The eveat rescued his name 
from oblivion, but its owner, because of cruelty, perisiied 
miserably at the hands of the race of whom one had been 

'''Ait'ef H became known that a western water boundary 
had been found to the country that Oortez had subjugated 
for Spain, the spirit of discovery was increased to a fever- 
heat The imagination of the adventurous of all eountfies 
was excited to search for the Eldorado where the Incas 
had procured their vast treasures of gold. Possibly the 
..fonntain of perpetual youth- was there, that would res- 
cue from old age the one who bathed in its living waters. 
At least beyond were the Indies, with the wealth of the 
Orient, to tempt adventurous trade, and to fan the flame 
was added, by the Catholic Church, theii spirit and zea 
or rehgiois coaquest. to save the souls of heathen, that 
lived in the countries found, and to be found, where the 
shores were washed by the newly-discovered ocean 

-With all these incentives can it be wondered at that vast 
treasures were spent in searching into these new fields o 
adventure. They had been opened, after eleven yeaia of 
search by Columbus and others, unsuccessfully prosecuted, 
to discover a strait orwaterpassage through America, over 
which they might sail to the fountain of wealth, the fabu- 

.. Ian wZ« encTHV Ja i.nrdovmuucn 1ml tbo way, VnK... S.m"^ .lo Unlb«i.. 

. rr^vie i . fl " Var«' Ui... to tU.,«y ..d f-- of 1L„ Gov.n.c, 
.. 7ulZTrL An.i«, ^vl.o .rd.r.d l>i.n, .for .U,. ..od.ory .f « U.O. .a 

" Lo bobondcd." 

loas land of Cathay, and the Island of Cipango. To reach 
those strange countries had been the dream that first led 
Columbus to undertake the voyage that resulted in the 
discovery of America. 

Six years after this, that is in 1519, the ill-fated Portu- 
guese, Magellan, started on the famous voyage that re- 
sulted in the discovery of the long-sought route to the 
Indies; thus solving the maritime problem of the fifteenth 
centary. Three years later his vessel returned to Spam, 
with a log-book that contained a record of the death of 
that gallant commander at the Philippine Islands, whose 
vessel, the Nictoria. had been the first European craft to 
sail on the waters of the Pacific Ocean, and the first to 
make a voyage around the world. It was this famous 
navigator that gave the name "Pacific" to our ocean, 
after having sailed into it from the Straits of the "Ten 
Thousand Virgins," as he called it (now known as Magel- 
lan). He had been for sixty-three days beating up through 
it against tempest and adverse currents, where the tides 
rose and fell thirty feet. Is it strange that the word 
Pacific should have been the one above all others that forced 
itself upon the happy navigator, when he saw the com- 
paratively quiet water that lay before and around him, 
as he passed out upon this unexplored ocean. 

Plve years after the departure of the Magellan expedi- 
tion from Spain, Cortez wrote to his monarch, Charles V 
(the letter being dated Oct. 15th, 152-1), in which he says 
that he is upon the eve of entering upon the conquest of 
Golima on the South Sea (Pacific Ocean). Colima is now 
one of the States of Mexico. He further says that "tho 
^' great mm there" had given him information of "an Island 
" of Amazons or women only, abounding in pearls and gold, 
"lying ten days journey from Colima," aud the Spanish 
Jesuit historian, Miguel Venegas, writing one hundred 
and thirty years ago, says of that letter: "The account of 
the pearls inclines me to think that these were the first in- 
timatiom we had of Califorma and Us Gulf" 

Its first discovery came in 1534, by Or tun Ximenes, a 
mutineer who had headed an outbreak on board the ship 
of which he was pilot, that had resulted in the death of 
the captain and some of his officers. The expedition had 
been fitted up for exploration purposes by order of Cortez 
and after the commander was thus killed, Ximenes took 
charae and continued the search, discovered the 1 enm- 
sula of Lower California, and lauded at a point somewhere 
between La Paz and Cape St. Lucas, and while on shore 
he and twenty of his men wore killed by the Indians The 
remainder of the crew returned to Chainetla, where they re- 
Dorted a country found numerously peopled, along whose 
'shores were valuable beds of pearls. Up to th.s time the 
word " CWfM-H.Vi " had not been applied to anypaitof 
the Pacific Coast or its waters. 

In 1636 Cortez fitted up an expedition, aud setsail lor 
the country found by the mutineers. He landed on the 
first day of May at the place where Ximenes ^va« Ij!"-!- 
Riving the name of Sa.ita Cruz to the bay. He established 
I colony there, and sent back his four vessels for supplies 
aud such of his party as had remained bound. But one 
onlv of those vessels ever returned, aud it brought no pio- 
visions. Corteis immediately embarked on the returned 

vessel and set out in search of his lost squadron, finding 

it stranded on the coast of Mexico, hopelessly damaged. 

Procuring fresh stores he returned to his colony, that in 

his absence bad been reduced to a famishing condition, 

many of whom died of starvation, or over-eatmg from the 

provisions he brought with him. The historian Gomara 

says (and mark the language): "Cortez. that he might no 

longer be a spectator of such miseries, went on further 

discoveries, and landed in California, wmCH is i bay; and 

Venegas, the California historian of 1758. referring to this 

passage in the work of Gomara says, that it " likewise 

proves that this name was properly that of a bay which 

Cortez discovered on the coast, and perhaps that now 

called de la Paz. and used to signif;/ the whole perniisula. 

This was the first application of the name Califorma to 

any definite point on what is called the Pacific Coast. 

Cortez was soon recalled to Mexico on account of im- 
pending troubles and danger of a revolt in that country; 
glad to have an excuse for leaving a place that had proved 
fruitful only of disaster. Within a few months he was 
followed by the colony, and Lower Califoruia.with its rocks 
and wastes of sand, was left to the Indian, the cactus and 

the coyote. 

Durin" the remainder of the sixteenth century there 
were four attempts made to explore the northern Pacific 
Coast by the Spaniards. One only was of importance; it 
occurred in 1542. under command of Juan Eoclriguez Ca- 
brillo who reached, in latitude 44°, March 10th. lo43 the 
coast of Oregon, and then returned. He discovered Cape 
Mendocino, and named it after his friend Mendoza, tiie 
viceroy of Mexico. He also named the Farallone Islands, 
opposite San Francisco Bay. 

Spain, however, did not have everything her o.™ way in 
the sixteenth century in the new world. Her gneat am- 
bition W.IS to control the western route to the East Indies, 
that her ships, laden with silks, costly gems, and rare 
fabricafrom that country, might pass undisturbed into her 
home ports. But the student of history reads of combats 
and strife between the Spaniards on the one side and the 
Dutch fleets and English freebooters on the other, as 
they searched the high seas in quest of Spanish treasui-e 

'^fhere was one more bold and reckless, more ambitious 
and successful than the others, who won the reputation of 
be ng the " King of the Sea." Li lo7S he parsed into he 
Pacific, around Cape Horn, and scattered error and de- 
vastation among the Spanish shipping up the coast He 
captured the East Lidia galleon that w:is on herwa^ home 
loaded with wealth; levied contributions in the poit. of 

loaded wii-u in-.wi.^, .- - - i, i ...kk 

Me.ico; and finally, with his war vessok freighted Ml 
captured treasures, sailed north to search for the fabled 
Straits of Anian. Through it ^'^ V^^i;'^^'^.' /'; '"'Jl''; "/, 
to England, and thus avoid a combat with the ilee. of 
Spain, that lay in wait for him olV the Shaits of Magellmi 
His n uae was Captain Francis Drake : but afterward, the 
En-lisl. monarch knighted him because ho had proved to 
t^thc most successful robbor on tho high seas, and now 
the historian records the name as ^'^.l?''^"^"^^''^';;;- 
When near the mouth of the Umpqua ivor. m Orogou 
ho ran his vessel into a " poor harDor." I'ut his bpaui^ 


TO 1S50. 

. 1.1 tl.^ renult Drskft then moTt-d on uortb until He uau 
\ 1 ILot Ulitadc 4S'. when., th. coUl weather, nl- 

H of th« ho,, of . di«.ovcry of the mvth.c-ul .tnuU 
?h"cllplaiu who the .xp«d.t.oo bemg th. 
biln^i of Ih. voyage. «iys of the coUl. that the.r hands 
werrmbU and meat ^ould fr«e«, wh.o taken f.-om 
Tefi^ a„a 'when they wer. Iyiu«-to. in the harbor at 
Dmk^H Bav. a f«w mllen up th. .oa.t from «-' T^--^"' i 
fb?«now^vered the h.w hill.. Th.t Jou. of lo79. three 
LoodJed vean, ago. .oust been an -^-'-''^^.^^f^ ! 

L California. For a long ^""« '^/^^ ^''''^^tm Fra^- ' 
Francis Drako «as the discoverer of the Bay of ban F au , 
Cisco- that it «-as in it. .vater. he cast ancho. for tb.r tj- 

d:>.. aft«r having b-on forc«<l back along the coa.t by , 
adverse winds from latitude 48^ near the north me of the 
U.i, St.te3;b.t in time tbi. was auestioned. aad uo.v 
it rKen.rally conceded that be is not ent.tled to that dis- 
n.tio Vim it was that did discover that harbor, or 
wet. discovery w.. made, will Vr^W^Uy n.... ^e 
kn^vn. What clothes it in mystery .. that the oldest 
chart or ma,, of the Pacific Coast Udowd, on which a bay 
Lembling in any way that of Sau Francisco, at or near 
the point where it is. was laid down on a Ba.bng-char 
found in an Kast India galleon captared .n 1742, w. h all 
her truasure, amounting to one and a half mdhon do lars, 
by Anson, an English eommodove. Upon tb.s chart there 
appeared seven little .lots marked ■' Los l-arallones and 
opposite these wiu, a lanadockcd bay that resembled ban 
Francisco harbor; but on the chart it bore no name. This 
is the oldest existing evidence of the discovery of t'l^ ^^es 
harbor in the world, aud it proves two things: farst, that 
its existence was known previous to that date; second, 
that the knowlclgo was possessed by the Mamla mer- 
chants to whom the chart and galleon belonged, ibeir 
vessels had been not unfrequeutly wrecked apon o«r 
coasts as far north as Cape Mendocino; and as Veuegas, 
writiug sixteen years later, says nothing of such a harbor, 
wo are led to believe that its existence was possibly only 
known to those East India Jesuit merchants, and kept 
secret by them for fear that its favorable location and 
adaptation would reuLler it a favorite resort forpuatesand 
war-ships of rival nations to lay in wait for tbeir galleons. 
With Sir Francis Drake unquestionably lies the honor 
of having been the first of the European race to land upon 
the coast of California, of which any record is extaiit. 
The account of that event, given by Rev. Fletcher, the 
chaplain of the expedition, states that the natives, having 
mistaken them for gods, offered sacrifices to them, and 
that, to dispel the illusion, they proceeded to offer up 
tbeir own devotions to a Supreme Being. The narrative 
goes on to relate that, "Our necessaire business beiug 
"endeil, onr General, with bis companie. travailed up into 
" the couutrev to tbeir villiages, where we found heardes of 
" deere by 1,UOO in a companie, being most large and fat of 
"boilie. We found the whole countrey to be a warren of 
" a strange kinde of connies; their bodies in bigness as be 
" the Barbarie connies, their beads as the beads of ours, the 
" feet of a Want (mole) and the taile of a rat, beiug of great 
" length; under her cbiuue on either side a bagge, iuto the 
" wlifcb she gathered her meate, when she bath filled her 
' " bellie, abroad. The people do eat their bodies, and make 
1 " accompt of their skinnes, for their King's coat was made 
"out of thera." The farmer will readily recoguiiie the little 
burrowing squirrel that ruins his fields of alfalfa, where 
the ground cannot be overflowed to drown them. '• Our 
" General called this countrey Nova .Vlbion.and that for two 
" causes: the one iu respect of the white baukes and clitfes 
"which lie toward the sea; and the other because it might 
" have some affinitie with onr c .untn-y in name, which some 
" time was so called. 

"There is no part of earth here to be taken up, wherein 
" there is not a reasonable quantitie of gold or silver. Be- 
" fore sailing away our General set up a monument of our 
" beiug there, as also of her majestie's right and title to the 
" same, viz., a plate uaded upon a faire great poste.where- 
" upon was engraved her majestie's name.the day and yeare 
" of our an-ival there, with the free giving up of the province 
"and people into her majestie's hands, together with her 
"highness" picture and arms, in a piece of five pence of cur- 
" rent English money under the plate, wbereander was also 
"written the name of our General." 

The incentive that prompted all nations t«/l'«?^;^[;^^^^ 
and occupation along the Pacific Const is forcibly and 
pLinrgiC bv King Philip m. of Spain, in b.s message 
S b^ 'crovin Mexico, in which he states bo rea o„ 
„.bv he issues au onler for the further -Pl-^t'-^f^ 
coL^t and its occupation. The document was dated August 
imTi lellr! and se's forth that. "Don Pedro de Acunna, 
" Knight of the Order of St. Johu. my governor ami .ap- 
" tdu general of the Phillipian Island.^ and president o 
.. rovafaudience theie. Vou are hereby given to ^'^^^^ 
.. that Don Luis de Valasco. my late viceroy ni N-^" ^1" "' 
" in regard to the great distance between the poit o Aia 

.' of that vovage. for want of a port where slaps migld pn 
'. ia and provide themselves with water, wood, miists, and 
" ot'ber things of absn:ule necessity, determined to make a 
"discovery, and draught., with obsenation of harbors 
" along tbe coast, from New Spain to these islands. 
1 The communication goes on to give the successive events 
in the prosecution of the enterprise until after the return 
of Viscaino's expeilition in 1C03, and then adds, spenkmg 
' of the Indians found upon ouv coast, " that their clothing 
' " is of the skins of sea-wolves, which they have a very good 
I -method of tanniug and preparing, and that they have 
"abundance of flax, hemp and cotton, and that the said 
i -SebastianViscainocarefuUy informed himself of these In- 

" dians and many others whom be discovered along tbo 
" (joast for above SOU leagues, and they all told bun Had >q» 
"Uiecou>Ur>i Iheie wei-c lanfc loivm, silcrr. ami (/old; wliaice he 
•' ia indiml to bclkvethat great richca mny tiethscovcrcd, ef^jKc- 
" iallij m in honw pnrls of tlte land vdm of meial are to be 

Thus the Spanish crown gives the reasons for wishing 
to occupy the eouiitiv, and it must be borne in mind that 
these inducements were equally strong with other powers 
that were hostile to Spain. Veuegas, in bis efforts to justify 
the Jesuits, gives the additional reasons not mentioned by 
the king, why the opposing countries, Spaiu and England, 
should desire to possess it. Hesays: "That iu the memi- 
" time the English should fincl out the so much desired pas- 
<■ sage to tbo South Sea, by thenortli of America and above 
■'California, which passage is not universally denied, and 
"one day may be found; that tbey may fortify themselves 
" on both sidesof this passage, and thusextend the English 
'■ dominion from the north to the south of America, so as to 
' ■ border on our possessions. Should English colonies and 
" garrisons be established along the coast of America on the 

" South Sea beyond Cape Mendocino, or lower down on 
" California itself, England would then, without control, 
" reign mistress of the .sea and its commerce, and be ablo to 
" threaten by land and sea the territories of Spain; invade 
"them on occasion from the E,,W.,N. and S., hem them 
"in and press them on all sides." 

"With all these causes at work to spur forward the differ- 
ent powers of the world— with all these visions of things 
imagined, that lay covered up in the land unknown, work- 
ing upon the taucv, it could do naught else than dot the high 
seas with adventurers and the fleets of empires. Yet one 
hundred and sixly-three years passed, after the ^isidiscovevy, 

before a permanent settlement was made in auy part of 
this fabulous land, that held secreted for the coming gen- 
erations within its limits, the realization of all their wild- 
est hopes. 

There remains the record of but one Spanish navigator 

who passed up along the coast of California during the 

seventeenth century. His name was Sebastian Viscaino, 

who sailed from Acapuleo May 5tb. 1602. Passing north 

along the coast of Lower California, he discovered the 

baib'ors of San Diego and Monterey; the latter, being 

named by him in memory of his friend the Viceroy of 

Mexico. At this point he sent back bis sick, then moved 

on up the coast, leaving Monterey harbor to slumber for 

one hundred and sixty-six years disturbed only by the 

winds, and the balsas of the natives. His course was close 

in along the shore, searching for harbors, where a station 

to supply the East India galleons might be established. 

Keacbiug a point a few miles below the bay that we now 

know as San Francisco, his evil genius sent him out to 

sea, where be continued north, keeping the land in sight, 

and thus passed thatport. Coming opposite to what is now 

known as Drake's Bay behind Point Eeyes, where that 

famous sea-king spent those thirty-six days, when be 

landed and took possession of the countrj- for England, 

, he changed his course and put into shore in search of 

' the cargo of a vessel called the San Augustine, that had 

been wrecked there in 1595. The learned historian, Juan 

i deTorquemada,writinginl615,says: "He anchored behind 

I a point of rocks called 'La Pauta de los Eeyes," in the 

port San Francisco. Finding nothing he continued his 
ZVo towards the north keeping the land in view untd , 
be bad sighted Cape Mendocino, when a councd of his as- ; 
soc Is w- called to decide what it was best to do under 
be c rcumstanccs. But six able bodied men were le t on 
the vessel; bad there been fourteen it was he Geueralsm- 
tention to push ou north to latitude -IGo. where tbo Colum- 
bia Uiver empties into the Pacific Ocean He be leved 
from all that becould learn that it was tbo Straits of Aimm. 
that at the time was supposed to separate Asm from 
\merica, and counect tbo Atlaut.c and Pacific Oceans, 
through which be proposed to sad to Spain. 

The condition of the crew is beyond the power of pen 
to describe; the following from Ihat of 'lorquem.ub., who 
was writing of them, will give some idea of w ntt the uavi- 
.-ator of those early times had to contend with, having no 
n.eaus of preserving on shipboard, for long voyages, vege- 
tables for food, to ward off the bornblo disease. After 
describing the progress of the disorder, be says; " Nor « 
'■ the least ease to bo expected from change of place, as he 
"slightest motion is attended with such severe piiins, that 
' ' they must be very fond of life who would not wdlingly lay 
'« it down on tbo first appoarancn of so terrible a 
"This virulent humor makes such ravages in the body that 
■• it is entirely covered with ulcers, and tbo poor patients 
" Hi-o unable to bear the least pressure, oven the very deaths 
" luid on them deprives them of life. Thus they lay groan- 
" ing and incapable of any relief. For the greatest assist- 
" ance possible to be given tliem. if I may bo allowed the 
" expression, is not to touch tbein.nor even the bed cloaths. 
"These effects, however melancholy, are not the only ones 
"produced by this pestilential humour. In manylhe gums, 
"both of the upper and lower jaws, are pressed both within 
" and williout to such a degree, that the teeth cannot touch 
" one another, and withal so loose and bare that they shake 
" with the least motion of the bead, and some of the patients 
" spit tbeir teeth out with their saliva. Thus they wore un- 
" ubie to receive any food but liquid, as gruel, broth, nidk 
" of almonds, and tbo like. This gradually brought on bo 
■■ei-eat a weakness, that tbey died while talking to their 
"friends, *■ * « * Some by way of ease made loud 
" complaints, others lamented their sins, with the deepest 
" contrition, some died talking, some sleopiug, some eating, 
" some whilst sitting up iu their beds." 

We must pass without further notice the details of this 
voyage, except to note, Ibat it returned to Mexico iu March, 
1603. Much of what has been given hero of the hardships 
of that celebrated voyage has been for the purpose of im- 
pressing upon the mind of the reader a knowledgeof some 
of the obstacles that guarded the approach to our land, 
which combined with her rocky shore and uncultivated 
soil placed at the threshold against invasion a more 
tormifbtble and dreaded defense than was the fabled 
winged serpent that guarded the approach to the Indies. 

In 1G06 the king issued orders that a supply station for 
the East Indies be established at Monterey, but the order 
was never executed, and nothing further towards settle- 
ment was attempted until lG8a, when Admiral Otondo 
beaded an expedition, by water, to take possession of the 
country. He landed at La Paz. erected a church, and 
made that bis headquarters. Father Kino was in charge 
of the religious part of the enterprise, and set about learii- 
iug theludian language, and soon had translated into their 
tongue the creeds of the Catholic Church. The effort 
lasted about three years; during the time tbey were visited 
with an eighteen months* drouth, and before they had re- 
covered from the blow, received orders to put to sea, and 
bring into Acapnleo safely the Spanish galleon that was in 
danger of capture by the Dutch privateers that were lying 
iu wait for her. This was successfully accomplished; the 
treasure ship was conveyed safely in. but the act resulted 
in the abandonment again of the occupation of California. 
The society of Jesuits were then solicited by the govern- 
ment of Spain to undertake the conquest, and were offered 
§40,000 yearlv from the royal treasury to aid them in the 
enterprise. But tbey declined the undertaking, and Spain 
was at last forced to abandon the attempt to occupy the 
country, though it was believed to be the rival of the 
legendary El Dorado, and a key to the defenses of her pos- 
sessions already obtained in the new world. For one hun- 
dred and forty-seven years since Cortez first established a 
colony on her coast bad the treasure of private citizens 
and the government of Spain been poured out iu nusuc- 
cessful attempts to bold the country by explorations and 
colonies; but the time had come when tbey were forced to 
yield its possession to its native tribes, and acknowledge 

OE PU£ * CO. PUB. 




Occupation of Lower Cal'fomi* by the Jetuits 

r 4 ArOMOT-Tte bte« AMk O* Umm-TW** ^*>^ 

AM4 Dm br to fMM -li frmi M W * I>m>-TWj Ba» to ft— ta 

It may occar lo th« mind ot the reader, thai any part 
of a l.iKt-.rv of the settlement of L-jwer t^ntifomia. one of 
Uifl StaU**'nf Moiico, i* not » (."rtiiicot subject to he reck- 
ou«l »roi»erIv among the ovcnb* cirmtitulmK th« hiHtorr , 
of oar fnlifomitt. Vit it wouhl »een» imp..rtuit, when one 
corner t.> uu-IrfHlau-i ihat the Peniiifiiila mw the door 
throuyli which, in nft.-r time, civilization was to enter our , 
golden hmd. It was th« uurwry whore eipcrieno*.- taught , 
a religiona Ht-ct, how to enter, then esint. and finally 
Kobduo the laud. 

In the preceding chapter 18 noted the hwt expedition be- 
fore the tlniil ahimdonment by Spain ..I any further at- 
t..raul to occupy anv part of California. With that expe- 
dition w/L« a monk who had volnnl.irily abandoned a Ui- 
crutive and honorable i>osition as a professor in Ing'dstadt 
College. Ho had mado a vow wliile lying at the point of 
death, to hiH patron Saint F ranci. Xavier, that if he should 
recover Im would in the remaining years of his life follow 
the exumplo Ret in the lifetime of that patron. He did re- 
cover, reaign.i.l his pn.fessorship, and crossed the sea to 
Mexico and eventually became the one who, asamission- 
nrv accompanied that lii«t expedition. He was a Clernmn 
1,V birth and his name in his native laud was Kuhu, but 
the Spaniards have recorded it as Father Eiisehio Fran- 
cisco Kino. 

Father Kino had become strongly impressed in his visit 
to the ountrv with the feasibility of a p'an by whi.h the , 
land might be taken possession ot and held. His object , 
was not the conquest of a kingdom, hut the conversion of 
its inhabitants, and the saving of souls. His plan was to 
»oinlo the cnunli-vmu\ teach the Indians the principles 
of the Catholic faith, educate them to support themselves 
by tilling the soil, and improvement through the experi- 
ence of the advantages to be obtained by mdustiy; 
theondot all being to raise up a Catholic province for 
the Spanish crown, and people paradise with the souls of 
converted heathens. The means to be employed in accom- 
plishing this, was, the priests ot the order of Jesuits, pvo- 
toctodbv a small garrison of soldiers, both sust^uned by 
contributions from tlmse friendly to the enterpiise. 1 he 
mode ot applying the means was, to first occupy some fa- 
vorable place in tlie country, where, protected by a small 
Kanison. a storehouse and church could be erectea that 
would render the Fathers* maintainauce and life compara- 
tivelv secure. This would give them an opportunity to 
win ihe confidence of the Indians, by a patient, long-con- 
tinued, uniform system of affectionate intercourse and jnst 
dealing, and then use their ,'i'l^ti'cs as the means by which 
to convert their souls. 

It is difficult for lis of the nineteenth century to appre- 
ciate Uie grand conception, to realize the magnitude of the 
task imdevtaken by that monastic Hercules. W ith a heart 
that loved humanity because it had a soul; with a charity 
that forgave all things except a death in sm infolding 
,vitli affection all the images ot the Creator; with a tongue 
that made the hearer listen for the voice of angels: with a 
faith in success like one of the chosen twelve-He became 
un enthusiast, and was to California what John the Bap- 
tist was to Christianity: the forerunner of a change to 
come. And the end is not yet-it will never be, for eternity 

will swallow it up. , . j , 

Spain had spent vast treasures in that centurj- and a 
half ot unsuccessful effort to survey and occupy the upper 
Pacific Coast. The first colony, esUiblished in lo3b by 
Coilez had cost S400,0ULI ; the last, by Otondo, IbSd 
«->»5 400 to which add all the expensive efforts that oc- 
curred between those dates, and the total foots among the 
millions. So v;.st an outlay, followed by no favorable re- 
sult rendered the subject one of annoyance, and clothed 
with contempt auv that were visionary enough to advoca e 
a further prosecution of such an enterprise, so repeatedly 
demonstrated to bo but a " delusion and a suare. 

With such an outlook, unchcering, unfriendly, vvitii no 
reward to urge to action, except beyond the grave with a 
prospect of defeat and a probability of '°^^>'."*5«'" J^ " 
Lnlt Father Kino started, on the 20th of October, 16S6, 

to inxei oTer Meuoo, and. by prraebiag. nrgo hw Yi*w« 
«od hope* of th« eoterprii*. Ho nooii met on lli« w»y • 
coDgeninl spirit. Father Joan Maria S«lvnTiem»; wod ihen 
aootbcr, F.tthcr Juan Tgarte. added bia RTcat os«^:ative 
ability to the csuhv. Thoir uoittnl efforU resullotl in ob- 
taining «n(Bci*nt fombi by nolwcriptioo. Then they pro- 
cortd a wanant from the king fot the onier of JranitH to 
enter npon th(* coofinest of California, nt their own o\- 
peni«e. for tho benefit o( the crown. The order w«« given 
Fobniarv oth, 16ff7. and it had rrqoired eleven year* of 
conatant urging to procun* it. October 10th. of the wme 
year, Salva Tierra sailed from the coast of Mexico to put 
in operatiuu Kino's luug-cherinhed scheme of conquest. 
The expedition consisted of one amall vcfisel and a long- 
boat, in which wore proviMius. the neccaaary ornamonU 
and fnmiture for fitting up a nide church, and Father 
' Tiemi, accompanied by »ix sidiliers and three Indiann. 
It wait an uiipreleiiliout* array, going forth to conquoat, 
to uchievo with the chmw wliat the army, navy, and 
i power of a kingdom combined had failed to do. 
■ Ou the 19th of October, 1U79, thoy reached tho point 
selected on the const of tho pcninsnhi, and aayB 
Venogns:— "Tho proviaiona and aniinaU wore landed, 
■' together with the baggage; the Father, though ihe head 
" of the expedition, being the first to load his shoulders. 
" The barracks for the Utile garrison were now built, ami 
" a line of circumvallalinn thrown up. In the center a 
'* t«nt WHS pitched for a ti-uiporary chapel; boforo it waH 
"erected a crucifix, with a garland of llowerx. • » • 
" The imago ot our Lady of Loretto, as patroness of the 
" conquest, was brought in procession from tin- boat, and 
" placed witli proper snlemnity." 

On tho 25th of tho same month, formal possession was 
taken of the country iu "his majesty's name," and has 
never been abandoned since. 

Immediately tho priest initiated tho plan of conversion. 
He called together the Indians, explained to them the cate- 
chism, prayed over the rosary, and then distributed among 
them a hd/hmhd of lioihl •orii. The corn was a success, 
they were very fond of it; but the prayei-s and catechism 
were "had medicine." Tliey wauled more corn and less 
prayers, and proceeded to steal it from the sacks. Thia 
was stopped by excluding them from the fort, and they were 
kindly informed that corn would be forthcoming oiiii/ aa a 
reward for nltcmhuce niid uttenHon at the (kcotio'in. This j 
created immediate hostility, and the niitivc-s formed a con- | 
spiracy to murder the garrison and have a big corn oat 
on the 3lHt day of October, only twelve d'lys after tho first 
landing of the expedition upon the coast. The design was ; 
discovered and happily frustrated, wlion a general league 
wiLs entered into among several tribes, and a ilcscent was 
made upon the fort by about five humlivd Indians. The 
priest rushed upon tlie fortificiitious and warned them to 
desist, begging them to go away, telling them that they , 
would be killed if they did not; but his solicitude for 
their safety was responded to by a number of arrows 
from the natives, when he camo down and the battle 
bo-an in earnest. The assailants went down like grass | 
before the scythe, as the little garrison opened with 
their fire-arms' in volleys upon the unprotected mass, and 
they immediately boat a hasty retreat, where at a safe 
disUmce they sent in one of their number to beg for 
peace; who, says Venegas, "with tears assured our men, 
" that' it was those of the neighboring rancheria under him, 
" who had first formed the plot, and on account of the pau- 
"city of their numbers, had spirited up tho other nations; 
"adding, that those being irritided by the death ot their 
" companions were for revenging them, but that both the 
" one and the other sincerely repented of their attempt. A 
"little while after came the women with their children, 
■' mediatin" a peace, as is the custom of the country. They 
I " sat down weeping at the gate of the camp. with a thousand 
; " promises ot amendment, and offering to give up their 
' .'children as hostages for the performance. Father Salva 
! "Tierra heard them with his usual milduess. shewing them 
I " the wickedness of the procedure, and if their husbands 
' " would behave better, promised them peace, an amnesty, 
■ "and forgetfulness of all that w,is past; he also distributed 
"among them several little presents, and to remove any 
" mistrust they might have, he took one of the children in 
"hostage, and thus they returned in high spirits to the 
" rancherias," 

Thus was the first contest brought to a termination emi- 
nently satisfaetorj- to the colonists. The soldiers" guns bad 
tau-ht the Indians respect, and the sacks of corn allured 
them back for the priest to teach them the Catholic faith. 
We quote further from the Jesuit historian, \enegas, 
that the reader may get a correct nndei^tandmg of the 

iner in which lb* Fathers trrat«d the aboriginal ocott- 

paota of the country, and the w»t ihoy conqneiwl Ihe 
igoorano*', indolence and vioiousne.'W of thivM> tribes. In 
fi|K<flkiDg of Father Fgarle. the historiiin >.a\^: 

'■ In Ihe moniiug. after tiaying matw, and nt which ho 

" obligeil them to attend with onlcr and n'siwt. he g«\o n 

" bnakftiNt of iH«idi to lh«»se who wero to work, set thorn 

"about luiihling tho ehnndi and houitcA for himself and 

"bi* ludinns clearing ynnind for ciillivatiou. making 

" Irenchcs for coiiveyuiie* of miter.hole!* for phuiliug troea. 

■' or digging and prei«»riug ihe gnuuid for stvwiiig. In the 

" building part Father I'garle wivs nnwter. ovemwr. car- 

" (M'nter. bricklayer ami laborer. For the indtann. though 

" nnimalod by bis es^imple, could ueilher l>y gifts or kind 

" aiioechea be prevailed upon to -.hake ofT their innnle aloth. 

" and were sun' |o slacken if they did not ne.' the Father 

" work harder than any of (hem ; fo he wa'* the fintl iu feteli- 

" ing btone*. treading 111" elay. mixing the "and. culling. 

I "carrying and barking the tindier; rcnnning the earth and 

I " fixing malorialM. He wa« equally laborion^ in the iilhor 

j " tasks, sometimes felling the tree* with lii^ as. "ometimi'H 

! "with his spade in hia liaml digging up the earth. Kome- 

" limoR with an irrm crow Hplitting rock". B<'metiim'sdiHpoH- 

" ing tho wator-treiiehea, soinetiuies h-adiiig the beasia and 
"cattle, which he had procured for hin mixtion lo patttuie 
" and water; thus by bin own example, teaching the several 
"kinds of labor. Tho Indians, wlione uarroa ideaa and 
"dullness could not at firnt enter into the utility of tliewi 
" fatigues, which at the »anie time deprived them of their 
"customary freedom of roving among the forests, on ft 
"thousand occamons sulViciently tried his patience— com- 
" ing late, not curing to stir, running away, jeering him, 
"and sometimes even forming combinidioiis, and tlireaten- 
" ing death and doatruction; all this wuh to be homo with 
"umvearied patience, having no other reccmr^o than alTa- 
"hilityaud kindness, Kometimes intermixed with gravity 
■■ to strike respect; also taking euro not to tire them, and 
"suit himself to their weakncHs. In the evening the Father 
"led them a second time in their deVi.lionH; in which tho 
"rosary was prayed ovit, and the catechism .-sijlained; and 
" the Morvico was followed by the distribution of some iH'o- 
" visions. At first they were very trniildesoni.- idl the time 
"of the sermon, jesting and sneering at what he said. This 
" the father bore with tor a while, and tlieii proceeded to 
"reprove tliom; but finding they wcue not to bo kept in 

"order, ho mado a very dangerous osporiii I of what 

"could be done by fejir. Near him atood an Indian in 
"high reputation for Mtrenglh. and who, presuming on tliis 
" advaiitiige, tho oidy (pial-.ty esteeme.l by them, took iiiJOn 
" himself to be m.)re rude than theothei-H. Fatlier Ugarte, 
" who was a large man. and of uncommon strength, ohserv- 
" ing tho Indian to be in the lieighl of his lunghter, and 
"making signs <d mockery to the others, sei/ed liim by 
"the hair ami lifting him upswung him to and fro; at this 
"the re^l ran away in llio utmost tenor. They soon re- 
" turned one after aiiolher, and the father so far succeeded 
" to intimidate them that they behaved in<.re regularly for 
" the future." In writing of the same priest and his labors 
in starting a mission in another place, thiHhistorian relates 
that " heondeavored, bylittle presents andcarosses, Ui gain 
"theaffectioiisothisIndians;not80 much that they should 

"assist him in the building as that they might takealiking 
" to the catechism, which ho explained to them as well us 
"he could, by the help of some Indiana of Loretto, while he 
. .. was perfecting himself iu their language. But his kmd- 
' "cess was lost on tho adults, who, from their invmcblo 
' "sloth, could not be brought to help him in any one thing 
" thou"h they partook ot, and used to be very urgent with 
" him for pozoli and other eaUddea, He was now obliged 
! " to have recourse to the iLssisb.nce of the boys, who, being 
"allured by the father with sweetmeats and presents, ac- 
"companicd him wherever he would have them; and to 
" habituate these to any work it was necessary to make use 
" of artifice. Sometimes he laid a wager with them who 
"should soonest pluck up the mesqnites and small trees; 
" sometimes he offered reward to those who took away 
■ "most earth; and it suffices to say that in forming tho 
"bricks he made himself a boy with boys, challenged them 
" to play with the earth, and dance upon the clay. The 
" father used to take off his sandals and tread it, in which 
"be was followed by the boys skipping and dancing ou 
" the ch^y, and the father with them. The boys sung, and 
"were highly delighted; the father also sung, and thus 
" they continued dancing and treading the elay m different 
" parts till meal-time. This enabled him to erect his poor 
"dwelling and the church, at the dedication of which tho 
"other fathers assisted. He made use of several such 
" contrivances in order to learn their laiigoage; first teach- 


"iog Ibe boys several Spanish .-ord., «mt tl^ey ingM 
..atfevwarcLs teach him theiv lang„=^e. ^1-; ''>' '^ 
"help of these masters, the interpreters of Lore to ad 
"his own observation aiul discourse with the adu Us, he 
'■ bad attained a sufficient knowIedRe of .t,he began to cat- 
"echise these poor gentiles, using a thousand eutog 
.<,vay8,that they should com. t« the catechism. Hehke- 
.' wise made use of his boys for carrying on their iiish-uc- 
" tion Thus.witb invincible patience and firmness mider 
■■excessive labors, he went on humanizing the savages who 
■ ' lived on the spot, those of the neighboring rancherias, and 
■• others, whom Ug sought among woods, broaches and cav- 
"erns' going about everywhere, that he at length admiu- 
.'istered baptism to many adults, and brought th..-, new 
"settlement into some form." 

In this manner those devoted fathers struggled on 
through seventy years of ceaseless toil to plant the cross 
through that worthless peninsula of Lower California -a 
land that God seemed to have left unfinished at the eve of 
creation, intending it for solitude aud the home of the 
cactus, the serpent, and the tarantula. 

The plan of subduing the savages will be readily seen 
from what Venegas records, and it proved to be successful. 
The missions, some of them always, all of then, for a time, 
were supported by remittances from Mexico uutd the In- 
dians could be christianized and educated to work, aud, 
with the aid of the fathers, make the missions self-support- 
ing Within the first eight years there were expended, m 
establishing six missions, fifty-eight thousand dollars, aud 
one million two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars 
in supportiug the Indians that were subject to them. 

The after events that conslituted the history of the pen- 
insula are a continuous succession of strongly marked acts 
that woidd make an interesting book for one to peruse who 
is seeking the history of the Indians as a race; but not of 
sufficient importance as an adjunct to California history to 
warrant theiv relation iu this work. Therefore they will 
be passed, enough having been given to show the reader 
how the Catholics became the conquerors of the country. 
Iu 1707, the .Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish do- 
minions! and forced to abandon their work in Lower Cal- 
ifornia; but they left behind them a record of having paved 
the way and solved the problem of how to subdue and 
control the native tribes of the West. They have left be- 
hind them the record of having become the pioneers iu 
the culture of the grape and in the making of wine on this 
coast, having sent to Mexico their vintage as early as 1706. 
They" were the pioneer manufacturers, having taught the 
Indians the use of the loom iu the manufacture of cloth as 
early as 1707. They built, in 1719, the first vessel ever 
launched from the soil of California, calling it the "Tri- 
umph of the Cross." Two of their number suflered mar- 
tyrdom at the hands of the Indians, and the living were 
rewarded for those years of toil, of privation and of self- 
sacrifice, by banishment from the land they had subdued; 
leaving for'their successors, the Franciscans, sixteen fiour- 
ishing missions, and thirty-six villages, as testimouials of 
the justice and wisdom of their rule. 

of them The FranciscauB deemed it a work and class of 
property that should not be segi-egated, and expressed a 
Lterence of yielding the whole rather than_a part, and 



Conquest of Upper California by the Franciscans. 

DoiEiDlraiiii BnccMd ths Pianclsoans In Lower Calltoraa-Why tbo LilUr vete Willing lo 
Qlvo Way-Tha Orielnal Plsn of tho JcBQila-The KlnE of Spain Orfcta tlio Colonlia- 
Uoa of Dppcf Callforoia-The Eipedition and its Objerts-It Qty.s by Land and Sea- 
Loas at fto VeESul St. Jewpli-MotUllty oa Boird tlB othat Shlpa-Tha Party liy Land 
DUidei-A Df«ripllon of Ibo Ploniier of Califomia-A Mole-diivBr Turns Doctor-Thn 
OvBTlflnd Etpeditloa Anives Enfely at Ban Dlogo-An Epoch in tho HlaWry of the 
World-The "San Aiit«aIo"KGtBniB toEaaBlae-ThB Conntry Taken PoeaiEaioo of— 
How n Mlaalon ie rormoi-OOTeraor Portala m\s out in Boarch of Montorey, and Dis- 
tovfirt Instead tla Bay of San rranriwo-Flisl Mlealon Fonaded-Flrtt mWe In OaU- 
fomia-An Almoit Baptiiad Papoojo-Abnndonment of tbu Country Dcddfld Upon- 
Timely Arrival of tho "Ban AnWiUD"PreVEiiU Abandonmont— Two New Eipsditions 
8lart la Search of MoatarBy-MonUroy Foand-What Jnnlpeto Thooght of the Port— 
They Uko PoaiEalon-MlMioa of 8aa Cnrlco EsWtdi»hei-Thoy Proceed lo Bmo tho 
Litlb DavlU Awftj-Mluion of San inlnaio EBtiblialiDd-Flrst IrrlKition !n Callffltnia 
and the Beanlla-UlMion Establlsbod noat Los Angfllea, Called Ban Gabriel-ADolber 
Hiraclo-OoTeraor Portala Hetornn lo Meiico tho Bearer of Welcome Howa-Pniher 
Jnnlpsro nlso "ViiWi Meilco-Tho Pioneer Oserlaad Eipedillon from Meiico hy Caplaia 
Ania-Ho relarot to ftoilw-Attflmpt lo Deslroy.the MlMloa at Sao Dlogo by tho 
IndtanB— Tha Pirst Vcsa?! Known to Hnva B-en lo the Haibor of San Ftanoitw— Death 
of Pother Jnnipito aerro-Why a Pnll Hlstery of tho Miaalona is not Oivon— Tho Qoa- 
eral Plan ot their Loatlon, and Boason for It-Baatlaaa Interteio with tho Plan-Popn- 
latloa OB Qken by EamboMt, 

The Franciscan order of the Catholic Church liad no 
sooner become possessed of the Missions established on 
the peninsula by tho Jesuits, than anolhov order of that 
church, called the Dominican, set up claims to ii portion 

preference of yielding V... . . - 

eventually turned it all over to the Dommicans. This 
willingness to abandon the fields to their rivals was not, 
what Tt might at first seem to be, a spirit of self-abnega- 
tion. It was rather tlie wisdom of the serpent that laj 
concealed under an exterior of apparent havmlessness like 
that of the dove. 

As before stated in this work, the process of occupying 
the peninsula of Lower California had been a school 
^vheiin the Catholic Church had educated the world in 
the proper means to be employed in making a conquest o 
the coast Indians and their country. It had been a part 
of the original phm of the Jesuits to extend the missions 
on up the country, along the coast, until a cham of con- 
nection had been formed from La Pa/, in the south to those 
straits in the north that the nautical world supposed 
separated Asia from America, and called at that time the 
" Straits of Anian." But they were not permitted to per- 
fect the plan, being banished before their conquests had 
reached beyond the limits of the peninsula. 

The Franciscans gave up the possession of the territoi-y 
of their rivals to the Dominicans with the purpose of 
entering further north aud taking possession of the coun- 
try that heretofore had only been seen "through a dark 
glass darkly," and tlius perfect the original plan. In this 
way they hoped to become possessors of a better land, 
where legend had located the gold and rich silver mines, 
from where the Incas had drawn their treasure. 

In pursuance of this plan there was issued by the Span- 
ish crown an order calling for the rediscovery of the bays 
in the upper coast, and an occupation of tlie country. In 
response to the order, an expedition started in 1769, under 
the management of Junipero Serro, a Franciscan Monk. 
His immediate intention was to found three missions in 
Upper California: one at San Diego, one at Monterey, 
and the third between those places. The general object 
of the expedition is laid down by Joseph De Galvez as 
being '' to citaliUsh tlic Cnlholk- rcliffion amomj a vumerous 
"heathen people, submerged in the obscure darkness of pa- 
" ganism, to exiend the dominion of the Ki'ngom- Lord, and to 
"protect the peninsula from the ambitious views of for- 
"eign nations." 

He also sets forth that this had been the object of the 
Spanish crown since the report of the discoveries by Yis- 
caino iu 1603. It was deemed expedient to divide the ex- 
pedition, and send a portion of it by sea in their three 
vessels, leaving the remainder to go from Mexico overland 
by way of the most northerly of the old missions. Ac- 
cordingly on the 9th of January, 17G9, the ship "San 
Carlos" sailed from La Paz, followed on tho 15th of Feb- 
ruiiry by the "San Antonio." The last to sail was the 
" Sau Joseph," on the loth of June, and she M-as never 
afterwards heard from. The ocean swallowed her up, with 
the crew that had thus been summoned to join the ranks 
of the army that in the past centuries had sought by sea 
the rock-bound coast of California to find instead the 
boundless shore of an unexplored eternity. The vessels 
were all loaded with provisions, numerous seeds, grain to 
sow, farming utensils, church ornaments, furniture, and 
passengers, their destination being the port of San Diego. 
The first to reach that place was the " San Antonio." She 
arrived on the 11th of April, having lost eight of her crew 
with scurvy. Twenty days later the "San Carlos" made 
her laborious way into port, with only the captain, the 
cook aud one seaman left alive of her crew, the balance 
having fallen victims of that terrible scourge of the early 

The party that was to go overland was also divided into 
two companies: one, under command of Fernando Eevern 
Moncada,was to assemble at the northern limit of the pen- 
insula, where was located the most northerly mission, aud 
take two hundred head of black cattle over the country lo 
I San Diego, the point where all were to meet iu the now 
I laud to be subdued. Revera set out on tho 21th of March, 
[ and was tho first European to cross the southern deserts 
j of our Slate. He reached the point of general rendezvous 
I on the 14th of May, after having spent fifty-one days iu the 
; jiiurney. 

The Governor of Lower Oalifornitt, Gaspav de Portala, 
took command of tho remaining part of tho laud expedi- 
tion, and started, May lulli, from the saniL- place that, on 
tho frontier, had been the point uf departure for Ueverii. 
! With Portala was the president, under wlioso charge tho 
whole entorpriso was placed; aud of tbis nuui, J'uther 
I FranecH Juiupero Scno, the pioncitr of California, a luoro 
I than passing notice would seem in place. He was born on 

an island in the Mediterranean Sea, and from infancy was 
educated with a view of becoming a priest of the Romish 
Church He was a man of eloquence and enthusiasm, of 
strong personal magnetism- and power, possessing to a re- 
markable degi-ee those peculiarities of character found in 
martyrs and dervishes. He had gained a wide reputation 
as a missionary among the Indians in Mexico, and was the 
great revivalist in his church. He frequently aroused his 
congregation almost to frenzy by his wild enthusiastic de- 
monstrations of religious feiwor. He would beat himself 
with chains and stones, and apply the burning torch to his 
naked flesh to show the apathetics the need of crucifymg 
the flesh in penance for their sins. On one occasion his 
self-inflicted punishment with the cruel chain was so great 
that one who beheld it rushed up to the altar, seized the 
links from his hands, exclaiming, "Let a sinner suffer 
penance, father, not one like you," and commenced beat- 
ing himself with them, not ceasing until he fell to the floor 
in a swoon. Such was the mau and his power over others, 
to whom was committed the task of a " spiritual conquest" 
of upper or new California. 

Edmund Randolph, in his vivid and excellent Oi'ilim of 
the History of California, m speaking of this man and his 
journey over the country to enter upon his new field of 
duty, says: 

"It was May before he joined Portala at the same en- 
" eampmeut from which Revera set out. The reverend 
"Father President came up in very bad condition. Hewas 
" traveling with au escort of two soldiers, and hardly able 
" to get on or ofl' bis mule. His foot and leg were greatly 
" infl'amed, and the more that he always wore sandals, and 
" never used boots, shoes or stockings. His priests and the 
" governor tried to dissuade him from the undertaking, bnt 
"he said he would rather die on the road, yet he had faith 
' ' that the Lord would carry him safely through. * * * On 
"the second day out his pain was so great that he could 
"neither sit, nor stand, nor sleep, aud Portala, being stdl 
"unable to induce him to return, gave orders for a litter to 
" be made. Hearing this. Father Junipero was greatly dis- 
" tressed on the score of the Indians, who would have to 
" carry him. He prayed tervently,and then a happy thought 
"occurred to hiin. He called one of the muleteers, and 
" addressed him, so runs the story, in these words: 'Son, 
" don't you know some remedy for the sore on rayfoot and 
' ' le" ?' But the muleteer answered, 'Father, what remedy 
"can I know ? Am I a surgeon ? I am a mideteer, and 
' ' have only cured tlie sore backs of beasts.' ' Then eon- 
" sider me a beast,' said the father, 'and this sore, that has 
" produced this swelling of my legs and the grievous pain I 
"am suffering, and that neither let me stand or sleep, to he 
"a sore back., aud give me the same treatment you would 
"apply to a beast.' The muleteer, smiling, as did all the 
"rest who heard him, answered, 'I will, Father, to please 
" you;' aud taking a small piece of tallowmashed it between 
" two stones, mixing it with herbs, which he found growing 
" close by; and having heated it over the fire, anointed the 
"foot aud leg, leaving a plaster of it on the sore. God 
"wrought in such a manner, for so wrote Father Junipero 
"himself from San Diego, that he slept all that night untU 
" daybreak, and awoke so much relieved from his pains that 
"he got up and said matins aud prime, and afterwards 
" mass, as if he had never suflered such an accident, and 
" to the astonishment ot the Governor and the troop at 
'seeing the Father iu such health and spirits for the jonr- 
"ney, which was not delayed a luoment on his account. 
"Such a mau was Junipero Serro, and so he journeyed 
"when he went to conquer Califoruia. On July 1st, 1769, 
"they reached San Diego, all well, in forty-six days, after 
"leaving the frontier." 

They were the last of the several divisions to arrive at 
that point, and were received with heartfelt demonstrations 
by their companions, some of whom had been anxiously 
awaiting their coming, for nearly three months. 

This was one hundred aud ton years ago, and it was the 
era from which dates the comraencemeut of a history of 
the European race iu our Stiite. Then, for the fii-st time, 
the Visigoth came here to make a home whei-w he expected 
to live aud to die. It was au epoch in time of great mo- 
ment to the civilized world, a your freighted with events 
that in their bearing upon the family of men Wiis socoud 
to none since that birth iu a luaugevat Naz;ireth. W'iihiu 
it was ushered upon the stage of life the two git'at men. 
military commanders, \\'elliugtou aud Biuinpartc. whose 
acts were to shape tho destinies of Euroiio; yi-s. of the 
world. That year not only saw our beautiful Stiito in 
swaddling-tdotlu's. an iufaut burn to be uui-sod ovontually 
into the family of civilized nations, but it siiw the soeil of 
liberty planted iiumiig the graiiito hills of Now England, 


so LAND 




ana Father Time «Tote upon one of the mile poslsof eter- 
uity, "17fi9, tho commencement of a briybter cluy for the 
children of men." 

The members of the several divisioDS were all, excepting 
those who died iit sea, on the ground at San Diego, and 
Fiitlier Jnniporo was not a mun to waste time. In looking 
over his resources for accomplishing the work before him, 
he found that there were in all, including converted In- 
dians that had accompanied him. abont two hundred and 
ftfty floul-s. That he had everything necessary for the 
founding of tho three missions, the cultivation of the soil, 
grazing the land and exploring the coast, except sailors 
and provisions. So many of the fonner having died on 
the voyage, it was deemed advisable to have what re- 
xnaiiied sail on the San Antonio for San Bias, to procure 
more seaman and supplies. They accordingly put to sea 
for that purpose on the 0th of July, and nine of the crew 
died before that port was reached. 

Formal possession was immediately tiiken of thecountry 
for Spain, and the next thing iu order was to found amis- 
sion at San Diego. , ,. , 

Possibly it will be interesting to the reader to kno^v 
what the ceremony was that constituted the founding of a 
mission. Father Francis Palnu, whose writings were 
published in 1787, thus describes it: 

'■ They immedlatelv sot about taking possession of the 
; soil in the name of our Catholic monarch, and thus hud 
, the foundation of the mission. The sailors, muleteers and 
; servants set about clearing away a place ^'l^'^'t ^vas to 
serve as a temporary church, hanging the bells (on the 
limb of a tree possibly), and forming a grand cross " 

The venerable Father President blessed the holy water, 
and with this the rite of the church and then the holy 
cross; which, being adorned as usual, was planted in front 
of the Church. Then its patron saint was named and hav- 
iEC chanted the first mass the venerable president pro- 
nounced a most fervent discourse on the coming of the 
Holy Spirit and the establishment of the Mission. The 
sacke of the mass being concluded, the Vem Creator was 
then sung; the want of an organ and other musical instru- 
ments, being supplied by the continued discharge of the 
firearms duriug the ceremony, and the want of ineense, of 
which they had none, by the smoke of the muskets. 

After the establishments of a mission the nest thing m 
order was the gaining of converts, -"^^ ^^^^ P^'^.'=^"=^.,^«;°f 
the same in Upper as it was in Lower California, will con- 
sequently require no further description. 

Everything being in fine working order the vessel San 
Antonio-having sailed for seaman and supplies, the countrj 
bavin- been token formal possession of, there remained 
only the necessity of entering upon the ---7^' «Jf f 
that had attracted these pioneers to California. Conse- 
quently an expedition was fitted out --f^'^^;'';''''^^', 
Li's Command, to go overland in search the harboi of 
Monterey, that had been for one bundled and sixtj- .x 
years lost to the world. He started on the Uth of J y. 
vith all but six of the available force, except convovt. that 
had come with them from Lower California. These were 
left with Father Junipero and deemed by h.msulhcient fo 
his protection, and that of the mission to be founded on 
Z 16th, shoiing a confidence in the natives that came 
near adding this to the already long list of disasters. 

Port;ia,;ith sixty-five persons in all, moved on up ^e 
coast, and reaching Monterey, planted a cross there, .vUh- 
oat knowing that he had found the place he was 
He passed in his slow tortuous way on up tUe countiy. 
until three and a half months had psssed since his depa - 
ture when. October 30th, he came upon abay tha Fathei 
Crespi. who accompanied the expedition and kept a jour- 
nal. Lys. "t}.yatoncercco,.l.rJr What - ^ them o 
recognize it? they ever heard o it before Tins is 
the first nnouesthnwri record of the discovery of he ban 
Francisco harbor. Iu all the annals of history, theie is 
no evidence of its ever having been seen b^f^--^- f ^^^ 
that sailing chart dated 1740 and captured m 17J2 with 
the galleon belonging to the Jesuit Mani a mercluint. 
Yet the exception is evidence strong as holy ^-nt that m 
1740 the bay had been found, but the name of the first 
discoverer is lost to the world. . 1 i „j 

Portala and his followers believed that a miracle had 
been performed; that the discovery was due to the hand 
of Providence, that St. Francis had led them to the place, 
and when they saw it in all its land-locked, f^^^'^^-'^^S 
grandeur, they remembered that before they leftMexico 
Father Junipero hadbeen grieved because the vis.tator 
General Galve.. had not placed iu the lis tbeir patron 
saint, in selecting names for the missions ^e founded 
ia th^ new country, and when reminded of tho omission by 

the sorro«-ing priest he had replied solemnly, as from ma- 
tured reflection "If St. Francis wants a mission let him 
show you a good port and we will put one there. " A 
good port" had been found, one where could ride in safely, 
the fleets of the world and they said St. Francis h:vs led 
us to his harbor, and they called it "San Francisco Bay. 
Thus for the first time in history, the name and locality 
were united. 

The expedition that was under Califoruia's first Gov- 
ernor then returned, starting Nov. 11th. 17fi0. and arrived 
at San Diego Jannar)- 24th. 1770, where he first learned of 
the perils tlirongh which, during his absence, had passed 
those he had left behind. It will be remembered that i or ■ 
tala started uorth on the 14th of July, two days before the 
first mission in Upper California was founded at ban 
Diego This day was chosen as the one 00 which to com- 
mence the work of Christianizing California, because on 
the 16th of July five hundred and forty-seven yeai-s before, 
the Spanish armies had caused tho triumph of tho cross 
over the cresent in the old world, and the father deemed 
this the beginning of a victory of the cross over barbar- 
ism in the nnexplored wilds of the great north-west. 

The first efforts at conversion were of conrse unsuccess- 
ful. The slow process of getting the Indian's confidence, 
and then learning their ways and lauguago, had first to be 
gone through with. It would be but repetition to detai 
the manner by which this was done, as it was identical 
with that practiced by the Jesuits on the peninsula. 
Tliere was this difterence, however, that the Indians here 
cared nothing for tbe fond given them by the Padres, and 
would not eat it; but they were quite willing to take any- 
thing else, cloth being their weakness. They went out 
into the bay on balsas iu the night, and cut a piece out of 
the sail of the vessel. They soon became tired of getting 
things by piecemeal, and undertook the same operation 
that had been attempted by the Indians with Father Tierra 
at La Paz ninety years before, and with similar result. 
Thev watched their opportueities, designing to take the 
little garrison unawares, and after having killed all divide 
the property among themselves, and end the performance 
with a gi-aud jubilee. Matters culminated just a month 
after the founding of the mission. Taking advantage of 
the absence of one of the Priests and two soldiers who 
bad gone temporarily aboard the ship, they suddenly fell 
upon the lemaiuing force of four soldiers, two PadrGs, a 
carpenter and the blacksmith. The latter was a brave and 
fearless man, and led the defence by rushing npou the 
enemy with the war-cry of "Long live the faith of Jesus 
Christ, and die the dogs his enemies." The result was a 
defeat to the Indians, with severe loss iu dead and wounded. 
The missionaries found, after the enemy had retreated 
that they too had not come through unscathed. One of 
their converted Indians had been killed, one wounded, 
and a soldier, a Priest, and the brave blacksmith were also 
among the injured. , 

This first battle iu California occurred on the loth of 
Aufiust, 1769. That day, 0.1 the other side of the world 
was born on an island iu the Mediterraneau bea, that 
Rooius of war, that child of destiny who in ivftev years 
made toys of crowns and changed the map of Europe; a 
child who lived to see his scheme of universal empire fade 
away, audbis victorious star go down m blood, as the Old 
Guard faltered, then recoiled, and finally melted away in 
that terrible charge at Waterloo. 

Another incident occurred soon after this that shows 
bow earnest and unyielding was the detennination of those 
pioneer Priests to subdue the Indians by kindness excep 
wh^ absolute war was not declared. Thcr first friend 
among the tribes of Upper California was a boy who 
finally ventured to come among the Spaniards, and was, 
by presents and aflectiouate treatment, eventually so far 
won ovor as to become the means of communicating with 
is tribe. As soon as this had been accomplished Fathe. 
Junipero explained to him by some means that -f the par- 
ents of some child would bring it to him to baptize, by 
'attia- a little water on its head, it would beconae by so 
doing ''a son of God and of Father Junipero as well as a 
kind?ed of the soldiers, that they would give the child 
cloUics and take care of it. and see that it always had 
plenty to eat, etc. The boy went among his people ad 
tZ-^.\ what the father had told him, and they finally 
mi^e np a little plan to play a practica joke upon the 
good Prfest. They sent back the boy to tell he Spania.^ 
that they would bring a child to be baptized, and the 
atlei^s heart was made glad to think that ho was soon to 
bel tbe harvest of souls. He called the garrison to- 
iTov assemWea the Christian Indians at the church 
who h^d come from Mexico with him; and requesting one 

of the soldiers to not as godfather in the coming ceremony 
of papOL-se baptism into tho Catholic Church. He awaited 
for a time with a glowing face aud ovorfiowing heart for 
the approach of the parents with the infant. They soon 
came, followed by a large concourse of their friends, and 
handed tho little candidate, with big black Iwinkliug eyes, 
spread wide with wonder, to tho father, signifying then- 
desire for him to proceed with the baptism. Ho took the 
little fellow, put clothes upon him, and was prococding 
witli the ceremony, having goao so far in it as to be in the 
act of raising the water to finish the operation by pouring 
it upon the child's h«ad, when the almost Catholic baby 
was suddenly snatched from his arms, leaving the aston- 
ished Father with the water suspended, while the laughing 
Indians rushed away with the infant. Tho soldiers were 
infuriated at this insnlt to religion and to their beloved 
Priest, and were about to take summary vcngeaneoon the 
scofters, but were prevented from molesting them. In 
after years, whenever this incident was mentioned in liia , 
presence, tears of sorrow would come to the eyes of this I 
zealous missionary as he thought of tho sad end of that 
early hope. 

The whole scheme of occupying northern or Upper Cal- 
ifornia came near proving a faibue becanso of the want of 
ability to sustain themselves until crops could bo grown in 
the country sufficient to make tho enterprise self-sustain- 
ing. Governor Porlalii, after his return from the discov- 
ery of tho San Francisco Bay, took an inventory of the 
supplies. He found that there remained only enough to 
last the expedition until March, and decided that if sup- 
plies did not arrive by sea before tho 20th of that month 
to abandon the enterprise aud return to Mexico. The day 
came, and with it, in the offing, in plain view of all, a ves- 
sel. Preparations had been completed for the abandon- 
ment, but it was postponed because of tlio appearance of 
the outlying ship. The next day it was gone, and the 
colony believed then that a miracle had been performed, 
that their patron saint had pennitted the scene of the ves- 
sel that they might know that help was coming. In a few 
days the " San Antonio" sailed into the harbor with abun- 
dant supplies, aud they learned that the vision that they 
had been permitted to see was that vessel itseU; she had 
been forced by adverse winds to put out to sea again after 
coming in siglit of the harbor. 

Upon the arrival of the San Antonio two other expedi- 
tions set out, one by sea and one by laud in search of 
Monterey harbor; the laud force in charge of Governor 
Portala, the party by sea were accompanied by Father 
President Junipero, who writes of that voyage and its re- 
siilta as follows: 

"My Deahest Fkirsd and Sia— On the 31st day of 
" May, by the favor of God. after a rather painful voyage 
" of a month and a half, this packet. San Antonio, arrived 
" and anchored in this Ao-rrWe ^)or/ o/M/o»/e/-e//, which IS iin- 
" altered in any degree from what it was when visited by 
" tho expedition of Don Sebastian Viseaino, in the year 

" 1603." 

He goes on to state that he found the Governor awaiting 
him having reached the place eight days earlier. He 
then describes the manner of taking possession of the 
land for the crown on the 3d day of August. This cere- 
mony was attended by salutes from the battery on board 
ship and discharges of musketry by the soldiers, untd the 
Indians in the vicinity were so thoroughly frightened at 
the noise as to cause a stampede .among them for the in- 
terior, from where they were afterward enticed with difli- 
culty The interesting account closes with the following, 
to us, strange words. "Wo proceed to-morrow to cele- 
brate the Seast and make the procession of Corpus 
Christi' (though in a very poor way) in order to scare mvmj 
whatever Ulllc tk-vUs there jmsH'ly man he m this t,t„(L 

What a lamentable failure iu the good fathers pious de- 
sign, possibly due to tho poor way in which it was done 
The nineteenth century has demonstrated that Ihoso hfh 
fellows have grown amazingly, and multiplied beyond be- 
lief iu California since that time. 

After the establishment of this second mission, called 
San Carlos, that soon afterward was moved to the river 
Carmelo, a thivd-tlie San Antonio de Padua, was con- 
templated and finally located July Uth. 1771. about Ihirty- 
fivo miles south of Soledad on the Antonio River, and 
about twenty-five miles from the coast. At this mission 
occurred the first instance of irrigation in California. In 
1780 when the wheat was in full bloom, there came so 
severe a frost that it "became as dry and withered as if it 
had been stubble left in tho field in the month of Angus . 
This was a -reat misfortune, for the Padres as well as tiie 
fol's dVpended upon this crop for food. The Priests 


caused ft ditch to be at once constructed and water tbus 
turned upon the field. This gave new life to the roots, 
young shoots sprang np and a bonntiful harvest, the 
largest eror known to them, was gathered. The Priests 
called it a m!roch, the Indians believed it to be one, and 
the consequence was a second harvest for tlie church, one 
of the converts tins time, as the result of the first irrigation 
attempted iu our State. Possibly it is irrigation that the 
Ciiristian churches stand in need of among us now. 

The mission of San Gabriel was founded soon after thai 
of San Antonio, the ceremony of establishment being per- 
formed on the following 8th of September. Tbe point 
selected was about eight miles north of Los Angeles. 
Anotlior miracle was supposed to have been worked at the 
founding of this mission. In fact those old Padres, pions 
souls, seemed to believe that everthiug, out of the ordin- 
ary everyday occurrences, was necessarily of supernatural 
origin, either from God or the Devil. When they un- 
furled their banner at San Gabriel before an assembled 
host of yelling Indians whom they wore afraid were abont 
to attack tliem, the astonished natives beheld tbe picture 
of the Virgiu Mary that was painted upon it, they mistook 
it for a pretty woman, and, probably thinking it was time 
to put on some style, ceased their undignified howling and 
running up before the, to them, vision of loveliness, threw 
down their beads at tbe base of the banner, as an oft'ering 
of their respect. They then went like sensible Indians 
and brought something for the pretty woman to eat. "We 
see nothing miraculous in this. The average Galifornian 
in our time will give up a row, put on his good behavior, 
and cost offerings at the feet of female loveliness, if it hap- 
pens around when he is on the warpath. 

In the meantime Governor Portala had returned to 
Mexico the bearer of the welcome intelligence that Mon- 
terey had been rediscovered, that a ranch finer bay had 
also been fouud farther nortli, that tliey had named it 
after St. Francis, and that three missions had been estab- 
lished in the new land. Upon the receipt of the news tbe 
excitement iu Mexico was intense. Guns were fired, bells 
were rung, congratulatory speeches were made, andailNew 
Spain was happy because of the final success of the long 
struggle of their country to get a footing north of the pen- 
insula. After the establishment of the San Gabriel, the 
events that transpired for a time were those incidental to 
the retention of what had already been acquired, and the 
preparation for possessing more. 

In September, 1772, the mission of San Luis Obispo 
was established between Los Angeles and Monterey, and 
then the Father President returned to Mexico. He procured 
over twelve thousand dollars' worth of supplies and re- 
turned by sea accompanied by several new missionaries, 
some soldiers, and arrived at San Diego March 13th, 1773, 
to find his people on the verge of starvation, living upon 
milk, roots and herbs. Before leaving Mexico he had di- 
vided his party, sending the soldiers under command of 
Capt. Juan Bautista Anza. They were to go bv way of 
Sonora, tbe Gila and Colorado rivers, to open a route by 
land, that communication with the home government might 
not in future depend wholly upon the hitherto treacherous 
sea. Upon the success in establishing this overland route 
to Monterey, depended the founding of the missions of 
San Francisco and Santa Clara, that Father Junipero so 
much desired. The company arrived safely about the 
same time as did the division by sea, being the first, the 
pioneer overland journey from Mexico to California, and 
the descendants of the captain of the expedition are still 
to be found as residents of this State. 

During this same month of March a party, under giiid- 
auce of Father Crespi, going overlaud from Monterey, 
passed through where Santa Clara now stands, up along 
the east side of the bay, finally arrived, ou the 30th of the 
month, where Antioch now is. Thus they became the 
first of civilized men to look upon the stream that forty- 
sis years after was named San Joaquin, 

Iu 1774 Captain Anza returned to Mexico to report the 
Buceessful establishment of the route to Monterey, intoud- 
ing to come back as soon as possible with the uecesstiry 
means to establish the northern missions. 

There was, in 1774, another occnnonco that will not do 
to pass silently by, as it brings in strong relief the con- 
trast between first intentions and tbe final acts of the 
Catholic clergy iu their spiritual conquest of the natives. 
Tlie mission of San Diego was attacked, on thn ni"ht of 
the 4th of November, 1774, by a large and well orgmiizod 
body of Indians, nnmboriug about one thousand. They 
had been incited to hostilities by tlio reprosontution of two 
apostate converts from one of the tribes, wlio, lloein" to 
the interior, gave their people far and wide to understand 

that the missionaries contemplalcd mlng force in their efforts 
to subject the Indians to an adoption of the white man s 
religion. The battle was stubbornly contested by the 
tribes; but they were beaten off with severe loss, after 
having killed three of tbe whites, one of whom was a Fnest, 
and wounded the lialance of the defenders. This was the 
last attempt to destroy the missions. Palou, in his ac- 
count of this affair, says that the Indians were incited to 
the act hi) llie devil, who used the two apostate converts as 
the means, causing them to ieW fabclioods /o their people in 
reprcsentvu/ "that the fathers intended to put an end to 
the gentiles by nwking flicm become Christians by force." 

Altliough the proposition of force in conversion seems 
to have beeu (according to Father Palou, who was the 
priest that afterwards had charge of tbe San Francisco 
mission) the devil's suggestion, it was afterwards practiced 
by the fathers. 

A notable instance of this kind occurred in 1826, when 
a party was sent up into the country along the San Joaquin 
Kiver to cajituio some subjects for conversion. They met 
with a defeat at tbe hands of a tribe under the leadership 
of a chief called Estanislao, whoso rancberia was where 
Knight's Ferry now is. Tbe Spanish lost three soldier.s 
killed aud several wounded iu this battle; and returning, 
a new expedition was fitted out, including all the available 
force of the garrison (presidio) of Sau Francisco, tho San 
Francisco, San Jose and Santa Clara missions. The Esta- 
nislao country was again invaded, and the result was a 
defeat and severe chastisement of the Indians, with a loss 
of one soldier killed by the explosion of bis musket! 
They succeeded in carrj'ing off, for the good of their souls, 
some forty-four captives, most of whom were women and 

The two battles gave the Spaniards a wholesome fear 
of the up-country tribes, and they named the river where 
these battles were fought the Stanislaus, after tbe chief 
Estanislao, whose tribe lived upon its banks. The In- 
dians name for that stream was La-kisb-um-na. The pris- 
oners were taken to the missions and sommarUy trans- 
formed into Christians in tbe following way. We quote 
from Capt. Beechey, who says: 

" I happened to visit the mission about this time and 
" saw these unfortunate beings under tuition. They were 
" clothed in blankets aud arraigned iu a row before a blind 
" Indian who understood their dialect, and was assisted by 
" an alcalde to keep order. Their tutor began by desiring 
" them to kneel, informing them that he was going to teach 
" them the names of the persons composing the Trinity,and 
' ' that they were to repeat in Spanish what he dictated. Tho 
" neophytes being thus arranged, the speaker began : 'ISan- 
" tissima, I'rinidada, Bios, Jesu Christo, Espirilu Saiifo,' 
" pausing between each name to listen if the simple Indians, 
" who had never spoken a Spanish word before, pronounced 
" it correctly or anything near tbe mark. After they had 
" repeated these names satisfactorily, their blind tutor,aft6r 
" a pause added 'Santos,' and recapitulated the names of a 
" great many saints, which finished the morning's tuition. 

" If, as not unfrequently happens, any of tbe captured In- 
" dians showed a repugnance to conversion, it is the prac- 
" tiee to imprison them for a few days, and then to allow 
" them to breathe a little fresh air in a walk around the 
" mission to observe the happy mode of life of their con- 
" verted countrymen; after which they are again shut up, 
" and thus continue incarcerated until they declare their 
"readiness to renounce tho religion of their forefathers." 

In 1769, those zealous, truly Christian fathers, came 
among those people to bring heathen by love and kind- 
ness to the foot of the cross, erected as an emblem of 
God's love for humanity. In 1826, ouly fifty-seven years 
later, the successors of those missionaries, marched that 
same people as captives to tho foot of that cross, and 
forced them to do homage to the emblem of their slavery. 

Father Juniporo, as a precautionary measure, in anticipa- 
tion of the eariy return of Capt. Auza,dispatched the packet 
"San Carlos" to see if the bay of San Fi-ancisco could 
bo entered from the ocean; a feat that the Httlo craft ac- 
oomphshed in June, 1775. She was a small vessel, not to 
exceed two hundred tons burden, this pioneer of tho fleets 
that have since anchored in that harbor. In that mem- 
orable June while tho waters of our great bay of tho Pa- 
cific wore being first awakened to her future destiny away 
to the east where the sun rises, where the Atlantic waves 
kiss ho shores of America, a Wasl.ingtou was taking com- 
mand of the continental army, and a pcoplo wore callin-' 
through tho battle snioUo of Bunker's Hill for Libovtv 

Tho "San Carlos" returned to Monterey with the i-eport 
of hor eutranoo into tho harbor and auooeoding diaooverios 

including that of the bay of San Pablo "intowljili 
emptied tbe gieat river of our Father St. Francis, wJijl 
was fed by five other rivers all of tliem copions streaioB 
flowing through a plain so wide, that it was bonnded ouh 

by the horizon." Entlier a luminous description of the Sai^ 
ranientu river and valley. 

The time bad come- so much desired by Father Junipero 
when the missions could be extended to the great bay in 
the north. Capt. Anza had returned from Mexico witt 
all that was required for the purpose. The preparatory 
expeditions by land and sea had returned with the neceg- 
sary information as to the country, its character, and 
geography, so that plans could be formed with assnriinee 
of precision in esecutibn. Consequently on tbe 7tli of 
June, 1776, the Father President started from Monterej 
overland for the Iiarbor at the northern frontier. A packet 
boat was dispatched at tbe same time laden with neces- 
saries for the enterprise. On tbe27th of June the land party 
arrived at what is now known a.s Washerwoman's bay on 
tbe north beach of San Francisco. On 'he 18th of Angoat 
the packet arrived, and on the 17tb of September, ibe 
Presidio was located. An expedition to spy out the land 
was at once despatched. It was as usual divided into two 
divisions, one to go by water and tbe other by land. The 
rendezvous was to have been Point Sun Pablo, hat the land 
party entered tbe mountains east of the bay and soon foond 
themselves on the banks of the San Joaquin river, and 
failed to connect. On the 10th of October tbe Mission 
was founded at San Francisco. After this came the San 
Juan Capistrano, and then Santa Clara. With the fonnd- 
iug of the latter ended the establishing of missions by that 
faithful Christian missionary. Father Junipero Serra.' 
He died near Monterey in 17y2, after having planted in the 
garden of the west for future generations the seeds of dv- 
ilization that should, like the little seed mentioned in 
holy writ, grow to become " a great ti'ee," where under 
its shadowy branches should gather in fnture time the 
uuborn millions that would forget the zealous old pio- 
neer of the cross, whose life bad been a sacrifice, whose 
acts would be forgotten in time, to be remembered in 

It is not our intention to give a history iu full of the 
California missions, for that in itself would fill a volnine; 
and, having placed before the reader the first and most im- 
portant events the balance wUi be passed with brief men- 
tion. Within the foi-ty-six years that succeeded the first set- 
tlement at San Francisco, there were esfabhsbed in Califor- 
nia twelve other missions, making twenty-one in all, that, in 
accordance with the plan of Spain, were located along the 
coast, making a chain of occupied territory that wonld 
serve to keep ofl' foreign settlement. The situations se- 
lected were of course made with reference to the soil, as 
uponitsproductions; maintenance mast eventually depend. 
Where tbe boundary limits of one ended another began, 
so that tbe coast was aU owned by the missions from la 
Paz on the peninsula to San Francisco. The interior was 
the great storehouse from which to gather, in the begm- 
ning. proselytes to the Catholic faith; in the end, slaves to 
work their plantations. 

North of the bay tbe Eussians interfered with the gen- 
eral plan, by establishing a settlement in 1S1-. m 
what is now Sonoma County. This was followed byanat- 
tempt, on the part of Uie padres, to surround the iuTaaers 
by a cordon of missions, and, in pursuance of the plsn, 
San Kafaol, in 1S17, aud San Francisco de SjUano, in IS^i 
were established; but furtJier efl'orts iu this line wetv cat 
short by the " march of human events." The time lisil 
come when the sj-stem, iustead of being an aid. w;isau 
impediment to the elevation of tbe humau race, aud it was 
forced to give way. Then commenced its decline, foUowe^i 
soon by its passage from tho stjige of action. 

Tbe number of converted Indians, iu 1S02, given by 
Humboldt, was 7,S)15 males and 7,617 females, maki"?* 
toUd of 15,56-2. The other iiihabitjiuts, being cstiui!»i«>l 
at 1,300, not including wild Indians. miUiiug (he total i^n*" 
ulation of California at that time H;.Sti2. The term"wi''' 
Indians" wjis apjilied to such iis werf not reduotitl to con- 
trol by the padres. 

' Tilt' iimtly.jiriiseil imltfiiligitblo uiissioiinrj'-prii^t, «rhp fi»"t"^ "* 
first iiiiip misHioQH in Uiipor Cnlirtmiin, tliwl in llinl of Sjh Oorlw-i litJ t"»^ 
oii'Im, nt tbe tigv- ot (W ypftrs. His l>}i|iii:.niiil n:uui\ "Jim»j'«»\" '* *''■'*" 
licnl wUli till' Iriiliii woiil Junljifrus, ihi- iUiliiilK*n of whivh i« " ■*'** 
" r'lVsWfw ill (fftwrrH.*, ciyii.* iiuibiKiii Ktr}>rt\tiv /wjjvifc', ti (■!*• <» i"*^ '• 
" k'-miiim sfturr •tim-i»HL" (Jnm{>oriAit lnx>lhnt gr\"irs in it* Jf^** '** 
sliiulo Df wliicli is shtmuDtl bj,' st>r]x>ult(, but mulft whWh w«> »1*»P " 


Downfall of the Missions. 

B-ginnfof of the End-Wbit Woueawl TiuJr Powot-Thfllr Kode of Dtding Injnre» Iba 
Hatin*, uulla not Joit to Their Own E»o(-The Flwt Hl(n»-e««nlirfi»tlott CWmd 
-The "Piooi rwid"-Aa OppoiUM Pirty Bpring* Op-The Huidwrltlng oa tbs 
W»ll-TbB Fln«J 8tnggl»-A Cclooj TtiM F»U» to Ott tho Goom Ttat UU Ibe Golden 
^g-Wreek of th» Brfg »t Moalmj Tlat GmtW Kipolton From E«Ue-Tbe PritHi 
Il(*tior Wb« Thej H»T* Bnllt Op-Ths " FitbeT of Hla Country "-Tbd End wbtB 
They ue enU " AneUon-llin Lafl Mlricniry-Tho Final Banlt AchfoTod-A Table 
Tbot It t Eiitory In lUelf. 

Tlie cloud, no larger than a man's band, commenced to 
gatlier over the missions in 1824, wlien Mexico became a 
republic, liaving declared her independence from Spain 
two years before. The spirit that resulted in making of 
Mexico a free country was one calculated to lessen the 
force of traditions that bad bound up the cbnrcb with the 
state, thus weakening the power of the former. Hereto- 
fore all things had been made aubscrvieut in California 
to the purpose of making a Catholic of the Indian. In 
pursuance of this idea, he was either persuaded or forced 
to go through the forms of wor-ship; but nothing was done 
to develop a higher mental atiindard. In fact the opposite 
was the result. They were taken care of like any other 
slaves, and such qualities as were found calculated to 
make tliem self-sustaining were eradicated, probably with- 
out having such an intention, yet doing it effectually. It 
was accomplished by the system of absolute dependence 
forced by the padres in their manner of control and kmd 
of instructions given to them, that were only calculated to 
impress a feeling of inferiority. Nothing could bo accom- 
plished in California by a member of the white race, cal- 
culated in any way to interfere with the general plan of 
prosBlytism. The territory was claimed for the ludmn, 
and the padres were his masters. The European was not 
encouraged by them to own or settle upon land, for it 
miRht become an element of discord m the country. The 
soldiers that protected them in their operations were not 
allowed to marry, except in rare cases, as the offspring or 
the parent might admit ideas into their heads that they too 
were of consequence in the general plans of the Creator. 
Such a state of things could not last. The world was 
becoming more enlightened, and a system that stood in 
the way of progress must inevitably give way. 

The first blow dealt this Catholic body politic was by 

the Mexican congress, in the form of a coloniaition act, 
passed in August, 1824. In its provisions were some fair 
inducements for a settlement of the country, and a settle- 
ment necessarily meant ruin to the missions; for the in- 
terests of settlers were not in harmony with them. Fonr 
years later their secularization was ordered, and gi'ants of 
lands were authorized as homesteads to actual settlers, 
the Territorial Governor being the one authorized to issue 
the grant, subject to the approval of the Jjogislaturo. There 
was a class of property in Mexico that had been obtained 
by the Jesuits, when they were operating on the peuin- 
«ula, from their friends by donations, wills, and otherwise 
that had been invested in real estate; tlie product or inter- 
est of which was used yearly to support the udssions, 
keeping the principal intact. When the Jesuits were ban- 
ished from the kingdom this property was turned over to 
the Franciscans, and its proceeds had increased until the 
yearly income from it, amounted to about 550,000. This 
was termed the jjioim fitiul, and a year before the seculari- 
zation was ordered §78,000 of it had been seized by the 
government iu Mexico. This was the beginning, and the 
end came in 1842, when Santa Auua sold the balance to 
the house of Barrio and the Rnbio Brothers, the proceeds 
finding its way into the government treasury. 

The legislation of 1824 began to have its effect in 1830. 
A party had sprung up not friendly to the missions, and 
Governor Echeandia commenced to enforce the seculariza- 
tion laws that year; but the arrival of the new governor, 
Victoria, put a stop to the attempt. This was the begin- 
ning of tlie open struggle between tlie two parties, one for 
the niaintenauee, the other for the destrnetiou of the mis- 
sions. It continued with varying success until 1834, 
when a colonization scheme, set on foot by the home gov- 
ernment, caused the padres to "see the handwriting on 
the wall." This colony was formed with the purpose, on 
the part of the Mexican president, of placing in the colony's 
control the commerce of California, the missions to play 
the part in the general scheme of the fabled "goose that 
laid the golden egg." The project never reached its final 
purpose, for, with the usual promptness of Mexicans in 
changing their government, Santa Anna was made presi- 
dent. He sent overland orders in haste countermanding 
the whole plan; and Hijar, who was to have been the gov- 
ernor of California under the now conditions, landed at San 
Diego September 1st, 1834, to find himself only the leader 

of a disappointed colony that had accompanied him to the 
country. He was sent, with his followers, uorth of San 
Franchico to the mission of San Francisco Solano, to make 
out as best he could, without the power to carry out the 
original objects of the ontorpriso. 

The brig in which this colony arrived; that on the 14th 
of the following mouth, was wrecked in the harbor of Mon- 
terey; was the "NaUiUa," the same that, February 2Gth, 
ISlfl, had borne, in her flight from Elba, the groat soldier 
of destiny, to read the decree of his fate at Waterloo. 

The Priests, on learning how uarrowly they escaped 
being robbed, coudnded that there was no longer any 
hope of final success iu the struggle, and commenced to 
destroy what they had bnilt up through the years of the 
past. The cattle "upon a thousand lulls" were slaugh- 
tered only for their hides, the vineyards wore lot go to 
waste, the olive groves wore neglected, the missions wore 
let go to destruction, and the slaves (Indians) were turned 
loose to starve, steid or die. The California Legislature, 
in 1840, appointed administrators, who took charge of the 
property, and a general eystem of plunder seemed to bo 
the order of the day. 

In 1813, General Micheltoroiia restored the ruined mis- 
sion establishments to the control of the Padres, and in 
1845 the end came, when what remained passed at an auc- 
tion sale into the hands of whoever would buy. The last 
of those missionaries — Father Altomini, the missionary- 
Priest and founder of the mission of Sau Fraiiciaco Soluno, 
otherwise known as Sonoma, who, in 1828, accompanied 
by Padre Kipol, of the mission of Sauta Barbara, left 
California in the American brig "Harbinger," for Boston 
— was H\ang, in 18G0, at TeanerilTo, one of the Oauary 

Thus passed from the country a system of occupation 
that paved the way for civilization. It was conceived in 
error, executed in blinduess, and ended in disaster to the 
people it sought to benefit. It only served as a moans by 
which another race gained a footing — to crush out and an- 
nihUate the one that was foimd in the land. 

The following table is a history in itself. It represents 
the population and wealth of California in 1831. It will 
be observed that the total population was 23,02i5, of this 
number only 4,342 were of the free races, the balance of 
18,633 being Indiaus, subject to the missions; no account 
was taken of those running wild : 





Presidio of Snn Fraucisco- 

Town of Sau Jose de Giiiidnlupe- - 
MiHBion of Snn Fiiiucisco Solouo. . 

IiIissioD of San Rarael ...-■■ 

MiHsiou of Sun FmuciRCo do Asih.. 

Miasion of Siinlft Clara 

Mission of Sau Jose 

Mission of Bail la Crnz 

SauFrancifico ■ 

Snu Jose 

Souoina ■■ 

NotUi of Biin Francisco Hoy 

Snn Fraud Hco, 

Santa Cliira V o" ' .' ' " 

Fifteen miles northeast of ban Jose. 


SHptembet 17,1776.. .. 

Aagnsl 25, 'l823 '. 

December 18. 1817 

October a, 177<i 

jBUiiary 18. 1777 

.Iniioll, 1707 

A»RUsl28. 1701 ■■■ 
























"!;*f^ nonass. siulm, abseb. bhkep. ooiis. bwine, 









. 7,000 















Presidio of Monterey 

Town of Brflucifotlo '-■ 

MiHKion of Sail Juan Rantista 

Mission of Snn CarloHilol Carmolo 
Mission of Nra.Sa.delaSoledad.. 

Mission of San Anlonio 

Mission of Snn Miguel 

MisHJon of Son Lnia Obispo 

Presidio of Santa Burbara ■ 

Town of La lloyna ilo LosAugoloB 

Mission of Lii fnriBsnma 

Mission of Santa Ines 

Mission of Sauta Barburn 

Miision of San Dnonaventura... . 
Mission of Fernando 

Monterey - ;;-"■- " 

One railo from Santn Cruj! Mission 

Sun Jn an River - 

Near Monterey 

35^^nes South oV SolediidVou'the S«n An't^nio river 

Sftlinns River . 

Sau Luis Obispo 


JuuB2i, 1707 

June 30, 1770 

Octobers. 1701 

July 11, 1771 

July 25, 1707. 

Sentotnber 1, 1772 






2 050 






























Santn Barbara 

Lob Anftelea 

riantii InexHiver ■■- 

Twelve leaEnos from Kanlo Barbara. . . 

Sontu'eMt'of and near Sanin Barbara. 
North of and near Loa AiigeleB 


Dc CO labor 8. 1787 

Suptoinber 17. 1801.... 

December 4, 1786 

MnrcbSI. 1782 

Sentaniber, 8. 1797 























625! I00| 



125 840 
40o; 2,000 


Presidio of San DieRo 

Mission ot San Gabriel 

Mission San Juau Cunistrano 

Mis-iton of Sau Lnis lloy ..- 

Misaion of San Diogo 


Near Lob Angeles . . ■ 

Between SauDiego and Lob 

Snn DicRO 

Near San Diogo 


Soptember 8, 1771.. . 

November 1, I77G 

JonelS, 1708 

Juno 10. 1769 









' 'lea 


' ' 143 




































4,1 HI 




Spanish Military Occupation. 

Two e.p»«to iDlMMl. In the OriglBal PUn d 0<^i«aoii-Wbi>t They BOM-Wby OnD 
B.Bntoflli7 railed-DQtI« of tbo QoTumcr-Wbit wM d Pr«ridli>-Tbe Forts-Mon- 
t«BT CaplBiea by PiraWi-Maiers, Their Untie, oni Oharacbr-aanchM-A PaoWo, 
What It wi^ Hox Thoy »m FIrrt 8uir[al-Tb« Fmt Onol-Why It wm Qlven 
uid What P<,llo<7wl 81r TMrt L.t«r-0hii5ttm PopoJntlon of CaUforda Id 1719- 
1765-17W-P<.Ucy of Spiln towuda ^0I1^iEn HatioM-Osplain Cook Ha« not Enter 
the Harbor, of Oallfotnlfl-Homo of the MiMionB and Hone of tba Ptm Jdned fn Ona 
Thongbt-ThflPlr.t Writing BookB-Eirthqnukw of 1800-1808-1813 and 1818-Tho 
Bnjilan» Pirrt Appearance in Califomla-A Bad, Historic Talc of Loro-Enuian 
OceapaUon-DecIftTfltiM of IndBp-ndenoe from 8pa!n-lUt ot 8panlBli Go^cniors. 

lu the origiualplan for the occupation of tLe Calif ornias, 
there were two distinct objects sought; one by the church, 
another b}- statesmen, and they formed a co-partnership, as 
each was essential to the other. The church sought to 
extend her influence and increase her membership; to this 
end all her energies were bent. The statesman reached 
out to secure for his nation, a country that he believed 
would become a jewel in the crown of Spain, and was 
willing to aid the church if she would contribute to this 


The statesman would protect by the military arm of this 
Government, the priest who was to make of the Indian a 
convei't, that as sneh would become a subject of Spain. 
With numerous converts there would be numerous sub- 
jects, bound by religious affinity to defend their country 
against invasion by any other nation. Thus would be 
created a.Spanish province that would become a bulwark 
of defense, against encroachment by hostile nations upon 
the more southern possessions of the mother country. 

"We have in previous chapters seen what the end was of 
the operations, and design of the church, that it made 
slaves instead of citizens of its converts, and the disas- 
trous results to the Indians; thus adding weakness instead 
of strength to the crown's defences. In this way, pre- 
venting the attainment of the reanlt sought to be accom- 
plished by the statesman, in his use of the church for 
political purposes. Let us now take a brief view of the 
Governmental part o£ the political co-partnership between 
church and state, for conquest, its operations and final 

Side by side the Priest and soldier entered California. 
The latter took possession of the land for Spain, the 
former for the church, and the officer in command of the 
military was Governor of the territory; his duties were to 
furnish garrisons to protect the missions, to aid in every 
way the efforts of the Padres in their efforts for converts. 
To do this, the country was divided into military districts, 
eventually, four of them. Each having its seaport, where 
the commandant of the district made his headquarters, 
and kept the principal forces. 

Fortifications were built, consisting of a fort and three 
or four hundred rods square of land, enclosed with adobe 
walls, perhaps twelve feet high, on which were planted 
small cannon. Inside this inclosure were the officers' 
quarters, and the soldiers barracks, chapel and store- 
house, and the place was called a PnESlDlo. 

The fort was outside the Presidio, and at San Diego, 
was five miles away; it was considered the main defence, 
and was erected with a view of commanding the harbor, 
but practically was never of any use. This was demon- 
strated in 1819, at Monterey, where a few pirates landed, 
captured the fort, pilaged and burned the town. 

The number of soldiers supposed to be in each military 
district was 250, but that number was never maintained. 
The military district embraced about sis missions, and a 
mission usually included about fifteen miles square. 
There was no inducement for a man to enlist as a soldier 
to serve in California, and they went there, perforce, some 
as outcasts, some as criminals; none were half paid or 
clothed, and eventually, as Forbes says, "California be- 
came the Botany Bay of America." Their duties were not 
heavy; it consisted mainly of hunting up fugitive Indians, 
that having become converts, had thought better of it and 
" back slid " or slid back to their old haunts and pursuits, 
a sort of human rat-catching was their principle business. 
They conld not marry except by special permission of the 
king and this was seldom granted and never, unless rec- 
ommended by the Priest. In connection with each Pre- 
sidio was a farm, where the soldiers were erroneously 
supposed to attempt the growing of products that would 
constitute a part of their living. This Government 
farm, under charge of the commandant, was called a 

In time, the maintaiuance of this very small army be- 
came too severe a tax on the home government, and a plan 

was adopted that was thought would lessen the burden, by 
makin<- it an inducement for the ex-soldier to stay in the 
country and becoming a citizen soldier, maintaining and 
holding himself in readiness to take up arms m case of any 
special emergency. This plan (it was not favored by the 
Priests), was set forth in the king's orders, termed a Beg- 
lamento; made in 1781. There was to be towns laid out, 
and each ex-soldier was entitled to a lot 556t feet square, 
as an inalienable homestead. He was to be paid a salary 
for a given time, be exempt from tax for five years, and 
receive from the government an agricultural outfit includ- 
ing a certain number of cattle, horses, mules, sheep, hogs 
and chickens. These were the inducements offered to the 
soldier whoso term of service had expired, to secure his- 
settlement in the country. When a sufficient number had 
located in one place to warrant it, they were entitled to 
have an Alcalde and other municipal officers, appointed 
by the Governor for the first two years, and after that 
elected by themselves. For all of this they were to hold 
themselves subject and ready to respond to militai^ orders 
with horse, saddle, lance and carbine. They were to sell 
all their surplus products to the Presidios at a stated 
price, and after five years were to pay a tax of one and a 
fourth bushels of corn annually. In this way the towns of 
Monterey, Los Angeles and San Jose were started, and 
became the centers where assembled the free population 
of the couutrj', their numbers gradually increasing, and 
these towns were called Pueblos. 

For fifty-five years succeeding the establishment of the 
first Presidio, the historic events worthy of mention, that 
were performed by the military branch of the "spiritual 
conquest" were so few and far between, that a chronologi- 
cal reference to them up to 1822, when the Spanish prov- 
inces declared their independence of Spain, would seem to 
be all that would be of interest. It was the period during 
which the missions were demonstrating that their plan of 
making a Spanish province was a failure, and the military 
was so absolutely a part of the missions during the time 
controlled by and subject to them, that there seems to be 
almost an absence of history separate from the mission. 
Yet all that time slowly was rooting in the land, through 
the pueblo system, an interest separate and distinct, that 
eventually overthrew the ally that had become their 

In 1775, November 27th, there was issued the first grant 
of land in California. It was a small one and at the San 
Carlos Mission, containing only 381 feet square. It was 
given to "Manuel Butron, a soldier, in consideration that 
" he had married Margarita, a daughter of that mission," 
and Father Junipero recommended Mr. Butron and his 
Indian wife to the Government and all the other ministers 
of the king, because, as he says, they are " the first in all 
" these establishments which have chosen to become per- 
" maneut settlers of the same." feix years later the Iteg- 
lameuto or rules for guidance of the military forces in the 
country was signed by the king; that started the pueblo 
or village system. In it captains of Presidios were 
authorized to give grants of lots to soldiei-s or settlers. 
At this time the country had been occupied twelve years 
and the entire Catholic population, including Indians, 
was only 1,749; six years later there were 5,143, and in 
1790 the number had reached 7,748, mostly Indian con- 

It was the policy of Spain to treat with suspicion all who 
approached her colonies on the Pacific, fearing trouble if 
they were permitted to get a foothold. As an instance in 
point, on the 23d day of October, 1776 (the year in which 
our fathers declared their independence), the viceroy wrote 
to the Governor of California that, "The King having re- 
" ceived intelligence that two armed vessels had sailed 
" from London under the command of Captain Cook, 
" bound on a voyage of discovery to the Southern Ocean, 
" and the norlhei-n coast of Gali/oniia, commands that or- 
" ders be given to the Governor of California, to be on 
' ' the watch for Captain Cook, and not permit him to enter 
" the ports of California." 

Thirteen years after this, the Governor of California 
writes to the Captain commanding the Presidio of San 
Francisco, saying: "Whenever there may arrive at the 
"port of San Francisco a ship named the 'Columbia,' 
"said to belong to Gen. Washington, of the American 
"States, commanded by John Rondrick, which sailed 
" from Boston in September, 1787, bound on a voyage of 
" discovery to the Russian estAblishments on the northern 
" coast of this Peninsula, you will cause the same vessel 
" to bo examined with caution and delicacy, using for this 
" purpose a small boat, which you have in your possos- 
" sion, and taking the same measures with every othei- 

"siispioious foreign vessel, giving me prompt notice of 
"the same. 

" May God preserve your life many years. 

" Pedbo Faoes. 
" Santa Barbara, May 13, 1789. 
"To Josef Arguello." 

For the first time the Spaniard tad joined in the same 
thought the home of the missions and the "home of 
the free." The suspicious craft, " said to belong to Gen. 
Washington," sailed north without entering the port of 
San Francisco, and discovered the Columbia River. 

Before we turn the last page in the history of the 
Eighteenth Century, let us take a look at a brief letter 
written by the Captain commanding at Santa Barbara to 
the Governor of California, that says: "I transmit to yon 
" a statement in relation to the schools of the Presidio, 
" together with six copy-books of the children who are 
" learning to write, for your superior information. 
" May our Lord preserve your life many years. 

"Felipe Goycochea. 
"Santa Barbara, Februaty 11, 1797." 
Those copy books are now the property of the State, 
having fallen into the hands of the Government when Cal- 
ifornia was taken from Mexico. They exhibit in the sen- 
tences copied (such as "Jacob sent to see his brother," 
"The Ishmaelites haviko arbived," &c.,) a peculiarity of 
the times : that of fastening a thought of divinity upon 
everything. There is hardly a geographical name in this 
country, ol Spanish origin, but it is the name of a Saint. 
Even the names given by the Priests to the natives, when 
they baptized them, were usually taken from the Bible. 
Imagine the name of J&sus given to a dirty, ignorant, 
beetle-browed digger Indian with the instincts of a beast. 
Truly it is said, "Familiarity breeds contempt." Il was 
not with the intention on our part to lead the mind of the 
reader' into this channel that the copy books are here 
referred to, but to show the marked difi'erence that 
characterized the policy of the church and state, that in 
the end made the latter triumph. The Priests taught the 
Indians to say mass and repeat the names of Saints, to 
work under instruction, and no more. The militarj' Cap- 
tains and Governor encouraged the children of the free 
settlers in efforts of learning to read and write; the church 
gradually developing dependence in the Indians, the state 
gi-adually developing independence in the free settleis. 
The Indian converts numbered about 12,000, the free set- 
tlers about 1000 — one to twelve in favor of the church. 
Yet it needed no "wise man of the East" to foretell the 
final result. 

The Nineteenth Century was ushered in amid the con- 
vulsions of nature in California, at San Juan Bautista. 
The Captain of the Presidio writes to the Governor on 
the 31st of October, 1800, as follows: " I have to inform 
"your Excellency that the mission of San Juan Bautista, 
"since the 11th inst., has been visited bv severe earth- 
" quakes; that Pedro Adriano Martinez, one of the Fathers 
"of said mission, has informed me that, during one day, 
" there were six severe shocks; that there is not a single 
" habitation, although built with double walls, that 
"not been injured from roof to foundation, and that all 
"are threatened with ruin; and that the Fathers ore com- 
" polled to sleep in the wagons to avoid danger, since the 
" houses are not habitable. At the place where the ran- 
"cheriais situated, some small openings have been ob- 
" served in the earth, and also in the neighborhood of the 
"river Pajaro there is another deep opening, all resulting 
"from the earthquakes. These phenomena have filled 
"the Fathers and inhabitants of that mission with con- 
" sternation. 

" The Lieutenant Don Eaymundo Carillo has assure^l 
" me the same, for on the ISth he stopped for night at 
" this mission (Sau Juan) on his jouvuey fi-oui San Jose, 
" and being at supper with one of the Fathers, a shock 
" was felt, so powerful, and attended with sneh a loud 
" noise, as to deafen them, when they fiod to the court 
" without finishing their supper, and at abont II o'clock 
" at night the shook was repeated with almost equal 

" The Fathei-s of the missions siiy tlint the Indians 
" assure them that thoro have alwajk^s been earthquakes at 
" that place, and that thoro aro certain cavities ciustul by 
" the earthquakes, and that salt water has flowed from tho 
" same. 

" ^Ui of which I comniunioato to you for your infonn.i- 
" tion. 

" May tho Lord presorve your life luauv yoars. 


"MoNTEiiEY, October 31, 1800." 








a G.W. 









i Her Jr. 




R^s m 



mjw.u u u \\ I T 



In this connection it may be well to give the letter 
written hy the Captain of the Presidio at San Francisco 
to the Governor, od the 17th of July. 1808, which says: 

" I have to report to yonr Excellency that since the 
" 21at of Jane last np to the present date, twenty-one 
" shocks of earthquake have been felt in this Presidio, 
" some of which have been so severe that all the walls of 
" my honse have been cracked, owing to the bad con- 
"Btruction of the same, one of the ante-chambers being 
" destroyed; and np to this time no greater damage baf^ 
"beendone. ]l has been /or the ruanl of malaialio destroj,, 
" there being no other habitations. The barracks of the 
■'Fort of San Joaquin (the name of the fort at the Pre- 
" sidio) have been threatened with entire ro.n, and I fear 
" if these shocks continue, some unfortunate accident will 
" happen to the troops at the Presidio. 

" God preserve the life of jour Excellency many years. 

" Sak FnANoraco, July 17, 1808. 

While services were in progress on a Sabbath, in Sep- 
tember, 1812, an earthquake shook down a church at ban 
Jnan Oapistrano, the roof falling in; thirty persons being 
killed, and the building destroyed. On the same day he 
church at Santa Inez was thrown down. In 18ia the 
church at the mission of Santa Clara was destroyed by an 

In 1807 the Kussians first made their appearance m 
California, with unequivical intention of becoming a party 
in interest. In May of that year, one of the vessels of 
that Empire, sailed into the harbor of San Francisco 
having a distinguished Russian official onboard. Count 
Von Eosanoff, the Eoyal Chancellor of the Czar. He 
came with the design of entering into a political compact 
that had in view California as the base of supplies for the 
more northern of the fur stations of his people. Pending 
the negotiation, he met Dona Concepcion Arguello, a 
daughter of the commanding officer, whose dark eyes made 
a captive of the Emperor's Envoy, and caused the 
"stranger of the north" to seek a double alliance, aunion 
of hearts and states. There was, however, serious obsta- 
cles looming up, that cast an ominous f ^^^^^^^^^^^j^. 
The young Count was a conscientious member of the txieek 
Church, while the fair Doiia, his promised bnde was a 
daughter of the Church of Rome. X et what obstacle ever 
retards the feet of love; what chasm can it not span with 
hope. On the wings of fancyhe would seek the Czar and 
as trusted agent ask for permission of his master to be 
allowed to serve his country and the crown by binding the 
province of Spain to the destiny of Russia, with a commer- 
cial treaty guaranteed by a matrimonial alliance with a 
daughter of one who was a ruler in the land. A™ed with 
the consent of his own prince, he would away to the south 
and couviucG the King of Castile, that the interests of the 
church sUould yield to of state. That the interes^ 
of state were for Spain and his own country to join hands 
in their outlaying colonies of the Pacific-what could be 
plainer? Success was certain! With this fond hope he 
sailed, and when passiug by swift stages ^l^^-JS^J^^/^^^^^ 
Siberia, en route for home, he was thrown from ahorse 
and killed. A sad end to that beautiful dream of a life, 
the only tale of love, that has become a part of California s 
history The fair Doaa watched in vaiu for her love s re^ 
turn; and when he came not, she took upon heiself he 
habit of a ^un, devoting her life to the t-'=|^-ej' «f 
young, and care of the sick; dying at Benicia, lu 186U. re- 
spected and loved by all who had known her. 

The death of the Count put an end to further negotia- 
tions, and we find that in a very different spirit Russia 
took possession of the port at Bodega m 1812, comm. 
.vith one hundred soldiers and one hundred nortu m ludi 
ans. They established themselves aboiit hirty miles 
W the fort. They erected, in 1820. Fort Ross and 
holding possession of that immediate ^^-^t^^^ °f '°""'^J 
for thirty years, finally sold Capt. J. A. Sutter what they had 
that could not be easily transported, -"^^^^^^^^^ 
quest to do so by the United States, left Cabforma in 
lSi2, as unceremoniously as they had come. From this 
point they shipped supplies to their fur station in Russian 
Imerica (now Alaska). They raised gram, stock, anrt 
trapped extensively in the adjacent waters, having m lB4i 
as many as eight hundred Russians in the country, as well 
as numerous natives in their employ. 

In 1822 Mexico declared her independence of Spam, 
and California imit^ited her example on the 9th day ot 
April of the same year. We have but to append he 
names of the different Governors that had been appointed 

to the California province during the fifty-five years that 
it had been subject to that empire, and drop the mother 

country from our history: ^^ ^^^ ^^ 

GaspardePortall.1 1^07 1771 

Felipe Barri \ll\ J'l; 

^4-leNeve - 

Pe^roFages l'«5 ^;g^ 

Jose' Antonio Romori. . J^^" rll 

Jose Joaquin deArrillaga 1^0- 

Diego deBorcica... ^' 

Jose Joaquin deArriUnga 180" J«J1 

JoseArguello ■- 

Pablo Yiucente de Sola ^^''^ ^°-"' 



Fourteen of the Twenty-four Years That California was 
a Mexican Territory. 

Odifoml.'. Fl«t B.«htlon-The todinM, i. Atl^^pthg lo Lni^l« '^^'^l'^''^f^ 

sSl^tio. Ordered Y^,Y^^ L.«T-Pio.. ^-*-^""r '7";'!t""° 
8, E^a Forion. H.I«^H» io th« Ii«t WUU Man frc. Om «.= ^'^'T^" 

,lo EelnB el Goum-n.nt-Hl. Dlfficol, P« Colony nn« Hlj^ Tto 
nla in 1835. 

On the 9th day of April. 1822. ten of the principal offi- 
cials of California, including the Governor, and by proxy 
the Father Presideut. signed at Monterey a declaration of 
independence from Spain, transferring their allegiance to 
Me4o. The document was a primitive aftair; the stiu^- 
gle was without the shedding of blood; and .vith hardly a 
ripple upon the political sea, this province was transferred 

'"moTthe'tdians came to kue. that the whites had 
deposed tlieir King, it had a correspoudiug effect upon 
them They also had a chief that was unpopular among 
them and, iu Imitation ot their superiors, proceeded to 
remove him from power iu a sumuiary way, and in a man- 
ner that indicated a lack in those converts, of a complete 
knowledge of the principles, of the Chnstian religion. 
They Icl a generS meeting, and after a day of festmty. 
closed the carnival by making a bonhre of their chef . 
The Priests gave them a severe verbal reprimand for the 
iarbarous act. when it came to their knowledge, and the 
ladians' reply was:-" Have you not done the same m 
' Me"ico?'You say your King was -t good aud you 
"killed him. Well, our Captaiu was not good, aud we 
"burned him; if the new one should be bad, we will bum 

"iri82tWico became a Republic, similar iu form to 
that of the United States. California, without change of 
pS B s mply accepted the situation; but not having suffi- 
S populalion for a state, she became a temtoiy nnde 
the new regime. As a Territory, she was entitled to have 
a deCate Tu Congress, who coald speak bat no vote; to 
hat a^G vernor whose title was to be - Political Chief o 
the Territory," and to have a Legislature, o be called the 
"Terr toial Deputation." That Deputation. July 13th 
182? entertained the proposition of changiog the name o 
OaU ornia to '■Ko.tesnma." but it faded. In August ot 
Se S year ot the Republic, Mexico passed a cooniza- 
r W that was in many respects so liberal, that it 
1:L y ciernsSed. a change fn the policy heretofore 
pSed, of considering California in the light only, o a 
LonasS province. Four years later Congress adop^d 
Tnles tor the enforcement of the colonization laws, and or- 
dered the secularization ot the missions. This was an un- 
tne 5 indicated an intention, to have 

SrvUot'gr-ow the church power in the territory. The 
year previous, in 1827, the Government had seized seventy- 
St tboasand dollars of the "Pious fund," and from ^at 
time forward, what remained of it, became a strong mo- 
tive power, 4 the final struggle between church and 

''t the meantime, the Governor ot California had learned 
that in the waters of the interior, tl^-^ ^^-t^^^'^^^,^^^ 
Ls that was important as a source ot revenue. 11 ee 
ur^ were valued abroad; the Russian Occupation had 

taught them that, aud they sold licenses to trap. In time 
the trappers became better informed, in rt'gard to the 
country-, than were the Spaniards; and gi-adually its value 
became wider known, and a trapper here, a sailor there, 
settled along the coast, until finally a formidable foreign 
element had fastened itself in the comitry. Tet this for- 
eign element was viewed with mistrust, both by tho civil 
Government and the ohiireh. An instance of this kind 
was strongly exhibited in 1S27. by the act of Father Du- 
ran who was in charge ot the San Jose Mission. A com- 
pany of American trappers; commanded by the first .\mer- 
ican that ever passed iuto California from over (he monn- 
tains; was encamped near that mission, when the Fatlier 
sent an Indian to ascertain why they were there. The fol- 
lowing letter, taken back by the Priest's Envoy, speaks for 

" Reverend Father:-! uudorstand through the medium 
" of one ot your Christian Indians, that you are anxious 
'■ to know who we are. as some of the Indians have been 
" at the mission aud informed you that there were certain 
" white people in the country. We are Americans on our 
" journey to the River Columbia; we wore in at the Mis- 
■■ sion Sau Gabriel in January last. I went to San Diego 
«' and saw the General, and got a passport from hmi to 
pass on to that place. I have made several eifort. to 
cross the mountains, but the snows being so deep, i 
could not succeed in getting over. I returned to this 
place (it being the only point to kill meat), to wait a few 
weeks until the snow melts, so that I can goon; the 
Indians here also being friendly. I consider it the most 
safe point for me to remain, until such time as 1 can 
■■ cross the mountains with my horses, having lost a great 
. many in attempting to cross ten or fifteen days since. / 
' am a loug ways from home, and om anxious to gd there m 

■ soon as the na(„re of the case wiU admit 0>n-HUualwn.s 
' quite unpkasanl, behig destitute of chlhmg and most of the 

■ necessaries of life, wild 'meat being our pnncipd 8. ihmlence. 
' lam, lievercnd Father, your strange but realjnend and 
' Christian brother, j. S. SMITH." 

May 19th, 1827. 

The following letter, written to the, Califorma historian, 
is an important document; showing that Jedediah H. 
Smith, was not only the first white man to come overland 
to Califoi-nia, but that he was also the dmovcra- of gold. 
Gemoa, Carsos Talley, September 13th, 18G0. 
" Edmund Randolph, Esq., San Francisco. 

'. Friend Randolph:-! have just been reading your ad- 
'. dress before the Society of Pioneers. I have known of 
"the J S Smith you mentioned, by reputation, for mauy 
" years! He loas the first white man that ever we,it ove^iaml 
-■ from the Atlantic Slates to Oalifornia. He was the chief 
"trader in the employ of the American Fur Company. At 
< ' the rendezvous of the company, on Green River near the 
<■ South Pass, in 1825. Smith was directed to take charge 
.' of a party ot some forty men (trappers), and peneti-ate 
" the country west of Salt Lake. He discovered what s 
" now called Humboldt River. He called itMarysRivoi, 
" from his Indian wife Mary- It bas always been known 
" as Mary's River by mountain men since. A name which 
" it should retain for many reasons. 

.. Smith pushed on down Marys River, and being of an 
" adveuturLome nature, when he found his ro^^}f-f 
"hvhiKh mountains, determined to see what kmd ot a 
" country there was on the other side. It is not known 
"°acti7wbere he crossed the Sierra Nevada, but it is 
" snoDosed that it must have been not far from where the 
" dTmigrantroad crossed, near theheadottheTruckee^ 
.. He made his way southerly after entering the Valley of 
" Sacramento, passed through San JosG and down as low 
" as Sau Die-o. After recruiting his party and pnrchas- 
" tl a large number ot horses, he crossed the mountains 
" i- what is known as Walker's Pass, skirted the east- 
" ern shore ot the mountains till near what is now known 
" as Mono Lake, when he steered an east-by-nor h course 
" for S^dt Lake. On this portion of hi. route he Jonnd 
" leer goM in quanfUics. and brought much of xt w^h him 
" to th" encampment on Green Eivci: 

'' The "Old that he brought with h.m. together wiU. his 
" descrip^tion of the country he had passed through, and 
.. thahwge amount of furs, pleased the agent ot the Amer- 
" ican Fnr Company so well, that he directed Smith again 
.- o make the same trip, with special mstnic ions to take 
"he gold fields on his return and thorough y prospet 
"Zl It was on this trip that he wro e the letter to 
.< Father Duran. The trip was successtnl -"» «'7 ' - 
..rived in the >-icinity of the gold mines, of the 
" mount Uns where in a battle with the Indians, Smith 
"rdnearlyibismenwerekilled. A few of the party 



'■ escaped and reached tlie encampment on Green River. 
" Tliis detent damped the ardor of the Company so much, 
" that they never looked any more for the gold mines. 

" There are one or more men now living, who can tes- 
" tify to the truth of the above statement, and who can 
" give a fuller statement of the detail of his two journeys 
" tlian I can. 

" The man Smith, was a man of far more than average 
" ability, and had a better education than falls to the lot 
" of mountain men. Few or none of themwerehis equals 

" in any respect. 


Serious trouble began in California in 1830, when, one 
night a hundred armed men under Soliz, surprised the 
Territorial Capital, Monterey, and captured it without 
any one being hurt, gaining a bloodless victory- In a few 
weeks, his party was defeated by that of the Governor, and 
the only thing worthy of further nole, regarding this insur- 
rection, was the clause in the Soliz manifesto, declaring 
his intention to 7iot interfere with foreigners in iJie country. 
This showed that the foreign element, had become suffi- 
ciently strong on the coast at that time., to malie it policy 
not to incur its ill-will. 

Bseheandia, the Governor who bad defeated Soliz, wag 
a man of poor health and narrow views. He attempted to 
enforce the mission law of 1813, but was removed from 
office by the arrival of a new Governor, the fiery Mannel 
Victoria; who put a stop to Escheaudia's schemes of secu- 
larization Victoria introduced his plan of governing to 
the Californians, by ordering a couple of convicted cattle 
thieves shot on the plaza. This stopped cattle stealing, 
but the shooting, not being authorized by law, furnished 
bis enemies with au excuse for setting on foot another 
little rebellion, led by Portalla, the friend whom be had 
trusted most. The hostile forces met, northerly from, 
and near Los Angeles. Portalh'i was at the bead of two 
hundred vagabonds; Victoria being followed by about 
thirty soldiers and friends. The Governor called upon 
the rebel leader to surrender, and thus learned for the 
first time, that the friend he had trusted was before him in 
arms. A frenzy of " sacred fury " seemed to seize the he- 
roic Victoria, at this exhibition of base treachery; and 
drawing his saber he hurled himself xipon the enemy like 
an avenging Kemesis, driving them, almost single-handed, 
from the field. The first revolutionary blood was shed in 
California that day. The Governor moved on victorious 
to the Mission of San Gabriel, where he was forced to 
halt, because of the numerous wounds he had received. 
At his side had fallen in the recent conflict, one of his 
bravest supporters; the grandfather of our late Governor 
Pacheco; and, no longer being able to flash that death- 
dealing saber in the face of his foes, with his staunehest 
defender slain as brave men die, he was left with no alter- 
native but to give his word to resign as Governor, and 
leave forever the Territory, when called on to do so by the 
jackals that had rallied from the recent defeat, when they 
learned that the lion was no longer able to defend himself. 
He kept his word, as the truly brave always do, though 
urged not to do so; and returning to Mexico, entered a 
cloister, devotiug the remaining years of his life to religi- 
ous pursuits. 

"When Victoria left anarchy came, and California was 
given up to misrule, contusion, robbery and murder. The 
mission Indian was informed that he was free, and what 
■was freedom without it included a right to do wrong, a 
right to steal, and a right to rob. It was a happy day for 
the distracted land that saw Jose Figueroa pick up the reins 
of Government in January, 1833. In August of that year, 
the Mexican Congress passed the colonization and secu- 
larization laws, and the dismemberment of the missions 
commenced. It was when the dissolution was takingplace 
of the old church plan of government; with ignorance and 
bigotry to contend with, accumulated at the last as a re- 
sult of her misguided policy; that Figueroa was placed 
between it, and the vigorous young growth of the new 
policy, that looked more to the prosperity of a race .supe- 
rior to the Indian. Ho was expected to deal justly, as 
between these two contending elements, and to render 
justice to either, was to gain the ill-will of the other. To 
add to his perplexities, a colony of about three hundred 
persons was sent by the home Government with a Gov- 
ernor at tlieir liead, to take charge of affairs in California. 
The members of the colony were to receive fifty cents per 
day, until they arrived in the Teriitory. But before they 
reached it, Santa Anna had overturned the home govern- 
ment and sent orders overlanrl; that put the new colony 
and its i;;overnor under the control of Figueroa; who sent 
them all to the Mission of San Francisco Solano, north of 

San Francisco Bay. They were discontented and became 
a source of great trouble to the Governor. A couple of 
them, assisted by some fifty others, inaugurated a revolt at 
Los Angeles on the 7th of March, 1835; but the affair 
ended with the day. Six months later the body of Figu- 
eroa lay dead at Monterey. He had been a true friend, 
au able statesman, a conscientious ruler, and, fiua.iy, 
heartsick and discouraged, be laid down to die. Peace 
to his ashes— he was the nblest Governor that Mexico gave 
to California, though her people gave him little peace 
while living, but loved and honored him when dead. 

At this time, in 1835, according to Forbes, the free popu- 
lation of California numbered, not including Indians, at 

Los Angeles l.^OO 

San Jose J^O 

Santa Cruz or Branciforte 1^^ 

In other parts of the Ten-itory ■^■'^^'^ 

Total in 1835 5,000 

•' " 1802 1.300 

Increase in 33 years .SJOO 

Mission Indians in 1835 18,683 

" " 1802..: 15,562 

Increase in 33 years 3,121 





The Ten Last Years That California was a Mexican 

Wara &Dm ths itlantic to tto Pacific, lB38-Alv!ifiiao AMiatod by the Qnhani Bifiea otbt- 
tarn tie Torritorlnl QoTOmment— Oondltlonnl Dcclflrfltion of Indepoadenco KoTflmber 
7thi 183S— Tbo Orahnm BiSes FoisDoda the Sontboru CallforalaDB tliat Libartj U 
Deairablo— Oirloa Cnrlllo loviea War and Is Oaplnrod— Oastio DescriboB the Action- 
Two Daya Battk and Oao Man KUled— Foreigners viowod with Suaplcion— AlTHrado 
Appointed QorBrnor by Mexico, and California I.0MB Her Gonditionitl IndBpendenta— 
Fotelgners ImprlEoned uid Bunt to San Blaa in Itoob— Uoxlcon Aathorilles Set the 
FrlsnnarB Frcs and ImprlEon tba Oanrd— Qiaham EatoTDS to Onlifornla to Contiont 
Thou Who End Ajrettud Him— Fiench and Americaas Enter Montarej Harbor to 
Samind an Apology, bat fiad no dob to mika tho SemandB from— OeDeral MIcheltorena 
ArriTes, to BilUva both Alvarodo and TallDJo— HIi Vagabond SoldierB— StaitUng Nens 
Intirrapts Hie Triomphal Uarch—Gommolora Jods3 Oaptorea Moalerej— Alvorada 
Starts a BiTolntlon by the SeliaTe of Sin iTose— HlcbBltorsnu Starts in PniBnit of the 
Bebeig, Headed by Oastroi and Captain 0, U. Weber Brings Him to a Halt— Castro 
BetacoB and ForctB Uicbcltoreca to Barrendei — Why Captain Websr Interfered— 
Uicheltorena Asks Salter for Helpaad He Immediately Beaponda —Weber's SnEceptlbil' 
Ity to the OharmB of tho Fair, CauMS Him to visit Bnltar'a Fort, where He Is Snspeited 
of being a Spy, and Fat in Iroos—Sattir's Eipedltion— What It Contistoil of— It 
MoTBS Soath— The EmbryoSloikteaDBpopnlalod- Fatoof PoorLindiiy— Dr. Manh— 
HIg TlowB of What the Policy of tho Foreigners Should Ba—Sntter First Leaina from 
Forbes, that the Sams Ola's of Hea eie Helping Oaatio, that Be is taking with Him to 
Aid Mlchelloreni— SallBc BscolTed with Military Honors— Oaatio Captures tho Ad- 
Tanca Qnird of the Goieroor- Tbo Bitlle of San Fmnando— Foreigners Fralomiis- 
Batter wltbdiawB from tho Field aad Ulcheltorena Sorrenders- Articles of Capllolatlon 
—MIcheltorena Saila for Meiico-Snttor Bolnrns to His Fort in the Kortb-PIo Pico 
Appointed as the Laat of the Uulcan QoTSmors of Oallforola— List at Hszlcan Qav- 
omora of Callfomla. 

The year 1836 was charged with events, that were im- 
portaut in their final results, in molding the destiny of 
California. In the United Slates, that year, Arkansas was 
admitted into the Union as au equal, and Wisconsin was 
organized as a Territory. The Creeks in Georgia and the 
Seminoles, under Osceola, in Florida.were waging a fierce 
wai- against the whites; while ofif on the border between 
the United States and Mexico, the Texans had hoisted the 
Lone Star flag, and forced a recognition of their indepen- 
dence from Mexico. Contention seemed to impregnate 
the air in North America; and California did not escape. 

The Government was overturned here tliat year by Juan 
B. Alvarado, a native Californian; who for several years 
had been Clerk of the Territorial Deputation. Tho dispute 
grew out of a point of military etiquette, between him and 
the Governor, as to tho posting of a guard; and waxed so 
fierce, that Alvarado was forced to flee from the capital, to 
avoid arrest. Ho songht tho homo of a Tennessee trapi)or 
in the Santa Cruz mountains, named Isaac Graliani. He 
ontoi'od the log cabin a fugitive; he passed out of it a 
conspirator. A few days later, at tho head of fifty foreign- 
ers, led by that trapper, and one linndrod native Catifor- 
niaus under Josd Castro, ho ontorod Montoroy at night, 
and forced a greatly superior force to surrender. Tho 
Govornor, his oflicors and aoldiors wore sent out of tho 
country, and the fourth revolution in CnUforuia had been 

accomplished; this time, the foreign element, led bv (uj 
American, being used as the motive power, with 9nece.s3 
as a result. 

On the 7th of November, a few days after the suceessdil 
termination of the revolt, the Territorial Deputation met 
at Monterey and passed six resolutions, of which we give 
three : 

1st. — Upper California is declared to be independent of 
Mexico during the non-re-establishment of the Federal 
system which was adopted in the year 1824. 

2d. — The said California shall be erected intonfreeand 
governing State, establishing a Congress, which shall dic- 
tate all the particular laws of the country and elect the 
other supreme powers necessary, declaring the octnai 
"Most Excellent Deputation " constituent. 

3d. — The religion shall be the Roman Catholic Apos- 
tolic, without admitting the exercise of any other; but the 
Government will not molest any persons for their partic- 
ular religious opinions. ■»**** 

Santa Anna bad nullified, that year, the Constitution of 
1821; and they wanted it back again, and proposed to be 
a free people until their wishes were complied with. Bat 
they failed to get what they desii-ed. The home govern- 
ment fulminated some fierce proclamations, and then snh- 
sided. Alvarado was placed at the head of the new gov- 
ernment, and Mariano G. Yallejo was made General of tlie 
Army. The northern part of the Slate readily accepted 
the new government, but south they viewed it with re- 
serve; and General Castro was conseqnently sent down 
therewith Graham and his fifty riflemen, when, as Tulhiil 
aptly says: — " All that portion of the country was readily 
"persuaded that independence was desirable." 

The nncle of Alvarado, Carlos Carrillo, was sent a com- 
mission as Governor, by the home government, and ha 
immediately levied war upon his nephew, but was, with 
the assistance of the Graham Kifles, as promptly captured 
as he had been prompt to commence hostilities. In the 
report by General Castro to Governor Alvarado, made 
March 28th, 183S, he thus mentions the battle that result- 
ed in Carrillo's capture: "I have the honor to announce 
" to your Excellency that after two days continued fighting 
" without having lost 6hjI one man, the enemy took flight, 
" under cover of night, numbering one hundred and ten 
"men; and I have detenuiued to dispatch one company 
" of mounted infantry, under command of Captain Villa, 
"and another of cavalry lancers, under command of Cup- 
" tain Cota, in their pursuit, remaining myself with the 
" rest of the division and the artillery, to guard this 
"point. * * *" 

A two days' conflict, witJi constant firing, covers the 
battlefield with one dead enemy! "There wore giants in 
the earth in those days." 

Alvarado had begun to look with suspicion upon his 
allies, the foreigners, who had transformed hira from a 
clerk into a Governor. Time suG&cient had elapsed to 
learn the result of foreign influence in It had 
overshadowed the descendant of the Spanish race there, 
and the Americans had become their rulers. To a™ia- 
vate matters, Graham, as well as some of his men, not 
being famed for tlieir modesty, openly declared that, bat 
for them, Alvarado would not have succeeded in the first 
instance; and that his continuance in offiiie was due to the 
same cause. Certainly, .Alvarado was justifiable lu being 
nlai-med at the outlook; and especially so, because of the 
ever-present obtrusive reminder by the Graham Bifles, of 
their importance to him as a political, or military power in 
the territory. To maintain independence from Mexico 
necessitated a dependence upon those foreigners; and to 
be dependent upou them, wiis to foster an element that 
would eventually become their masters. Ciivumstances 
seemed to force a choice, as between Mexican and foreiga 
dependence; and the instincts as well as sympathies of 
race, drew the Californians back, to harmonize with what 
they bad declared themselves conditionally five frvmi- 

In pursuance of this policy, Alviirado, immediatt'lyafti'i" 
the suppression of the armed attempt by his nm-le, to re- 
instate Me.iLicau rule in California, opened contiiiialory 
negotiations, that resulted in his being appoinlod VixniH- 
cial Governor in 1S3S. In reluin for this, hf aoknowl- 
odgod the authority that he had formerly ivbellod against, 
and was then, in 1S3S1, appointed Governor. The neces- 
sity for tho Graham Kifles was passing nwiiy, Califerum 
was divided into two districts, the line of division ruuiuMg 
oast from San Luis Obispo. Casti\i wjis made Pn-fect in 
Iho north, and I'oAa iu the south; Govornor Alvarado hav* 
ing his headquarters, as bofoiv, at Mouti'ivv. 

liraliani and his followers liad tiujdly boi-onu* so ol»uM" 
ious to tho authorities, that it was dytorminod tosoiieoaua 
soud thorn out ol Uio oouutry. This Capt^uu of tho for- 





raidfiblo Rifles anwittingly fonitaliea them with the neces- 
sary excuse. Having a fast horse, he challenged California 
to produce a faster one; and a Yankee accepted the chal- 
lenge. To make all secure, wiitings were drawn, setting 
forHi the eonditioDB of the horse race. A Goveroment 
spy chanced to see the docament, and as it was written in 
Englisli, Wiui oninlelligible to him. This wiw sufficient; 
what he hicted in knowledge was mndenp in imagination, 
and Alvarado wii« promptly iuformed of a deep-laid con- 
spiracy to overthrow the Goveroment. Iinmediately Gen. 
Castro was ordered to seiM Graham and all his coadjutors, 
the order being executed on the night of April 7th, 1S4U. 
Simultaneously through California that night the 
ers-excopt Sutter, his men, tho^e connected with the 
Hudson Cay Company, and the Russians in Sonoma-were 
arrested and taken, about one hundred of them, to Mon- 
terey Some twenty of the most dangerous were put m 
irons and shipped to San Bias, on the Mexican Barque 
"GuiEuoscaua." From there they wore conducted overlaud 
on foot to Tepee, by Gen. Castro, where he and the guard 
were i.laced under arrest and the prisoners set free. Ibis 
cool reception of Gen. Castro, by the Mexican authorities, 
was due to the influence of the American and Britmh Con- 
suls- who entered Uieir protest against the treatment their had received at the bands of the Cahfornians. 
Graham and his men wore quartered at the beat hotel 
clothed, armed, equipped, and in July, 18-U, were sent at 
Government expense, back to confront the astonished Al- 
varado and amazed inhabitants of Cal.torma; who had 
celebrated the day of their banishment by a public mass 
.nd general thanksgiving. After this, Graham, and all 
over whom he had influence, could be counted on as cei- 
tain to oppose whatever Alvai-ado, Castro or Vallejo 

^Tn the meantime matters had moved with unusual quiet 
in the country, except the ripple caused by two war ves- 
sels one French and the other American, that had sailed 
one' day into the harbor at Monterey, soon after the seiz- 
ure of the foreigners, to demand an apology for that act; 
but finding no one to address the demand to, they had 
sailed away again, and no apology was made The Gov- 
evnor learning of the intention of the commandei;3 of those 
vessels, had immediately set out to quell an .magmary 
insurrection in the interior; and thus avoided the disagree- 
able consequences of his acts. A m^isunderstanding had 
arisen during this term of quietude, between Val lep and 
the Governor, each being anxious to get rid of the other 
and both had writien to the home government asking for 
the others removal. P^.^ml 

Both of their requests were coinpled with. Geneia 
Micheltoreiiawas appointed to till the offices of General 
and Governor, and arriving at San Diego m August, 1843 
"mediately assumed control; backed by a formidable 
number (four hundred) of veteran convK;^s. that had come 
w"th him as soldiers to become the standmg army of Ca - 
fovnia. Mexico had sent them from her prisons, to insure 
the maiutainance of her authority in the Territory. 

He was received like a prince, because he was sustained 
by an armv, and was making a kind oi innu.^^'^l iom-o^ 
the State.' About thirty miles out from Los Angeles 
Sien on his way to San Diego, his progi-ess was an-estad, 
by the receipt of news to the effect, that Commodoie T 
a' 0. Jones had, on the 19th of October. -^^-^ ^tonje-y 
fhe capital, and hoisted the American flag, declaring that 
tpeToaliforniawasthe property of the United Amen- 

can States. , , -n „ „ „n Hm 

The news was received by him about ^^^■^■'^'t 
24th of October, and on the next day he issued rom he 
Mission of San Fernando, that extraordinary proclamation 
to the Californians, which reads: 

-Drive all your horses and cattle from the sea-board to 
"the mouutains, and starve out the enemy. 

Some one, probably Josh Billings, has ^-^^^ ^i^t ^^J^J 
sence of body is better than presence of mmd lu case o 
danger; and although Micheltorena had not consulted 
with Billings, he was evidently of the same "P"^'""^; 

The day succeeding the capture. Jones became sadistic! 
that he had made a mistake in supposing that the United 
Stites had declared war against Mexico; and consequenUy 
fottdown the American flag, apolo^i^ed, fiied a sahita as 
the Mexican colors were run up iu its place and saded on 
the 21st for Mazatlan; from where he forwmled dis- 
patches to his Government, laying before it the details of 
what he had done. ., , ■ ^ 4.1,^ r,f^Tf nf 

On tlie 17th of January, 1843. he -^ ^^/.-t^ «^« P^ied 
San Pedro, landed, and. accompanied by his staff, visited 
Los Angeles, where Micheltorena gave, in honor of the 
v^sit a ball. This visit was made by Jones that he might, 
Itr as possible, eradicate the injui-ious effects of his 

premature seizure of Monterey. He looked over the bi 1 
of damages presented by the California Government, 
amon" which was an item of S3.000 for damages to the 
Mexican troops, because of their rapid march to the wkrwr, 
on receipt of the news of his seizure of Monterey. 

The appointment of Micheltorena had reduced the rank 
and importance of all three of the native Cabforn.a offi- 
cials Alvarado, Vallejo and Castro; and it resulted m 
brin-nng those parties together again, causing them to 
unite in an effort to expel the Governor, that Mexico had 
sent them, with the vagabond soldiery that he had brought 
into the conntiy with him. 

Hostilities wetB inaugurated in November. 1844. by the 
capture of the Mission of San Jam. by Vallejo and Castro, 
where the suri^lus aramunition had been stoved by the 
Governor. After the capture of the magazine stores, the 
insurrectionary forces fell back up the country, taking San 
Jose in their march, passed up the east side of San l-ran- 
cisco Bay, towards where Oakland now stands. 1 he re- 
treating force was under the command of General Jose 
Castro, and was a couple of days' march in advance of 
Micheltorena, with whom he was afraid to risk a battle. 

Up to this time the foreigners had not oi>enl>j appeared 
in the contest, although W. G. Bay; who. with J. A. 
Forbes, were in charge of the Hudson Bay Company s 
business in California; had become heavily mvolved, in 
secretly aiding the forces under Castro to arm themse ves. 
But about twelve miles north ot San Jose, there suddenly 
appeared in front of Micheltorena's advancing columns a 
little band of brave men, the irrepressible foreigner, that 
caused him to halt in his march. The circumstances that 
led to this obstruction of the Governor's Hue ot progi-ess 
and the results that were caused by it, were related to us 
bv Captain C. M. Weber, who commanded that bttle com- 
pany of brave meu, who, with ams, demanded that the 
advancing army pass around and not through San Jose. 
Those circumstances were embodied iu the history of ban 
Joaquin County, written by us in 1878; and from that 
work we copy the following: 

The captain (Weber) was In business at the pueblo 
of San Jose when the war broke out, and was acquainted 
with and personally friendly with both Micheltorena 
and Castro. He had a very large stock of goods m the 
place, and was anxious on account of it He knew that 
the soldiers under Micheltorena were mostly convicts, 
turned loose from the prisons in Mexico, and were de- 
pendent upon the meagre revenue derived from forced 
loans and plunder for their pay. His goods would be 
a rich prize, and if they once entered San Jose, they 
would be sure to help themselves to what he had; con- 
sequently all his interests were opposed to the occupa- 
tion of the town by such a body of men. As Micheltorena 
advanced, Jose Castro became alarmed, and, leaving the 
villaee to its fate, retreated up the valley towards Oakland 
with his forces; whereupon Captain Weber addressed a 
communication to the commander oE the advancing 
forces, stating that Castro had left there, and asking 
him if he would not pass to one side of the pueblo and 
not enter it with his troops. Micheltorena replied that 
he found it necessary to pass through San Jose in pur- 
suit of Castro. In the meantime, the capta.n received 
prompt information to the effect that the Governor had 
lost control of his soldiers., who insisted on entering he 
village for plunder; whereupon the captain caused the 
locsi; of war to be sounded through the stree s. The 
people assembled and the captam presented the posi- 
Ln of affairs, and told them that he believed with a 
force composed of citizens and foreigners in the place, 
the advancing army could be ^l-ked. and forced t^^ 
take a different route yi their hue of march after Cast o^ 
A company was immediately formed, placed --^J"' ^^^ 
command, and moved out to meet the enemy-a handful 
against a host. Sending a courier m -^vance to Me 
torena, advising him ot what he was doing, and tha it 
vas done, not in a spirit of opposition to him personally, 
Tthe cause he represented, but with a determuiation to 
Wect their homes from plunder. The orces me some 
Twelve miles out from the village, and for severa days 
he entire ai^y numbering several hundred, was held in 
check by this little detachment of daring men under 
Captain Weber. Castro heaving of the fact became 
ashamed of himself, turned back from his - -a .joined 
the captain with his forces, took ^<^^^^-^ f '^^..^'^l 
and forced Micheltorena to surrendei-, and, finally, to 
a-ree to leave California and retum to Mexico 
"Scheltorena immediately withdrew with >"y«-- ^^ 
Monterey, as Castro supposed, to embark for Mexico, ac- 
cord ng ^0 the armistice. This was not, however, a part 

of the Governor's plan . He had sent post, to Suticr, nt 
the fort on the north frontier, offering him, as an induce- 
ment to come with a force to his assistance, to confirm all 
the "rants of land that Sutter, as a Justice, had rocom- 
monded. Immediately tho Captain set o.. fnot aotu^ 
operations to raise a battalion to march to tho Governors 
relief, not knowing at the time that many of the foreign 
population were in active co-opoi-fltion with Castro ami 
the native Californians. 

Captfliu C. M. "Weher, supposing that tho war had 
ended, made n visit to Yerlm Buena (now San Francisco^ 
and while there learned that some families had come from 
over tho plains to Sutter's Fort, among whom were yoniig 
ladies- and said tho Captain. -I became possessed of a 
■' desire to look upon tho face ot a lady fresh from civ. i- 
" zation." Accordingly, acconq.anicd by a friend, ho 
visited the fort, and there saw tor the first time the wonmn 
that is now his wife. She is a sister of the Murtys of San 
Jo3(' He found a very unexpected state ot things exist- 
ing on the frontier. Everybody was in active preparatic. 
tor a renewal of hostilities; and i.istcad ot being received 
as a friend, he found himself viewed with mistrust, that 
culminated in his being placed under arrest. 

A council ot war was called, and supposing that ho had 
come among them as a spy i» the interest of Castro they 
signed the following document as the rosnlt ot llieir d-lib- 


" We, the subscribers, chosen as a coaucil of war, have 

" unanimously resolved the following: , , . , 

" 1st That Mr. Weber bo put in irons, and detained 
" in the fort (Now Helvetia) until such time as we may 
" receive orders from his Excellency the Governor (Michel- 
'■ torena) as regards his disposal. 

" 2nd. That Mr. Pearson B. Reading be requested to 
" keep Mr Weber in a convenient room, and afford him 
" such necessaries as circumstances may admit ot and his 
" safe detention may require. 

"J. A. Sdtteh, 
" John Townsesd, 
" Wm. DiciiE, 
" Isaac Graham, 
" Edward McIntosh, 
. " Jaspee O'Fabrell, 
" S. J. Hknslev. 
" J. BiDWEij:., Secretary." 

For thirty-three years this document, in which the 
founder ot Sacramento orders the founder of Stockton put 
in irons, has been kept by the latter, almost forgotten. 
among his choice papers, and was kindly photographed 
with others, for us in 1878. by his orders. The personal 
feeling existing at that time between these two men was 
friendly but Sutter, as well as the others, feared to risk 
the possible result of turning loose so formidable an op- 
ponent as Mr. Weber had proved that he could be. if he 
felt so disposed. 

Lieutenant David T. Bird, who later was for many years 
a resident of Yolo County, accompanied Capta.n Sutter on 
the expedition, and remained with him until his return to 
the fort. To the lieutenant, also to J. Alexander Forbes, 
who was a strong supporter of Castro and a friend of the 
Captain, we are iiidebted for many of the -ts incideut 
to [he campaign that resulted m the surrender of Mich 1- 
torena at San Fernando. It was .''^/^J*"^^- ^f*^' '^^^^ 
the force, under command of Captain John A. Sutter, took 
up its line ot march to join the Mexican Governor at Mon- 
terev The command consisted of about one hundred and 
fifty Indians, armed with muskets, nnder the leadership 
of Raphero, a Mokelko chief; and some s.xty frontiersmen 
armed with hunting rifles, commanded by Captam Gant. 
There were no lieutenants or sub-officers. Sutter and Gant 
being the only ones having any authority among the whites^ 
There was one brass field-piece, mounted on trncks, taken 
alon" that was not brought back. 

There were but three persons from the wes side of the 
Sacramento Rivei-Wm. Knight D. T. Bird and Gran^ 
ville Swift-who accompanied the expedition As the 
little army moved south, it camped at the place where 
Stockton now stands, one night, and Thomas L-<1-^ '" 
only inhabitant of that place, joined them, and Stockton 
was left depopulated. At that time Lindsay s tale house 
Inl the cabin of a man named Sheldin, on Jl- Cosumne 
River, above the Spanish Trail, were the - ^ habitation 
between Sutter's Fort and the residence of Dr. Marsh at 
the base of Mount Diablo. Poor Lincisay! he retunied a 
few weeks later from San Fernando, and ^^^s "i«.aered ' t 
Stockton by the Polo Indians a few days afte. his 
a rival, /he expedition camped one n.ght at the iwich ot 
Dr. Marsh, whose sympathies were not with them. He 




believed tLat the prosperity of Cabforoia demanaed ^e 
expulsion of Micbeltorena, yet be considered tUe fcnie 

,,olicy of forei^ers to be that of --^-f'^^'f'X^-eZ 
Ihem to join either party was contrary to the best mteiests 
of the majority, and might prove fatal to many who «^ie 
isolated or scattered over the Territory. The Doctor, 
however, accompanied Sutter south as an interpreter. 

It w,is when camped at Dr. Marsh's ranch that Sutter 
first learned the true state ot the conflict. J. Alexander 
Forbes, who. on July loth, 1843, had been appointed Eu- 
clish consul, and at the time was, in connection ivitJi W. 
G Ray. agent for the Hadsou Bay Compaoy; ndmg witli 
ereat dispatch from Sau Francisco, met the captam at that 
point, and in vain sought to dissuade him from joming 
the Mexicans at Monterey. Forbes informed him o 
the extent of the general insurrection, and told Iiim tha 
if he persisted it would only result in disaster to himseit 
and friends, and an-ay the foreign element in hostility to 
itself; as a large number of English, American Scotch and 
immigrants of every natiou were centering at Los Angeles 
to assist Castro. The reply of the Captain was that he 
had gone too far, and could not turn back without dishonor 
to himself; but from that time forward a shadow rested 
upon his command. The men had come to suspect that 
there was something of which they weie left umnformed 
that materially concerned them. 

The junction o£ the Micheltorena and Sutter forces took 
place on the Salinas Plains, a short distanc;e out from 
Monterey, the latter being received with mditaiy honors, 
with banners waving, bands playing, and salvos of artil- 
lery The Governor was now sanguine of success, and he 
had cause to be, for the two hundred men that Sutter had 
added to his command included Raphero, the ablest chief 
than living among the northern tribes, and J"os6 Jesus, the 
chief of the Si-yak-um-nas, whose name had become a 
household terror among the native Califoriiians. These 
chiefs, at the head of one hundred and fifty of their war- 
riors, armed, not with bows aud arrows, but with mus- 
kets, all mirsiug a hatred born of old grievances that had 
for a lifetime rankled in their bosoms against those they 
were going out to fight, made them valuable allies and 
formidabU foes. The white men who accompanied them 
included Isaac Graham among their number, the man 
whom Castro had taken to San Bias in irons, and whose 
company of rifles had overthrown one California Gover- 
nor. Those sixty men were all brave, reckless frontiers- 
men, who followed the unfortunate Sutter, aud were a 
host within themselves. But— "when Greeks joined 
Greeks then was the tug of war"— Castro had a similar 
force assembling at Los Angeles, under the brave McKin- 
ley, to assist him. 

The next day, after the reception, Micheltorena moved 
north, Castro falling back towards Los Angeles, before 
his advance. The following is an extract from a letter 
written to us from Oakland, California, in May of this 
year, by Hon. J. Alex. Forbes, in response to inquiries 
regarding the movements of General Castro during that 
campaign 1 

" The forces under General Micheltorena were at San 
" Buenaventura, aud Castro, with the force of Califor- 
" nians, at a narrow pass eight leagues beyond. On 
" the morning of February 15th, Castro's rear-guard fell 
" suddenly upon Michel torena's advance, consisting of 
" fourteen Americans, made prisoners of all of them, with- 
" out firing a shot, and conducted them to the field where 
" Oastro had halted his forces. After making a speech to 
" them, he supplied them -with provisions and money, and 
' ' requesting them to see their countrymen in Los Angeles, 
" he told them they were all equally interested in expel- 
" ling the wretched Mexicans from California, and, taking 
" kindly leave of them, sent them back to Sutter, to whom 
" this politic move was the second cause of sorrow. I have 
" mentioned the first to you"— [Mr. Forbes here refers to 
the interview between himself and Sutter at Dr. Marsh's 
ranch, when the Captain first learned that he would have 
to meet in the field his friends, the foreigners, unless he 
turned backj.— "The forces of Micheltorena continued 
" their march, ostensibly in pursuit of Castro, who soou 
" reached Los Angeles, where he was reinforced by the 
" native Califoruians and Americans, under a Scotchman 
" named Jos. McKinley. Meantime the forces of Michel- 
" torena reached the plain of Sau Foruando. The reiii- 
" forced party of Castro took up a favorable position on 
" the field, the Americans, under McKinley, in a ditch, 
" forming natural rifle-pita, and the mounted Californians 
" ou the flank of the Mexican forces. Wild firing began 
" by the latter with grape and canister, without effect, aud 
" soon the rifle shots from McKinley's men began to toll 

" upon the Mexican -HUerjmen bn not a shot .asfired 
" against Sutter's men. MeKinley had ^f^^^-l ^^/^^j"^" 
-' theissue ha«ng delivered his store of goods of all kinds 
.. ToTL-e tha'n 55,000. to the C^lifo-ia party gratis^ 
'■ and now he had come on that field to offer his 1 fe in 
" their cause The Americans, under Sutter, were ad^^n- 
.< '; o: ;; ;ost.d regarding the position o^ their coun^^ 
.. Ju in the California party, excepting the V^'O^^^^- 
" afforded the latter by the ditch. The Mexican i^antry 
" kept up a fire of musketry at McKinley's party and he 
"impatiLt of delay, desiring to speak to ^-^y^^^^^ 
" friinds in Sutter's party, left his own men and ms^^g 
" out on the plain, with his rifle in one baud. -^ ^^^'S 
" his hat with the other, passed at a run. under a storm 
" of musket balls from the Mexican '"^'l^^'-y' '^''^' ""f^;' 
" ,vas received by his friends in Sutter's party, where his 
.. logeu arguments soou caused their 'defection from the 
" Mexican Lise, and the result was the capitulation, of 
" which Tou have the copy translation. 

The withdrawal of Sutter's command, that moved up the 
valley to the Mission of San Gabriel, caused a sui-render 
of the Mexican forces, and two days after the capitulation 
they embarked for Monterey, at San Pedro, and from 
Monterey they sailed, without delay, for Mexico. The 
following are the articles approved by the two Generals ai 
the time of the surrender. They are an anomaly. iUe 
defeated commander, in the first article, attempts an im- 
plied excuse for not doing as he had promised when he 
surrendered near Sau JosC; the last of the same article 
being an excuse to his home govei-nmeut for bis failure to 
sustain their authority in the Territory; and then the sur- 
rendering officer promotes the man who has defeated him 
to the rank of General. It will be observed also that the 
word ciiizen is used; and thus Sutter's command, being 
foreigners, are not included among those tvho are to have 
their "lives and property guaranteed," provided they de- 
sire to remain in the Territory. To close the comedy of 
absurdities, they add, as an afterthought, that the con- 
quered is to march off like a conqueror; and the victor- 
ious army, with arms, banners and drums, are to enact 
the farcD of pretending to honor those who have been 
defeated and driven out of the Territory, without starting 
a graveyard. 


OF San Fernando, Febudary 22nd, 1845. 


AgrecTnent made on t!ie Field of San Fernando hclween Bon 
Mamtel MicheUorena, General of Brigade and Comman- 
der-in-Chief of ihis Department, and Don Jose Castro, 
Lieutenanl-Colond of the Jbrces opposed to tJte Troops of 
General Micheltorena. 

Artiolb 1st. Whereas, no decision of the Central 
Government of Mexico has been received in reply to the 
permission solicited by General Micheltorena, through his 
Brigade Major Don Raphael Telles, for the withdrawal of 
the General and his troops from this Department for the 
purpose ot returning to the interior of the Republic. 
Wherefore, and in consequence of the present united armed 
opposition of the inhabitants of California to the said 
troops, against which hostile movements the General, with 
his small force, and scarcity of resources, can no longer 
contend, he agrees to march forthwith to Sau Pedro, ac- 
companied by his soldiers, where Colonel Castro will pro- 
vide a vessel, duly victualed, for transporting the General 
and his troops to Monterey. 

Article 2n'D. The soldiers who may desire (voluntar- 
ily) to remain in California shall, on their arrival at San 
Pedro, deliver up their arras to the ofiicer of their escort, 
and remain as citizens under the protection of the exist- 
ing authorities. 

Article 3rd. The soldiers who may choose to follow 
General Micheltorena shall embark with him at Sau Pedro, 
carrying their arms with them; and on the arrival of the 
transport at Monterey the Mexican soldiers that uow oc- 
cupy that post shall embark thereon, also with their arms; 
and in case of insnflicieucy ot room for all of said soldiers 
in one vessel, another shall be provided for them, and the 
said vessel or vessels shall sail for any Mexioau port the 
General may choose to direct. 

Article 4th. The oflicers who may choose to romaiu 
in California shall be reapeclod in their rank as officers of 
the Mexican army; their lives and property shall bo guar- 
anteed, and their salaries shall bo paid from the Depart- 
mental treasury. 

Article 5th. The same privileges shall be eujoyed by 
all the citizens who in the present difficulties have given 
aid to General Micheltorena. 

Article 6th. All the arms, ammunition and warlike 
implements actually existing iu the armor)- of Monterey 
shall be delivered to the commander, Castro, of the op- 
posing forces, iu order that with them he may defend tb 
entire department and the national independence, en- 
charged by General Micheltorena. 

Article 7th. That henceforward the civil government 
of this department shall bo vested in the presiding mem- 
ber ot the assembly, as ordered by that coi-poratiou, ac- 
cording to law, for which object General Micheltorena 
will deliver a circular order to the chief of the opposing 
forces for immediate publication throughout the depart- 

Article 8th. In like manner General Micheltorena 
will issue another order, that Don JosO Castro, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of the army, be duly acknowledged as tlie 
Commanding General of this department. 

The Commissioners appointed on said field for submit- 
ting these stipulations to the respective chiefs for dieir 
approbation or rejection were, on the part of General 
Micheltorena, Don Felix Valdaz, Battalion Coramandtr, 
and Don Jose Maria Castanares, Colonel of Infantry; and 
on the part of Colonel Castro, Don Jose Antonio Carrillo 
aud Lieutenant Don Manuel Castro. 

On the field of San Fernando, February 22nd, 1845. 

Signed, Felk Yaldaz. 

Jos£ Maria CASTANAiiEa. 
Approved, Micheltoresa. 
Signed, Jost AsTOSio Cadbillo, 

Manuel Casteo. 
Approved, Castro. 

Additional AuTiCLE-^The division of General Michel- 
torena will march with all the honors of war, their flags 
flying, drums aud trumpets sounding, two field-pieces, 
six pounders, and one four pounder culverm, with mafclies ^ 
lighted; and will be saluted by the opposing forces under 
the Lieutenant-Colonel Don JosO Casti-o, with colors fly- 
iug and drums beating. And on the arrival of General 
Micheltorena at San Pedro, the said three field-pieces, 
with all their caissons and ammunition, shall be delivered 
to the officer encharged by Colonel Castro to receive 


Signed, Micheltobe-va. 


I hereby certify that the preceding is a correct transla- 
tion made by meof a certified copy of the original. 

' J. Alee. Foubes. 

Captain Sutter remained at the Mission ot S;m Gabriel 
about one week, and during that time most of CapUm 
Gaut's men left him, only about twenty remaining. Liea- 
tenant Bird says: " Captain Sutter's forces did not sur- 
" render to General Castro, neither did the Captaio, but 
" they simply drew out." Their line of march home v.-^ 
through the Sau Joaquin valley, leaving Tulare lake to the 
west as they moved northward, aud learned that Thomas 
Lindsay had been killed by the Indians as they p'lssea 
where Stockton now is. The command reached the fort, 
and disbanded. Thus ended the hostile movements that 
bad resulted in the expulsion of Micheltorena. The "Tej- 
ritoriid Deputation declared Pio Pico Governor, aud when 
he ceased to hold that position California had become a 
part of the United States. The following are tlif- names 
of the Governors of California from the time she co.ised 
being a province of Spain until she became ,i Territory ol 
tho United States, a period of twenty-six yeare; 

Mexican Gonxunors of CAUFonNU. 


Pablo Vicente de Sola 1S22 .... 

Luis ArgiioUo 1^23 

Jose' Maria Echeoudia , 1^-5 - - ■ 

Manuel Victoria 1^31 — 

Pio Pico 18^*3 ■•- 

Jose Figuoi-oa 1S33 . . . 

Jose Castro .... lS3u . , , 

Nicholas Outievrez 1S36 . . . 

Mariano Cluco l^'** ■ ■ ■ 

Nicholas OutitHTcz It^^iC ■■• 

Jrtun B. Alvarado Iv'^^O ■ ■ ■ 

Manuel Mioholtorona Ii>i3 ... 

Pio Pico 1S46 -.- 










The Bear-Flag War, and What Lead to It. 

Fopektioa la ISfl-Iauatgniiii of t^at TMi—Anumg than m WUliio Kalgbl, WOUaa 
Qordon tai Qttn XcU^Iiki)— Tb« IaO^ hu id IlnplM»nta» vltb k Orlolj- Bear— 
MUi 1B41, Iminignlloii Isctuk*— Thonui 0, I^rUs'i Ectjoiate ol tlu PopoLUImi In 
1849— What (ApUin Wtber 071 of the Inlantioo ol FoRlsncn In CalifonUa is 1841 

—A haw 6Ur Bute to be atnd ool ot CilUiinila nndar certiln CircniiuUnoa— Wben 
the Diriilon Una wu bib«ilraTD-Gtrl(niiDepajtni«b(>m theOeiunlPoUiT— AU«mpt 
to Organlu to FrBTcnt In Btcanesce — An ApfMrcaU; Hanntai Docooiral bebbd 
which Laiked Treuon- Wh; ll Polled U Aoompliih the Bttolt— Weber appointed bf 
Culto to ConimiDil tbs Hortb FiODtler-J. Alez, Foibei Appointed BrIUih Tin 
Cottrol— Doapitihei for Pitmont nd tbs Onltad Btatei CoMal-Ffemont Entan OaU- 
fomU— He Vijlli Honlete;, and ukj Oenenl Gwtro for PermlMlon to Becmit in tha 
Su) JotqniaTaUe;— TheBeqnect Qnnttd— ASlD^nlBrHoreon tbePurtef Fnmonl— 
Hs makettowud Monterej-Iiucaiadal htrlos Stolen Eonei-Ii Ordered to Lean 
tbs Terrilor;-He FortlEei Blmielf u>d DcEei the AathoritlN cf CnUrorDb-Wbnt 
foUoned- Important OSdal Donmentg—Fremaot Abandoni Camp and Betreala to tbe 
HoTlh— He help* llaatacre loma Indiuu, and then piuet onr the Line into Oiegon— 
Llenbinant Oilletplo OreiUket Hfm, with Secret Dlapulfhea-lbe Enigbt Tngtd; at 
Klatnalb Like— Frtmont Bflnrni to Oilifornln, and the Bear-Flag War 1b lotogiuBtod 
on the lOlb of June, 1846, on the Banke of the CotnmoM Eirer— They pan Uiroogh 
Yolo OooBly, tod get Several Eecnilta-Bonoina Tnkea and the Bear Flag Holited on 
the Hth of JotiB-The Orgauiiatioo— The Pritooar'a Sent lo Snltei'a Fort— YooDg 
Fowler and Ooirle Sent to Pfocnre Poirder, and Kover Eetoro— Their Tragic Fata— 
XJenteoant Ford Befeau do la Torre— Ftomont Joioe the Baio!nUon!ila-Ho Orders 
Threo Portoni Shot, in EetaUallon-Torro LeacM Iho Uppsr Conntrj with Hii Fortta- 
Outro'i Motcm^nta -Fremont becomet the Head of the BotokUon— End of the Bear- 
Flag War. 

Ill 1841, M. De Mofras estimated tbe pojiulation ot Cal- 
ifornia, not ioclinliug the mission or wild Indians, at 
5,000, and gives thoir nationality as: 

Americans ■ ^^^ 

English, Scotch ami Irish 300 

Other foreigners . ■ - 90 

European Spaniards ?0 

Mexicans 170 

Half breeds about 4,000 

Total population, other thnn Indians . . - 5,000 

De Mofriis' object in writing of, and giving statistics in 
regard to, the Pacific coast, was to show the Freneli how 
they could acquire California as a province; and he dis- 
tributes that 5,000 population over the eouuti'y as follows: 

San Diego, Presidio of 1,300 

Monterey, Presidio of 1,000 

Sauta Barbara, Presidio of 800 

Sau Francisco, Presidio of 800 

Scattered through tha Territory 1,100 

Total 5,000 

He says, in his report to the Freuch Goveniraent, that 
there were, in 18il, large numbers of immigrants coming 
from the United States over the plains to tho Pacific 
coast. Most of them were on their way to localities 
further north, but there were two companies that reached 
this State; one of them by the Sante Fe route, under 
charge of William 'Workman, arrived at Los Angeles about 
November. Among that company were : 

William Workman, died in 1876 Los Angeles. 

John Kolaud 

Benito D. Wilson 

Albert G. Toomes Tehama Co. 

William Knight, died in 1849 Xolo Co. 

William Gordan, died October 3d, 1876 .... 
Thomas Lindsay, killed in March, 18i5, by Indians at 
Stockton, William Moore, Wade Hampton, Dr. Gamble, 
Isaac Givens, Hiram Taylor, Colonel McClure, Charles 
Givens. Frederick Bachelor, Dr. Meade, Mr. Teabo, and 
Mr. Pickmau. 

The other of the two companies, under charge ot J. B. 
Bartelson, came, by the way of Humboldt river, into the 
Sau Joaquiu valley, ami arrived at Dr. Marsh's residence 
November 4th, when they disbanded. The following are 
the names of all of that company: 

Names. JRemarlcs. 

Capt. J. B. Bartelson... Captain of the party; returned to 
Missouri; is now dead. 

John Bidwell Lives at Chieo. 

Joseph B. Chiles Still alive. 

Josiah Beldeu Lives at San Jose and San Fran- 

Charles M. Weber Lives in Stockton. 

Chas. Hopper Lives in Napa county. 

Henry Huber Lives in San Francisco. 

Mitchell Nye Had a ranch at Marysville; prob- 
ably now alive. 

Green McMabon Lives in Solano county. 

Kame, Uemarhi. 

Nelson McMabon Died in New Tork._ 

Talbot H. Grt-eno Returned East. 

Ambrose Walton Returned Eiist. 

John McDouel Returned Ejist. 

George Henshaw Returned East. 

Robert Eyckmau Returned East. 

Wm. Betty or Belty. . . .Retnrned East, via Siuta Fo. 

Charles Flugge Rotnmed East, 

Gmn Patton .Returned East; died in Missouri. 

Benjamin Kelsey Was, within a few years, in Santa 

Barbara county, or at Clear 
Lake, Lake county. 

Andrew Kelsey Killed by Indians at Clear Lake. 

JamesJobnorLittlejohu.Went to Oregon. 

Henry Brolasky Went to Oallao. 

James Dowson Drowned iu Columbia river. 

Major Walton Drowned in Sacramento river. 

George Shortwell Accidentally shot on tbe woy out. 

John Swartz Died in California. 

Grove Cook Died in California, 

D, W. Chandler Wont to Sandwich Eslands. 

Nicholas Dawson .... Dead. 

Thomas Jones Dead. 

Robert H. Thomcs , . . . 

Elias Barnet Iu Polk valley, Napa county. 

James P- Spjinger .... 

John Rowland 

Among the list ot those arriving in 1841, the people of 
Yolo county will recognize the names of tbe two men who 
were the first settlers in tlieir county — Wm. Knight, from 
whom Knight's Landing takes its name, and Wm. Gor- 
don, of Cache creek; also that of Green McMabon, who 
lives just over the south line o£ the county, who, in May, 
1846, had an encounter with a -grizzly bear, McMabon 
was not armed, but he is inclined to think the bear was, 
and says he is not satisfied yet that it was not the begin- 
ning ot the Bear Flag War, that culminated in tbe Ameri- 
cans taking Sonoma, under Merritfc, about four weeks 
later. Before the wounds were healed that he bad re- 
ceived iu the fight, he joined tbe Bear Flag party, and 
eventually marched with Fremont to the south. It was of 
such material that the little army was composed that made 
California a part of the United American States. 

After 1841, immigration materially increased not only 
from the United States, but from other countries. Al- 
though it had taken seventy-two years for one thousand 
persons to come from abroad and settle here, yet iu 1846, 
only five years later, Thomas 0. Larkiu, the American 
consul, estimated tbe foreign population to be eight thou- 
sand, divided as follows : 

Americans 2,000 

Foreigners, favorable to the United States 3.000 

Foreigners, neutral or opposed to the United States 3,000 

Captain C. M. Weber, who was a member of one of 
those companies of 18il, informed us in 1870 that upon 
his arrival in California he learned of two things that 
caused him to remain here. 

The first was, that the Graham Rifles, having assisted 
Governor Alvarado in a State quairel, that had resulted in 
the seizure by the Governor of tbe foreigners in 1840, had 
taught them not to interfere in matters of State when lack- 
ing power to control. It bad in consequence come to be 
generally understood that they were to let State or National 
differences among the uatives alone, that they were to 
adopt the policy of non-intervention in revolutions or dis- 
turbances between the Calitornians and their Govern- 
ment, and that soch was to continue to be their policy 
until the time should come when numbers would make 
their -wishes irresistible. 

The second included their hopes for tbe future, that 
caused such an of immigration in the five yeai-s 
succeeding 1841. The fii-st was a policy to be pursued, as 
time sped on its way, while preparation was being made 
for a great event. The second was to be that event, and 
the event to be>ehioved was tbe wresting of California, or 
a part of it, from Mexico, and erecting therein an inde- 
pendent 'lone star State," to eventually become an ad- 
ditional gem in tbe crown ot Columbia. We would not 
like to have tbe reader misunderstand the sitnation at that 
time, or the attitude assumed by Americans or those from 
other countries. They did not come here as fillibugters 
or conspirators; but being vot of those who are the jirivi- 
leged class iu England, in France, in Russia, or tlie 
niTtious of the old world, they consequently all, as well as 
the Americans, felt au instinctive leaning towards a Gov- 
ernment that recognized civil equality, and bad within it- 
self sufficient strength and firmness to insure protection 

nnd an absence of public commotion. They saw no way to 
achieve such a result, except by a separation from Mexico, 
the country of endless change, and then imit.ifing or join- 
ing the United States, a nation possessed of both liberty 
and stability. Their predilections were necessarily in 
favor of such separation from Mexico; in favor of snch 
imitntitms of the laud where liberty dwelt; and in favor 
eventually, if permitted, of becoming a part thereof. 
Having such feelings, they were talked among themselves, 
and thus it came to be nnderstood generally that at some 
time thoy would unite in producing that result, iu har- 
mony and with co-operation of the native Califoniians, 
if possible; without their assistance, and in hostility to 
them, if necessary. The plan of operations was indefinite, 
and, OS far as pei-fected, was known but to a few; to Sut- 
ter, to Dr. Marsh, lo Captain Weber, to Graham, and 
such as those, and by tbcm considered as a matter for the 
future, to be laid away until events, and increased popula- 
tion should warrant its being brought to the front. In 
the meantime they were to avoid creating a party in tbe 
country hostile to themselves, by their non-interference 
iu State matters; and increase the foreign population by 
inducing immigration from other countries. 

One part of the general plan— that, except in tlio San 
Joaquin history, has never been made public— was to 
seize the northern portion of tbe territory, in case tho 
whole ot Upper California, because of unfriendliness ot 
the natives, could not be segregated from Mexico. The 
division Hue, north ot which was to become a " lone star 
State," was to be tho San Joaquin river, the Sau Fran- 
cisco, San Pablo, and Suisun bays. The reosou for select- 
ing this as the line of division was because it gave a water 
boundai-y, and, on tho east side of tlie Sacramento, an In- 
dian line of frontier defense, in tho person of Jose' Jesus, 
tbe chief whoso tribe lived on the up country side of tbe 
San Joaquiu river. This latter was au important consid- 
eration, as be was a chief who had gained, in his forays 
and combats with the native Californian and Spaniard, a 
name, as a foe, that carried terror alike to the hearts of 
both. A knowledge of these tacts were tho principal in- 
ducements that caused Captain Weber to locate his grant 
north of tbe Sau Joaquin, that, should it become event- 
ually necessary tor a separation upon this line, his laud 
would lie within tbe boundaries of the new State. 

A serious departure from the policy, that had induced 
Weber to remain in the country, was forced upon him in 
the manner previously stated in this work, ut the time bo 
prevented Micbeltorena from entering San Josd; and this 
was followed by a more serious breach a few weeks later 
when Sutter joined Micbeltorena and McKinley took up 
arms against bim at San Fernando. 

This had demonstrated the necessity of a definite under- 
standing of what the plau should be for tbe future, and a 
system of communication that would enable the foreign 
population, in the various parts of tbe Territory, to know 
what was being, or to be, done in all other localities, and 
thus in future prevent the isolated acts of a few jeopardiz- 
ing the lives and property of the many by premature or 
ill-advised acts of hostility; and, as soon as it could be 
safely done, to unitedly strike tor a segregation on the lino 
as given. To inaugurate the movements by which such a 
result could be achieved. Dr. Marsh and Captain AVebor, 
at San Jose, on the 27th of March, 1845, about three 
weeks after tbe battle of Sau Fernando, drew up an in- 
strument that, had its true purpose been known, would 
have probably cost them their lives, certainly their liberty. 
A photograph of the document was presented to us by the 
latter in 1879, in whose possession the original bad been 
preserved through all those years. The following, except 
the heading, is the document, with the Captain's certifi- 
cate as to its ti-ue meaning attached: 

An App.utENTLY Harsixess Document, Behind which 


"The undersigned, in common with all other foreigners 
" with whom they have been able to communicate per- 
" soually, being very desirous to promote tho union, 
" harmony and best interests of all tbe foreignei-s resi- 
" dent in California, have thought that this desirable 
" object can be best attained by the meeting of some 
" individuals from each ot tbe diflerent districts of the 
" northern part of tbe country. We, therefore, hereby 
" invite the persons of foreign birth, whether naturalized 
" or not, to send two or more of their number to repre- 
" sent them in a meeting, to be held iu the Pueblo do S. 
"Jose", on tbe fourth dwj of July next. It is considered 
" to be very desirable that Monterey, Sta. Cruz, Terba 
" Baena, Sonoma, and the districts of the Sacramento 
■' should be fully represented. In the mean time we think 



■' it will he obvious to every man of sen.e or «flechon 
.' tliat the foreigners ought carefully to refrain from tak- 
" ing any part, either in wonl or deed, iu any movement 
.' of a political nature tbat may take place m tlie conntry 
" (amongst Native Mexicans.)" 
" Pdeblo of St. JosEPn, March 27, 1845. 

"■W'm. Gulnaok, 
" Peteh Daveson, 
" John Bohton, 
" Geo. W. Bellosty, 
" jAstE9 W. Weekes, 
" John Bacdenbiss, 
" TnoiTAs G. Baihn, 
" Eenj. Welbohn, 
" Danell Milner, 
" Peter Slegabty, 
" GHORGE A. Pergdsok, 
" James Eoch, 

THOirAS Jones, 


H. M. Pierce, 
John Haines, 
Wm. Kntqht, 
Daniel Fisher, 
John Mabsh, 
Charleb M. 'Webeb, 
George Feaezher, 
Thomas Cole, 
GuiLLERMB G. Guard. 

Captain C. M. "Weder's Gertificatb. 

"This photogmph is from au original manuscript iu ray 
" possession, that had, in addition to the objects therein 
" expressed, the purpose of preventing the recurrence of 
" the event tliat had violently placed the foreign popula- 
" tion in arms against each other iu the expulsion of Mich- 
" eltorena from the country, by perfecting a more system- 
" atic organization, the ultimate effects of which should, 
" when they became sufficiently strong, result in wresting 
"from Mexican rule that portion of California lying 
" north and east of the San Joaquin river, and north and 
" west of the bays of San Francisco, San Pablo and Sui- 
" sun, and making it like Texas, an independent State. 

" Stockton, Feb. 1, 1879." 

When the time came for the meeting it was fonnd that, 
for Tarious reasons, the gathering was not as formidable 
as had been desired. It included but few except those 
living in the immediate vicinity of San Jose, consequently 
no general plan for combined movement was adopted : had 
there been, it would have produced no result different from 
what afterwards was achieved in the occupation of the 
country by the American army and navy. But the means 
would have been different, and history would now contain 
no account of the "Bear Flag War," a movement that 
might be classed, as a spontaneous combustion caused by 
a large dose of Americanism tinctured with apprehensions, 
that only attained a local predominance before it was, for- 
tunately for itself, swallowed up and absorbed by the great- 
er force that was, and still is, moving to the march of des- 
tiny under the Stars and Stripes. 

On the 12th of April, Jose Oastro, because of assistance 
rendered in defeating Micheltorena, near San Jose', and con- 
sequent arrest, later, by Sntter, at New Helvetia, signed 
C. M. Weber's appointment as Captain, giving him com- 
mand of the "northern frontier." He did not assume the 
duties that were unexpectedly assigned to him, but we 
give the document that the reader may understand the 
feeling assumed to be entertained by General Castro to- 
wards those of the Americans that had, so recently, been 
in hostility to him. 

Ti-amlationhy J. Alex. Fbrhes, from an original in the pos- 
session of Captain G. M. Weber. 

" Office of General Commanding, ] 
" IN Upper California. J 

" As chief of this office, and duly appreehiting the im- 
" portant services you have rendered this department, as 
" also tlie zoid and good will you liave constantly mani- 
" festod for the security and progress thereof, I now have 
" the pleasure of Inclosing herewith a commission appoint- 
" ing you provisionally Captain of auxiliary infantry as a 
" slight recompense for your sufferings; and in my report 
" of this appoiulment to the Superior Government I have 
" recommended your merits favorably, and strongly urged 
" the confirmation of your commission. 

" The first important matter that invokes the caro and 
" attention of this oflice is the security of the country, for 
" which purpose I shall require the services of persons 
" who will co-operate for carrying into full effect all orders 
'* emanating from this office; and having all couiidcnco iu 
" you, I do not hesitate in selecting you as the immediate 
" agent for this object, hereby authorizing yon, on your 
"return to the 'northern frontier,' wliich is now unpro- 
*' tected, to take such measures as yuu shall deem nocos- 
" eary tor the defence thereof. For this object you will 

" require to be informed particularly ^vl^'^t number o he 
" foreigners actually residing there, were legaUy adnM 
"fo tMs department, what are their l---\ ''f^^ ' ^^f 
" whatever else you may deem conducive to the establish 
" Dient of the security and progress of the conntry. I 
" any of the foreigners who participated in the movemen 
" of Mr. Sutter (in favor of General Micheltorena) should 
" desire to settle permanently in California, and feel doubt- 
" ful of the protection of the Government, you can freely 
" oifor to all those whom you may find useful and indus- 
" trious. all the guarantees they may desire for ostablish- 
< ' ing themselves in this department, and for living securely 
" in the exercise of their respective occupations. You 
" will also inform thorn that the friendly feeling of this 
" office towards them, is already secured to them by the 
" stipulation of the agreement celebrated on the field of 
" San Fernando; and you may assure all those referred to 
" in that document, as well as other foreigners residing 
" on the frontier, that they shall receive all the protection 
" within the scope of my authority. 

" If, after making the above mentioned scrupulous in- 
" vestigation, you should deem it necessary to enlist a 
" military force to take arms promptly, in any urgent case, 
" for efficient defence of the country against foreign ag- 
" gression, or from internal incursions of Indians, against 
" the lives and property of the inhabitants of this depart- 
" ment, I hereby empower you to enlist such force, to be 
" composed of men of your confidence and whom yon may 
" believe proper for this service, to whom you ^rill state 
" the object of this enlistment, and the obligations of each 
"of them for the fulfillment of the duties adherent thereto. 
" Ton may also appoint, provisionally, the necessary offi- 
" cers for said military force, and on my arrival at the 
" frontier, (within a short time,) I will ratify the measures 
" you may have taken in this matter, as I believe they will 
" be effected in conformity with our institutions and my 
" wishes. 

" I have only to repeat to you that I confide implicitly 
" in your prompt and efficient action in this important 
" commission, with the requisite prudence and in conform- 
" ity with the interest you have so often manifested for 
" the good of the country, whose integrity, as also the 
"honor of my official position, are therein deeply inter- 
" ested. 

" I have the pleasure of transmitting you this note, and 
" to oflfer you my distinguished respect. 

"God and Liberty. 

" Monterey, April 12th, 1845. 

" (Signed,) JOSE CASTEO. 

" To Webeb, Esq., Captain of Auxiliary Infantry." 

January 15, 1843, J. Alex. Forbes was appointed Vice- 
Consul for England, and from that time forth the interests 
of Great Britain became an active element in the aflairs of 
California. In Oct., 18'15, governmental dispatches were 
written at Washington for the instruction of Thos. O. 
Larkin, the American Consul at Monterey, and one to Fre- 
mont, who was then on his way with sixty-two well-armed 
men going overland to the Pacific coast, where he arrived 
at Sutter's Fort Dec. 10th. In the early part of Novem- 
ber, Lieut. A. H. Gillespie, by order of the President, 
became the bearer of those dispatches, and he committed 
to memory the one directed to Thos. O. Larkin and then 
destroyed the document before reaching Vera Cruz, for 
fear its contents would compromise his government if, by 
any mischance, it should fall into Mexican bauds. At that 
time war had not been declared, yet the diplomatic hori- 
zon was thunder charged. Fremont had divided his party 
before reaching California, sending a portion under T. 
Talbot by a route farther south, and they were to rendez- 
vous at a point not far from Tulare Lake. On the 7th of 
January, 1846, Fremont loft Sutter's Fort and moved down 
the San Joaquin valley in accordance with the original 
plan. He failed to find Talbot and returned to the fort, 
and from there ho went by water to Yerba Buena, thence 
to San Josd, whore ho heard of Talbot and sent Kit Cai-- 
son to pilot him in; not waiting for the return of Carson, 
he again visited Torba Buena and then weut overland 
to Monterey, where, on the 27th of January, he was pre- 
jSented by Mr. Larkin to General Castro, of whom he 
asked the privilege ot remaining in the San Joaquin val- 
ley for sufficient time to recruit his company. TIio per- 
mission was granted, but Castro refused to put it in writ- 
ing, intimating that the word of a Mexican officer was suf- 
ficient. From that point Fremont joined his command at 
San Jose, and, instead of going to tlio San Joaquin valley, 
moved with his force back towards Montoioy. Tliis 
was a singular act on his part, and is explainod by a 

statement that he found, on his amval at San ,Toaf, that ' 
supplies necessary for the force conld not he pDrciiased ' 
there, which necessitated a return to Monterey, wljere ' 
such stores as were desired could be obtained. TIiih Jh a 
questionable explanation. Fremont was in San JoBeaij 

days before he mot Ca3tro,andiirobably knew whether there 
was such supplies at that place as he wanted or not, and hig 

asking permit to move his force to the San JoaqHiD,atid 
then, without any explanation, going in an opposite direc- 
tion, marching towards the most important military fort 
in the Territory with au armed body of men knowa to be 
recklessly brave, was, considering the strength and feeling 
of the foreign population, an act that justified General 
Castro in ordering him out of the Territory. 

When in route for Monterey, Fremont had halted for a 
time at a ranch owned by Capt- Fisher about ninety milea 
out, and while stopping there a Mexican rode into camp ■ 
claiming, as stolen, some of the horses belongiog to the 
command. The charge was known to be false, and the 
party making the claim was summarily ordered to leave. \ 
He immediately instituted legal proceedings before a ciril , 
tribunal to test the ownership of the disputed proper^, j 
and Dolores Paeheco, the Alcalde of San Jose, anmmoBed 
Fremont to appear before him at once and answer to (he 
charge of holding in bis possession property claimed by a 
citizen of California. The charge was evidently a eoBe 
gotten up for the emergency, the object of it being to stop 
the Americans from their march to the sea-coast, aod fail- 
ing in this to force them to an act in hofitility to the law of 
the country that would warrant the calling ont of a mUi- ; 
tary force to expel them from it. The reply to the asm- '• 
mons, dated Feb. 21st, was couched in language charae- . 
teristic of Fremont, and closed as follows: "Ton will ; 
" readily understand that my duties will not permit me to : 
" appear before the magistrates in your towns on the codj- i 
" plaint of every straggling vagabond who may chance to 
" visit my camp. 

" You inform me tliat unless satisfaction be immedi- 
" ately made, by the delivery of the animals in qnestion, 
" the complaint will be forwarded to the Governor. Iirill 
" beg you at the same time to enclose to his Excelleueja 
" copy of this note. I am, very respectfnlly, yonr ohedi- 

" ent servant, 

'■ J. C. FREMONT, U. S. Army. 

" To Sr. Don Dolores Pacheco, Alcalde of San Jose." 

After this nnceremonious disposal of the attempt to ar- 
rest his march by the civil authorities, he continued liis 
route towards Monterey nutil the 5th of March, when he 
received the following communication from the hand of an 
officer backed by about eighty lancers: 

' ' MoKTERET, March 5th, iS46. 

" I have learned, with much dissatisfaction, thai, in 
" contempt of the laws and authorities of the Mexican Ee- 
" public, you have entered the towns of the district nnder 
" my charge with an armed force, which the government 
" of your nation must have placed nnder your command 
" for the purpose of examining its own territory: that this 
" Prefecture orders you, immediately on the receipt of 
" this communication, to return with your party beyond 
" the limits of this department, with the underslan-iing 
" that if you do not comply this Prefecture will take die 
" necessary measures to compel you to respect this deter- 
" mination. God and Liberty. 


" Senor Captais Don J. C. Fremont." 

Instead of leaving the Territory, as onlered, the ues* 
morning found him bidding defiance to tho Cahforiiis 
powers 'from where ho was fortified in the adjacent moim- 
taius on the summit of Pioo del Gabelou (.Hawk's lefl^'. 
2,200 feet above the level of the sea, with the Americ-iD 
flag fastened to a limbless tree floating out upon tho morn- 
ing air, forty feet abovo tlie heads of sixty-two its bra^ 
defeudei-s as ever marshaled under its fold. On tho sis - 
General Joso Civstio moved out fixnu Montorey with alx^a^ 
two hundred men and a six ponuderto see if FwwiMit«*'^ 
leaving the Territory, and finding him outmicho.1 tasti^ 
occupied Ids time until the tenth in making domoustni- 
tions against the Amerioan^. falling short «lwii>-s "^^^V^^ 
ing rt point within ritlo raiijio of thoir entrf ufhmonts. 
fore starting Castro had written tho following letter lot 
War Minister of Mexico; . 

" In my conmmnioatiou of Oio 5lh instant, I anncu"'* 
" to you (he arrival of a Captain at the head of M> W'f''^ 
" who eaiuo, as ho said, by oi\lor of tlu' lioverunioat i^ 
" tho United States, to survey the limits of Oiv«ou. 1"' 



' person presented himself at my I,eadqn:.rtere some days 

■ k-ro accompaoiea by two individ.ials. (Tbos. O. Lark.n, 

■ Consul, ami Captain Wm. A. I^idesdorff, Vice Cons^K) 

• with tlie object of risking permission to procure provis- ■ 

• ions for his men tlmt he had left in the mountains; which I 
' was Kiven to him. But two days ago, M>irch 4th. I was ; 
' much sumrised at being informed that this person was 
' only two days' jonmey from this place (Monterey). In 
■' consequence. I immediately sent him a commnn.cation 
" ordering him. on the instant of iU to put himself 
.. on the march and leave tbe department; bu I have not 
.' received an answer, and in order to make h>m obey in 
" ca..e of resistance, I sent out a force to obsenre their 
.. operations, and to-day, the 0th. I march m person to join 
" it and to see that the object is attained. The huir? with 
.. .bieh I undert<.ke my march does not l-'-^'t me *« be 
.. more diffuse, and I beg that yunwdl inform 1"« E.ce - 
.. loncT. the President, assuring h.m that not only shall 
" the national integrity of this p.rty be defended with the 
.' enthusiasm of good Mexicans, but those who attempt to 
.. Wo a" it will find an impregnable barrier in the valor 
.. and patriotism of every one of the C-^^.fornmns. Eece:ve 
.. the assurance of my respect, etc. God and Iibeitj. 


" MoSTEitEY, March 6th, 1816." 

Tho American consul at Monterey became serions^- 
alarmed for the safety of Fremont's command, and Amen- 
tosTeue-lly. on accountof his operations, and forwarded 
ett rs to our consul at Mazatlan, asking if any Ignited 
stac ^var vessels were there, for one tobesentmme- 
^iately to their assistance. Commodore S oat received 
twfspatch. and at once ordered Captaiu Montgomery. 
^iihZ'' Portsmouth," to sail for Monterey. The con- 
Tu kept up communication with Fremont, arranged fo a 
sa ling VGSSol to hover along the coast to receive hrs party 
if they were driven there, and then anxiously awaited the 
;;'ult Ou the 10th Alexander Cody delivered to him the 
following communication: __ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

.. My Dear Sib: I this moment received your letters, 
.. .nd. without waiting to read them, acknowledge the re- 
" ceipt. which the courier requires immediately I am 
.. makiU myself as stvong as possible, with the in ention are unjustly attacked, to fight to extremity, and 
.< will refuse quart'er, trusting to our country to avenge 
■■our deaths. No one has reached our camp, and from 
.< the heights we are able to see the troops mustering at 
.' St Johns, and preparing cannon. I thank you foryour 
■■Hudness and good wishes, and would write more at 
" length as to m 'intentions, did I not fear that my letters 
" ^°"1^ ^« intercepted. ^_ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 


" To Thos. O. Larion, Esq., 

■' Consul for United States, Monterey." 

A fear that the letter would be intercepted "'^'^^oubte% 
prfvented the writer from saying. " I .-lU -^aud n my 
I camp to-night, and bivouac in the val ey of the S n 
.'Joaquin without unnecessary delay; for John tril 
xoy visiting it on the night of the 10 h found only 
the' smouUUring fires, abandoned pack-saddles and unes 
seutial camp equipage of Fremont's c^^"- " J^ ^ 
nth they were in the San Joaqum valley, en loute tor 
oigon, arriving at the trading foH of Peter Lassen o 
Dee? Cleek, near the north line of CaUfornia. o^ ^^ ^^Oi 
of March. 181G. remaining there and in t»^« ^^ J'^yj^* 
theUth During his sojourn atLassens a xepoitwas cir 
cltedthat a number ^f Indians had congiegated at a 
ptnt since known as Reading's Ranch, -^^^ ^^^^'^ 
^pen hostilities against the few settlers scattered hough 
the northern country. The surveying party joined by 
five volunteers from the trading point marched aga^n t 
them, and a slaughter took place, o the natives in the r 
ranel eria at that place, of not only the Indians, but then 
quatlnd little ones, a few only escaping by swimming 
he ver. Let us believe, that wo may not blush for our 
■ace that only the Indians accompanying Fremont partici- 
;rtea in the slaughter of women and .cl^'|f ^ ^^ ^J J 
rest assured that it was not authorized by the ofccer m 

"""Su the 3th of May, the command .vas resting on the west 
shore of Klamath Lake, in Oregon, when i^'^if «^1 ^^^^ 
and V Si"ler rode into camp with the news that a United 

Stflte3 officer, the beater of dispatches, was on tneir trad 
and would probablv fall a -victim to tho vengeance of the I 
savn-'os whom ihev'had escaped only through the tleetness 
of their horses. Immediately "the path-finder, at tbe 
head of four Indians, five trappers and the two mcssen- 
cers-eleven as brave men as ever faced an enemy-w»s 
galloping away along the we^t border, of the lake to the 
south, and before night had placed si^ty miles between 
him and his camp, in his eagerness to reach and rescue 
from danger the messenger of the Government. Ihat 
evening, just at sundown. Lieut. Gillespie rode with his 
three companions into camp, and the messenger that had 
been for six mouths and six days tnueling. with the secret 
orders of his Government, at last stood face to ace with 
him to whom those orders were sent. How httle those 
men knew as they held each other's bauds, m greeting, 
how much of the future history of two great nations was 
to be changed, because they two liad met that ».;//./. How 
little they comprehended, as the gloom of night sat down 
upon Uie waters of Lake Klamath, what would Imvo been 
the forthcoming results, ere the morning, to them ami 
in the years beyond to their country, had not the shades 
of that particular night fonnd them sitting by tho same 
camp fire. Long into the night those officers consulted 
and planned for the future. The secret dispatches were 
no longer a secret to Fromout, but have remained such till 
this day to the couutrv, their contents only being known 
from the results produced. At length tho camp was hushed 
and all of those seventeen men wove sleepmg, not a senti- 
nel, even, to watch for danger, when Kit Cai^on. who 
always in his slumbers rested on the verge of wakefulness 
heard a dull, heavy timd and in an instant was on his feet 
calling to Basil Lajeunesse. who was lying on the oUiei 
aide of the camp tires a little way out m the gloom to 
know what was the matter there. Getting no response the 
next instant his startling cry of -to arms the Indians! 
the Indians!" brought every living man in the camp to his 
feet. There were no orders given; there was no time Joi 
orders. Instinctively the trappers, Kit Cai-son, Lucieu 
Maxwell, Richard Owens, Alex. Godey and SteppenteUlt 
sprang together. The Klamaths, at the alarm had in- , 
sLtly charged upon those friendly Ind.ans-Denne h 
Iroquois and the brave L'^i'^^^'^^^'l^^^f .;^ '^"^^' ^^^^ 
heioic Grain a Delaware, was sinking, filled with arrows 
three of them in his heart; as the five mountain men 
rushed to their assistance, killed the Klamath chief, when 
his followers fled and tbe midnight affray was over. 

The morning revealed the trail of the assailants, show- 
in. their numbers to have been about twenty. The dead 
eh'ief was recognized by Lieutenant Gillespie as the Indian 
who, tbe previous morning, had made him a present of a 
Salmon with which he broke a fast of orty hours. Tl. 
act with others, had caused him to believe the donoi 
fri ndly. and had caused him to go on his -'^J "--P!-^; 
of danger from that source. But the body of Uie chief ly- 
ing there showed that had Gillespie faded to-jeachFxe- 
^onfs camp that night, he would have me twi h death at 
Te hands o'f the savages, who had been following dun g 
the day intent upon bis murder ere he morning. Had 
Gillespie fallen a victim, before delivering tlio naessage that 
recalled Fremont to California, that officer would have con- 
tbiued his way into Oregon, and the settlers would not 
t rventnred'upon a declaration of war Commodore 
St would not have believed that he had a cause suffi 
cient to justify him in seizing the country; and Sir Geoige 
Seymou wouhl have taken possession of California for the 
Sisb crown when he sailed into Monterey; and it the 
GoWeu State had notremainedaprovinceofGreatBnh^^^^^ 
nfil the Bresent time, it would have been because she was 
Lrce^t ' ySd it, to' the United American States, at tbe 
eud of a bloody war. 

On the nth of May, Fremont abandoned his mam camp, 
and commenced his march back toward California. Some 
fifteen men were left secreted near the abandoned loca ty 
tolnlrlpt any Indians that miglifc visit the place after 
tLwiaclet. A few hours later the detail overtook tire 
ma n body having in their possession two scalps J«. 
Sore night, the^ldv«nce guard of ten '^^Z if^y 
Oai-son came suddenly upon an Indian v llage. i e j 
chl^^ed into it, killing many, and burned the place, hut 
pa e^^^^ wonien and children. Later, on the saine day 
Chad another encounter with the savages. -^-J^-^ f;; 
TLcuVs ridin- an Indian down with his horse. Kit Car- 
Ton would ha e°lost his hfe. Without further ac^enUue 
son wouivi -n^Ha creek in the vicmitj' of tiiC 

S;t ni^wt^viied by^a number of settler. The^iex 
l^ve of the little force was to the junction of the Tuba 

and Feather rivers, where they were fonnd on tho 8th of 
June \>y Wra. Knight, after whom a landing, on tho Sac- 
ramento river, in what is now Yolo c.uuity, and a ferry, on 
the Stanislaus river, were named. He informed the sot- 
tlei^, some twenty of whom he found tliere, that Lienton- 
aut Francisco Do Arce, General Castro's private secretary, 
had tho day before crossed tho river at his phico with some 
eighty horees. that lie was taking fnun Souoma to Santa 
Clara, to he nsed in mounting men to expel tho Amori- 
eaus from tho country. 

News had just readied civmp thftt Captain Sutter had 
the day before (tho 7thl relumed to his fort from what is 
now San Jonquin county, aftL-r having bad an oueonnlor 
with the Mokelnmno Indians, and had been glad to draw 
off and get safely on his own side of the CosumnoM river. 
It was supposed" tlmt Gem-ral Castro was at llio bottom of 
all tho trouble with the natives. This was probably not 
true, yet the settlers believed it. and tho result was the 
same," as though tho statement had boon correct. On tho 
morning of the 9th of June, eleven iiieu. led by Ezokiel 
Merritt left Fremont's camp in pursuit of Lieut. Do Aice. 
On the way four men joined th(» party, and atbioak of day, 
ou tbo morning nf tlie 10th, the fifteen setllers charged 

,- . . .1 ...1 1 41,^ .1-1, ..hi lllivll' (!llS- 


on lue moriiiuti <" l"" imih, '"^^ ■■■•- 

into De Arce's camp and captured tho whole party. Ci 
tro'a lieutenant was allowed to rolain hia arms and ridi .^ 
horse, as was each member of his party, and to continue 
their journey to San Josl<. but the cxlra horses were taken 
and the next morniug were driven by the captors into Fre- 
mont's camp on Bear river, ho having moved to tliat point 
in their absence. This was tbe first overt act of ho.stili- 
ties by the American settlei-s in what is termed tlio " Boar 
Flag "War," and. its being iilnnnod in Fremont's camp, ad- 
vised by him. starting from within Ida picket lines and 
returning to bis headq-.iartors with the spoils of huccoss, 
makes the transaction conclusive evidence of what wero 
the secret instructions convoyed by Lieut. Gillospio to 
that officer on the banks of tbe Klamath Lake. Interpret 
those iuslructions by their offocts and they would road- 
War will soon be inanguratod with Mexico. By advices 
from Consul Thos. O. Larkin, at Monterey, we are led to 
believe that England is using strenuous efforts through her 
Vice-Consnl, J. Alex. Forbes, to become pos-sossed of Cal- 
ifornia. To prevent the consummation of such a result 
you will immediately incite those favorable to the United 
States to take up arms and declare that Territory a repub- 
lic, such position being maintained, until the opening of 
hostilities between the United States and Mexico warrants 
this Government m openly taking possession of that oomi- 
try Remember always, that until such time shall come. 
you are not, by word or act, to make it possible to traco 
the responsibility of what is doue with ca-lawl>/ io this 
department, etc., etc.-After Morritt's return to camp, the 
question of what, under the then supposed state of aflfairs, 
was best to bo done was discussed, and it was finally de- 
termined to seize Sonoma, become possessed oi the mili- 
tary stores of that place and declare iudependence from 
Mexico. Accordingly, on the 12th the expedition moved, 
being twenty strong, under Capt. Merritt. with that pur- 
pose in view. They crossed tho Sacramento river at 
Knight's Landing, passed by the ranch of Wm Gordon 
on Cache Greek, telling him what was proposed. Mter 
they had left Gordon's thirteen persons came to his house, 
twelve of them took the trail of Morritfs party and soon 
became a part of it. Two of those twelv;e men were 
Wm L. Todd, until recently a resident of Yolo county, 
who painted the " Bear Flag," and Capt. Jack Scott who 
earried from Sonoma to Fremont the news that bloat had 
hoisted tho American flag at Monterey. 

Early in the morning of the 14th of June, 184G. Captain 
Merritfs company of thirty-three men dashed into Sono- 
ma and captured the little garrison of six soldiers and 
uine pieces of artillery, without firing a shot. After 
Z capture, Merritt no longer desiring to be at he head 
of the revolution. John Grigsby was elected to that posi- 
tion. On the same day, the Bear Fh^g was designed, 
painted and run up in place of the Mexican colors It w.s 
fe red that a rescue of tbe prisoners might be attempted 
by tbe raucheros, and it was decided to send them to 
Sutter's fort. Captain Grigsby taking charge of the guard 
of nine men who were sent as an escort, anollier election 
^as called, and Wm. B. Ide was chosen Captain; Heniy 
L Ford, 1st Lieutenant; Granville P. Swift 1st Sergeant, 
and Samuel Gibson, 2d Sergeant, of the forces (twenty- 
th ee men), left at Sonoma. On the 10th, the prisoners 
were delivered to Captaiu Sutter at his fort, General M. G. 
Valleio. Lieutenant Colonel Victor Prudou. Capla.n S M. 
Valleo a«d Jacob P. Leise being among the number. 
Within a day or two after tho capture of Sonoma, theie 


TO 1850. 


occurrea on ,he r»noh o( John ^"^-^'f ^^^SSt 
of Santa Eo».. on. of ^^"\l^%:X^Xir.S in want 
ll„t make, human.lj staMer. 0«Pta» ^ Oowie°md Mv. 
of po,.dor, sent two yonng n>en, ^^"""^ ^°:^„„ ^^ ^-as 
Fowler, to pro^nve it from . ''™' -'^^''^.^X Vey did 
at Ibo time aeting as foreman on »''» ^ """„„t for lljem 
„otret„rn,andtwootbermenwere t°;t'^^^^^^^ 
tl,at did not come back. Themate «as b 

^:n:^r powder and ,.™.ef=^;^^— 


Itl n-islers. but the firsUwo. tb. uofortu.ate Fowler 
ana Cowie. had been mliumanly murdered. 

Tliev had beau captured near Saata Bosa by a party of 

one The next morniug they we tied to a t ee witu a 
Wt where, for a loug time, they were forced to stand 
as u ml ta;gets, upon whom the captors praet.ced throw- 
Ll-lwes Some of those blades of steel-fit emblems 
oAter owners-passing through the flesh became addi- 
tJuSlZu of iron that fastened these first victims of 
he Be. Fac^War to the torture post. T.rmg o this 
pastfr stone°s were theu substituted and the jaw of poor 
fowlTr ;vas broken by cue, when, ^ovfe^^l^;^^^ ^^ 
A fnr flpnth bece UK some person less biutal tDan nis 

IZZ T^^ "^->- -*^ ^ '''-' ^f '''''' '-'i 

none oiispond. Among that thirteeen not even one 
Ts to b3 found with whom the instinct of pity-common 
rjlie human family-Tv-as strong enough to overcome the 
dee to irolong the feast upo. a spectacle exhibited in 
the death torture of those of his own specie. ?oung 
Cow e fainted, as the flesh was cu^ from his arms and 
bJeast. Tbve;-Fiogered Jack made with a knife an incis- 
ion fom the under side, up through into the mouth of 
Mer, through which he inserted a raw hide x^pe. and 
fasleuioc. it there, laid hold of the other end and tore the 
brokeliaw out of the face of the dying man. Portions 
' er th n cut from the bodies of both and thrust into 
S mouths, and thus death coming ound hem and 
ended the orgies of those human ghouls in the.r feast 
Ton mortal agonies. As they died, so they were found 
aTastly spectacle, and buried out of sight to be forgot- 
ten aI sleeps Fowler and Cowie at Sauta Rosa, so rests 
Ssil Lajeunesse and Benne at Klamath Lake, the first 
victims in the struggle for American supremacy in Cali- 
fornia. Will an artist's hand ever put upon canvas these 
compaBion scenes to hang in a State Gal ery as a tribute 
?oThe dead and a reminder to the living that monuments 
should be placed at the scenes of those tragedies. 

Tn the meantime General Castro had not been idle. 
Lieutenant De Arce had met him on the road, between 
Monterey and San Jose, with news of the capture, by 
Captain Merritt, on the Cosnmnes nver, of all the horses, 
aud the General immediately set about raising a force, 
and healing animosities among the natives, that they 
^ight make common cause agaiust the insuri-ectionary 
Movement in the north. On the 17th of June (probab y 
the same day that I'owler and Cowie were tortured to 
death near Santa Eosa), he issued his two proclamations, 
one to his countrymen aud one to tlie oreiguers of the 
couutiT. About the 20th, Captain Jose J. de la Torre 
crossed to the north side of tl.e San Francisco 
route for San Rafael, with about seventy meu. On the 
23d of June, Harrison Pierce rode into Fremont s camp, 
on St Clair's ranch, on the north side of the American 
river with the news that General Castro was moving on 
Houo'ma with a large force, with the avowod purpose o 
hauRiug all the rebels he caught. Fremont promised 
to march to the relief of that place as soon as he could 
mount ninety men; aud that same day. obtaining the re- 
nuisite number, started for Sonoma, whore he arrived at 
2 A M of the 25th. On the 23d, Lieutenant Ford, with 
twoiity-threo men, and the two prisoners, jiakon tiloug as 
guides started on a scout to try and recapturo Wm. L. 

Xodd and others that had ^^Hen in^^^^^^^^^^ 
and to keep the hostile f-^^^y^^^;^;^; "t ^ ranch, when 
Fremont. He eamo upon «^JJ^'J/g jeft the lagoon of 
moving towards San Rafael^ ^f^^^^\'^e._ j^ was early in 
San Antonio, some ^-r mi es in be i^a^ ^^^.^^ ^^^.^^ 

the morning; Ford had but ^^^'I'l^ ^^^^-^^ ,,i,ere he had 
left eight as a guard at ^1^^ ^^^^f °JJ^^3 l^.^a not suspect- 
captured four prisoners and f^^^J ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ttlo sqnad, 

ing how strongly the -"/'^^^^^^^Tfourhund corraled 
he dashed up and captured ^""f^^^^^^ being in the 
borses, before the Cahforuians kn w of i^ g^^ ^^^_ 

vicinity. There -^.^^.^^^j *^ Jcene was like 

ral, and the advent of ^^^.^^f^^^'^J^^^a from the habita- 

tapping 7-^;^^^°;:t 'J:ite -6^^*^^- 

tion, as though a hue of bees w counting, in 

tate; he at once i°'^'\'l^'''°^^^Zn dismounted the 


W leTtL re^^^ made a charge, the rifles emp- 

a?dti: Xr e m^r were added to the nnmW 
those who would fight no more battles. Jh^ ^"^^ '^ 
encounter, and the Americans were victor ous^y.^ 
Todd and a companion prisoner had been l«ft ^^^'"^ ^^ 
the )iouse iu the confusion of the surprise, and made their 
e cape and%ord returned to Sonoma with his prisoners 
and capt-ed horses. Fremont halted but a few hours at 
Sonoma, and then pushed ou to San Rafael, where he re 
maiued several days; and while he --/^-^ f-°^^;^^^f ^^^^ 
tro moved, ou the 27th of June, north from Santa Clara, to 
near San Leandro, on the ranch of Estudillo. with pos- 
sibly 250 men. One of Fremont's scouts captured an In- 
d^n who had a letter from De la Torre to Casti^. tha 
'rtkined a st^xtement that he (Torre) should tha mght 
concentrate his forces and attack Sonoma he next mo n- 
ing iu Fremont's absence. Away rode the Path-finder 
for Sonoma to frustrate the scheme; but no enemy put 
iu an appearance. On the contrary, it proved to have 
been a strategy to get rid of the Americans from the 
vicinity of San Rafael, while the Cahfornians were mak- 
ing their escape by water from Saucilito to join Castro, a 
feat which they successfully accomplished. 

On the 28th of June, three Californians, bearers of dis- 
patches from Castro to De la Torre, were captured by 
Fremont's command at Point Sau Quentm, and aU of 
them were shot by Fremont's orders, in retaliation for 
the inhuman murder of the two Americans at Santa Rosa. 
The name of the oldest of those unfortunate victims to 
the chances of war was Don Jose Reyes Berryessa who 
left a wife and nine children to mourn the unhappy fate of 
the father. The other two were young men, twin brothers, 
named Ramon and Francisco de Haro. On the 29th of 
June General Castro returned to Santa Clara; and July 
1st Fremont, with twenty men, crossed the bay and spiked 
the guns at the Presidio. Ho started, on the 2nd, tor 
Souoma from Saucelito, after having received supplies from 
the American barque "Moscow." Before starting, however, 
he took possession of a generous supply of ammunition 
that had been left with a guard by Captain Montgomery, 
of the war vessel " Portsmouth," on shore to dry, placed 
there expecting Fremont would capture it. This ruse was 
adopted, in furnishing munition of war to the rebels, to 
avoid making the United States Goverumeut responsible 
for the act. Before leaving Saucelito, Fremont had sent 
Dr Robt. Semple, with ten men, to capture Captain R. 
T. Ridley, the commandant of the fort at Yerba Buena. 
The feat was successfully accomplished, and Captain Rid- 
ley was delivered, on the 8th of July, at Sutter's fort, as 
a prisoner of war. Fremont arrived at Sonoma on the 4th 
of July, and on the following day his battalion was organ- 
ized 250 strong. The people assembled there, declared 
their independence, and chose Fremont to take the man- 
agement of afiairs. On the Gth, he started, with 180 men, 
for Sutter's fort, by way of Knight's Landing, and on the 
10th when within nine miles of there. Captain Jaok bcott 
brought to him from Sonoma the news of Commodore 
Sloafs capture of Monterey, ou Uio 7th; of Montgomery s 
hoisting the American flag at Yorba Buona. ou the 8Ui; ami 
the raising of the Stars and StripoH at Souoma, on tho 
10th On the morniug of the Uth of July, Robt. Liver- 
moro carried to Sutter's Fort the same welcome news, and 

the Bear fla^- came down as the Stars and Stripes went 
un amid general rejoicing and a salute of twenty-one 
J.' fi-om the little brass fonr-pound cannon called 
" Sutter ■" and thus was ended the Bear Flag war, by Ike 
United Slates taking the struggle off from the hands 
of those who had commenced it , . , „, 

General Castro received, on the eighth, at Santa Clara, 
the news of Sloat's operations, and immediately stJittad 
fnr Los Angeles with bis forces, taking along ivith him 
iLe prisoners, Capt. C. M.Weber. Washbnme, and D.T. 
Bird having captured them in banta Clara as tliey were 
about to join a company then congiegatmg in the adja- 
cent mountains to assist in the uorthern insan-ection. 




The War Commenced by the Bear-Flag Party Ends in 
the Conquest of Cahfornia by the United States. 

. .t^w™ at W«Wnrt)a want more Tetiitory-The W.« 01o^-(to HMsto I«« 
'"S: tl^^^^ Beg..-B.tU. r.,U-W. ^-."'-t^=--^^«^ 

S?Zlo.lltom,.^n.nodo«Joh.D. Sloat ^-Pf tb.tW.^.^ 
«mua i. ihe E^-He Sail. t. M^.t^rey and aal.t«> the M«i«» f^f:'^ 

S not to Art and fen Oh^ge. Hl.Mina-Honte»rSe,.edandth« A^^^ 

S Fo.t -F— t Go. Overland ^ M..t.«, and JU^ tha m^. ^ 
Ban Jnan with IU Mnnitioaa .1 War-Wb.t B«wUd.«d C.:n.d«. Sb^"^ 
betwea. 8U.t and F«n.ont-8lc.t E«tnsea « a^. ^"^f .^/^^"fr;^ 

Mngton and I^mo.t for San m^^^^ I-- ^ ^f^''";'^ 
La foTsan Ped™-His Strategy "and Its ^-"-J^^'^^'J^T^Z 

L Weber ll>^ bb a Pri«>ne. when He U.^ the C^nntry--m '^"^^ 
„ aTerritoT-of the United State. -SUxiton-e ^^^ f^ f^^^^f^^f^ 

For many years the authorities at Washington had been 
exercising their diplomacy with a view of adding to tL 
area of the ITnited American States, b^ - acquisitimi 
h-om Mexico of Texas, New Mexico and Cahforma--^t 
included what is now Colorado and Aii2ona. Texas hal 
revolutionized in 1835, gained her mdependence m 18^ 
and was admitted into the ^^nion December 29th 1?^^ 
The Mexican authorities were seriously opposed to 
absorption of that State by their rivals of the north nd 
onr Government being secretly not opposed to c U.^^- 
misunderstandings rapidly accumulated :^ft« l^^J ;;^;*: 
until April 1st, 1846, when Slidell, our 'f ^'-^^f ■■' ^^ .^"^^t 
ico, the^ct being in itself equivalent toadeclarat a 
wa;- on the part of the United States. On the lOth^ 
the same month Lieutenant Porter, o -"^ J"^^; ^ , 

defeated near Matamoras, ^-^''='^^;-^ J^^^^j^'^trof ' 
begun. The battle of P.Uo Alto was fou,ht ^-^J^^^^^ 
Mav, and on the next day that of Kesaca de laPahaa ^ 
on tie soil of Texas, our army being f-™^'^^^^^^^^, 
adier-Geueral Taylor. On the 13th o tha -outhja^- 
declared against Mexico by theLuited S^^^^^^^.^^^^^^ 
that the batUe of Kesaca de la Palma was ^^jf ' "^^J 37, 
Lieutenant Gillespie delivered lus l-'^^^^f ^'^ , ti,.t 
Captain Fremont, near the --^^'y^-%'^l'r^XZerri^ 
turned him back with the intention of -^-S ^'^^^.^t 
tory from Mexico. War had begun, but f^^^:^^'^%^^^, 
known on the Pacific Coast. Commodore John 1^^^^^^ 

commanded the Pacific sq^'^^l"-"'.;""^. "f "' "„ ^s he 
.ith private ordei. to -- Califor^jia ^ .-J ^^^ ^^ 
learned of the commencement of ho.tiie. j^ 

wait for official information. Thirty ^1=\\- ''"7;; ■a^ a 
:f Palo Alto was fonght he sailed from ^^-^f^ 
cle.u- sky aud befogged bnuu: not ^l^^'^S ^^^^.ee^ 
direct messf^e, slating that war was in Ij '^^'^^^^^^^j „.ilh 
Mexico aud the United States, but ^'--^»> ^^^'ll^f July- 
a suspicion that such was the case. Ou tV^.mU ^^^ 
Sloat sailed into the harbor of Montoivy .ud ^-^^^ 
Mexican flag. The i.r«,./ >">^*>'"^ ^^''"^^^'^.A^r 
iu that port, and all woi-e anxiously "-/"'"'^ ' ;,^4,! I 
meuts, as tho passing time "MuesUomH ^^ ;^^ ; 
with influouccs that ere many ^1"}-^. l';'-^- ' > '\' " V. ,,„„* 
decide the destiny of Californiu. Ihe "^ »' f ;' V,„^l 
aud passod, yot cavriod with ,t "^^"-V'nU.o" thM ^^^ 
the Oouuuodoro to risk planting th. Hag on M.m. 
The sixth camo and still ho hositrtU>d> wUenjusi j 



. -^^ .^■^■A--— =^^,^^Jt---' 




MnBFnLK.DAM MATTIEA. BV MALGULIVI ■ u^m '""^^^^^ ^^ ,. ,-,^,,.,^1^ ^ ^ 



night ft little sail appeared in llie ofSog, standiDg into the 
harbor. It was a laanch seat from Terba Baena by 
Captaiu Monlgomery, with Lieuteaaut N. B. Harrison and a 
crew of sixteen men, to advise Sloat of the Bimr Flag war 
in the north. They had been fifty-six lionrs at sea; and, 
a,s they moored alongside the fiag-ship, were refused per- 
mission to leave their boat, and instructed to hold them- 
selves in readiness to immediately retarn, with dispatches 
for Captaio iiloiit;j;omery ; ordering him to render no 
assistance to t)ie AmeiJCAns in their iusarrection on the 
north frontier. The fatigued and weatherworn condition 
of the little crew so worked upon the officers of the flag- 
ship, that they interceded for them, and Sloat modified 
his order, so fur, as to allow them to come on board for 
the night. The news getting abroad in the squadron of 
the tenor of the proposed order to Captain Montgomery 
created considerable oxciteroeiit and regret, as the officers 
were of the opinion that circumstances warrauted the 
seizure of tlie country. Bo strongly were they impressed 
with this belief, that E. M. Price, the purser of the 
Ci/aiie (since Governor of New Jersey), determined to visit 
the Commodore, though it was late at night, and urge his 
taking immediate possession of Monterey. He did so, 
was kindly received by that officer, and fortunately was 
successful iQ his mission; returning to his vessel with 
orders from Sloat for Captain Wm. Mervine to notify the 
people of Monterey, that he should hoist the Stars and 
Stripes there, in the name of the United American States, 
at 10 A. M. in the morning. The orders to Captain Mont- 
gomery were changed, and he was instructed to take 
possession of Terba Buena; aud Lieutenant Harrison, 
in the morning, started on his return with the dis- 
patches. In accordance with the notice, at 10 a. m. on 
July 7th, 1846, Captain Mervine landed with Purser Price 
and Lieutenant Higgins, supported by two hundred aud 
fifty men, raised the American flag, took possession of the 
town and country in the name of the Government — Purser 
Price reading the Commodore's Proclamation to the 
people, in both English and Spanish. 

"We append the Proclamation, as it is the declaration 
by which California became a part of the United States. 
The instrument shows that Sloat must have had tolerably 
correct information, as to the beginning of the war and 
the progress it had made, although it was from sources 
not American, consequently not relied upon by him until 
strongly urged. He was afraid of repeating the blunder 
made by Commodore Jones, who seized Monterey in 1842, 
having been induced to do so by false information re- 
ceived, of a war between the United States and Mexico, 
that had come to him through a similar channel. 

" To THE Inhabitants of Califohnia. 

"The Central Government of Mexico having com- 
" menced hostilities against the United States of America, 
" by invading its territory, and attacking the troops of 
" the United States, stationed on the north side of the 
" Eio Grande; and with a force of seven thousand meu, 
" under command of General Arista, which army was 
" totally destroyed; and all their artillery, baggage, etc., 
" captured on the 8th aud 9th of May last, by a force of 
" two thousand and three hundred men, under command 
" of General Taylor; and the City of Mutamoras taken 
" and occupied by the forces of the United States; and 
" the two nations beiug actually at war by this transaction, 
" I shall hoist the standard of the United States at Mon- 
" terey immediately, and shall carry it throughout Oali- 
" fomia. 

"I declare to the inhabitants of California that, 
" although I come in arms with a powerful force, I do not 
" come among them as an enemy to California; on the 
" contrary, I come as their best friend, as henceforth 
" California will be a portion of the United States; and 
" its peaceable inhabitants will enjoy the same rights — 
" principles they now enjoy — together with the privilege 
" of choosing their own magistrates aud other officers, for 
" the administration of justice among themselves, and the 
" same protection will be extended tothera as to any other 
" State in the Union. They will also enjoy a permanent 
" government, under which life, property and the consti- 
" tutional right and lawful security to worship the Creator 
" in the way the most congenial to each other's sense of 
" daly, will be secured, which, unfortunately, the Central 
" Government of Mexico cannot afford them, destroyed as 
" her resources are by internal factions and corrupt offi- 
" cers, who create constant revolutions to promote their 
" own interest aud oppress the people. Under the flag 
" of the United States, California will be free from all 

" such troables and expenses; consequently, the cooutry 
"will rapidly advance aud improve, both in agriculture 
" and commerce, as, of course, the revenue laws will be 
'* the same in California as in all parts of the United 
" States, aff'ording them all manufactures aud pn'duee of 
" the United States, free of any duty, and on all foreign 
" goods at one-quarter of the duty they now pay. A great 
" increase in the value of real estate and the prodncls of 
" CalifoiTiia may also be anticipated. 

" With the great iuterest and kind feeling I know the 
" Government and people of the United States possess to- 
" wards the citizens of California, the country uaunot but 
" improve more rapidly than any other on the continent 
" of America. 

" Such of the iahabitants of California, whetlior native 
" or foreigners, as may not bo disposed to accept the high 
"privileges of citiiieuship. and to live peaceably uudor 
" the Governmeut of the United States, will bo allowed 
" time to dispose of their property aud to remove out of 
" the country, if they choose, without any restriction; or 
" remain in it, observing strict neutrality. 

" With full confidence in the honor and integrity of the 
" inhabitants of the country, I invite the judges, alcaldes, 
"and other civil officers to execute their fuuctions as 
" heretofore, that the public tranquility may not be dis- 
" turbed; at least, until the Government of the territory 
" can be more definitely arraigned. 

" All persons holding titles to real estate, or in quiet 
" possession of land under color of right, shall have those 
" titles guaranteed to them. 

" All churches aud the property they contain, in posses- 
" sion of the clergy of California, shall continue in the 
" same rights and possessions they now enjoy. 

" All provisions and supplies of evoiy kind furnished 
" by the inhabitants for the use of the United States ships 
" and soldiers will be paid for at fair rates; aud no private 
" property will be taken for public use without just com- 
' ' pensation at the moment. 

" Commander-in-Chief of the U. S, force in the Pacific 

On the 8th of July, Captain Montgomery landed at 
Terba Buena aud hoisted the Union colors on the Plaza; 
on the 10th, at Sonoma, the Bear flag was lowered, and 
the stars and stripes run up in its place. The same day, 
Fremont unfurled, nine miles from Sutter's fort, the 
banner that had waved in the breeze at Gabelan Moun- 
tain, on the previous 6th of March, when the government 
of California had been startled into a realization of the 
presence in its territory of a power that was to transform 
them into a new civil era. 

Fremont started with bis command immediately, over- 
laud, by way of San Jos^, for Monterey, after the raising 
of the flag at Sutter's fort; and on the 17th dashed up to 
the Mission of San Juan, located about thirty miles out 
from Monterey, and captured that place without the firing 
of a gun. This mission was the government arsenal, 
where surplus ammunition and arms belonging to the au- 
thorities were stored. Since the time when Jones had 
captured Monterey, the Governors of Caiifornin, not wish- 
ing to run the risk of their military stores falling into the 
possession of some other ill-informed commander of a 
war -vessel, had removed from the sea-port all arms, ord- 
nance, and ammunition, not deemed necessary for im- 
mediate use. Such articles as were at the time stored at 
the mission fell into Fremont's hands, consisting of — 

Cannons 9 

Kegs of Powder 20 

Muskets (old) 200 

Cannon shot 60,00[> 

He had been in possession but one hour when Purser 
Fountleroy,with a company of mounted marines, rode into 
the place, having been sent by Sloat on the same errand. 

The next day, the 18th of July, Fremont and Gillespie 
entered Monterey, and there ensued an immediate inter- 
view between Commodore Sloat aud those parties. 

For months that commander of the Pacific squadron 
had been groping in a mental fog. He had taken com- 
mand in the Western waters, knowing that the meu 
who represented our Government at Wiisliington de- 
sired the annexation of California. He knew that 
war was a popular means through which they ex- 
pected the end was to be accomplished; a means to 
which a strong party in the States was opposed. He 
knew of the efi'ortsof our Consul, Larkin, to achieve there- 
suit by a far different process; the repetition of the Texas 
plan, of first independence, then annexation. That, pre- 

vions to Fremont's'^arriviil, Larfciu's plan was in a fair way 
of producing Iho desin-d result. He knew that those two 
different programmes wi*re both of them being si'riouHly 
iutorfered with by the British Oovemmiint, Ihnt also 
wanted California, aud proposed to hjive Iht, if possible. 
He know that he was placed in eomraand with the expecta- 
tion that hu would act pniniplly in Ihe furthoranee of 
either of those plans that shonld finally bo adopted, as llie 
one best calculated for snct-ess. The question, that to 
him had become a momentous one, was, which policy 
should ho pursue, in the nbsi'nco of any •.crtnin informa- 
tion ns to the one the GovL'rnment had adopted. Ho 
believed that Fremont possessed information of the secret 
inteution of the Washington authorities, not yet made 
public, or transmitted lo him, and that the knowledge of 
such secret iulention had canacd that oiliccr to levy war. 
This last belief, backed by the overlaml rnnuers among 
Indians and natives, that, on dates named batllos had been 
fought, had boon his inward justification for having taheu 
possession of the Territory, and issuing to the people his 
proclamation ; although he had boon forced to take that 
responsibility, beuausa of the imminent danger, in longer 
delay, of the connlry's beiug seized by Admiral Sir George 
Seymour, for the British Crown. 

That interview was, on the part of nil, an unpleasant 
one. The Commodore asked Fremont upon what author- 
ity he had commenced hostilities against Mexico in Cali- 
fornia, and was informed that it was upon his own respon- 
sibility, lu turn, Fremont was told by thatofiieer that ho 
could continue to prosecute it upon his own responsibility, 
as he, Sloat, did not propose advancing farther in the 
premises; that he should turn the control of affairs over to 
his junior officer, and return to Washington. Commodore 
It. F. Stockton, who had arrived on the 15th inst. and re- 
ported for duty to Slout, now asked permission of Ihat 
officer to assume command of the laud forces. The re- 
quest was granted, and Fremont at once reported to him 
for duty; and from that time forth tliero was no hesitation 
in the policy to be pursued. On the 23d of July, the old 
Commodore sailed for homo, and Stockton assumed full 
command of land and naval U. S. forces on this Coast. 
That day the "California Battalion"* was organized, 
and sailed under Fremont for San Diego, from where ho 
was to join in the advance on Castro. On the 28th of 
July, Stockton issued his proclamation; on the 1st of Au- 
gust, sailed from Monterey, took possession of Santa Bar- 
bara on his way down the Coast, without opposition, aud 
finally disembarked his forces at San Pedro on the 6th, 
where he learned that Castro was at Los Angeles, thirty 
miles inland, with a force of between seven hundred and 
one thousand men, and seven pieces of artillery. 

Immediately upon landing his camp became one of in- 
struction, where the marines were drilled in the manner 
of forming in Hue in hollow squares and changing front, 
etc., movements that might be necessary on land and iu re- 
sisting a cavalry charge. Five days were occupied in 
this, during which two flags of truce entered camp with 
messages from Castro, their principal object being to as- 
certain the strength of the invading force. Stockton was 
a stratagist, and he received Castro's Envoys in front of 
the yawning mouth of au immense mortnr, so arranged — 
being covered with skins and bhmkets — as to have the ap- 
pearance of a cannon, in comparison with which the Mexi- 
can ordinance dwindled into insignificance. They were 
further entertained by observing at some little distance 
away, a steady moving force of American infantry march- 
ing in column by twos directly from them over an eleva- 
tion, beyond which they disappeared; that judging from 
the time it took them to pass over the place where they 
could be seen, must have numbered three thousand men 
or more. It was Stockton's three hundred marines march- 
ing in open order with an interval of ten feet between 
each set of twos; but they were moving directly away 
from the observers, iustead of across their line of vision, 
and this little descrepaney was not detected. The com- 
munication from Castro was disposed of by Stockton iu a 
manner that gave strength to the general appeai-ance of 
perfect confidence in his ability, by force, to dispose of 
the TeiTitorial army and authority with ease. General 
Castro had asked a truce until the war was ended between 
their respective Governments in the East, when each was 
to acquiesce iu the result of final negotiations between the 
U. S. and Mexico as to which of those countries should 
possess California. The proposition was haughtily re- 
jected, aud a demand made for the immediate surrender of 

* rrioU-d rpporU by a Comniitleo lo tLo State Senate in 1852 say July 
12tli_cviilenlly an error, a^ Stockton did nnt arrive in Catifocnia nnlil ILo 
IStli. (Seo Appendix to Sonato ProeeedingH, pago 557.) 


the entire Mexican force in tl.e country, npon pam of 
sommary treatment if tlie decDand ^vas not at oncB com- 
plied with. Those Envoys returned to Los Angeles fully 
impressed with the hopelessness of any resistance, and tue 
conquest was practically achieved. 

On the nth. Stockton moved from San Pedro towards 
Los An-eles, with his three hundred men and 8ix pieces 
of artilleiT, and on the 13th entered and took possession 
of that place, without firing a shot. His strategy had won 
him a bloodless victory. Upon the approach of his 
dreaded host, with whom was supposed to be the mon- 
ster gun, the army of Califoraiaus melted away, finally 
being disbanded by the general, who seeing no hope m 
the contest, had himself taken to flight, and was losing 
no unnecessary time in his effort to reach Sonora, Mexico. 
When Castro disbanded his army he did not release 
his three prisoners, captured at San Jose. Lieut. D. T. 
Bird says: "We were separated, and each supposed the 
other had been shot." Bird and his companion was 
taken towards Monterey and made their escape; Captain 
Weber was forced to accompany the general, for two days, 
in his flight, and then turned loose. Castro had feared to 
give him liberty sooner, knowing that with the Captain 
free his own chances for escape were materially lessened. 
The whole country was in possession of our forces; the 
Mexican flag was flying nowhere in it. Fremont joined 
Stockton, who issued a proclamation orgauizmg the terri- 
tory, and recommending the 15th of September as the 
day 'on which the people should assemble and choose 
officers, under his organization. He detailed Captain 
Gillespie, with fifty men, to remain at Los Angeles; and 
Lieut T. Talbot, with a small force, to hold Santa Bar- 
bara; sent a detachment to San Diego; and returned with 
tho remainder of his command to Monterey. Having 
closed the war in California, h^J now contemplated a more 
extensive campaign— a daring scheme— that, had it been 
successfully prosecuted, would have been the most bril- 
liant achievement of the Mexican war. The following 
dispatch esiilains the design : 

" (Confidential.) 


" September 19th, 1846. 

" Dear Sir:— I have sent Maj. Fremont to the North 
" to see how many men he could recruit, with a view to 
" embark them for Mazatian or Acapulco, where, if possi- 
" ble, I intend to land and fight our way as far on to the 
" city of Mexico as I can. 

" With this object in view, your orders of this date in 
" relation to having the squadron in such places as may 
" enable me to get them together as soon as possible, are 
" given. 

" You will, on your arrival on the coast, get all the m- 
" formation you can in reference to this matter. 

' ' I would that we might shake bands with Geneial Tay- 
" lor at the gates of Mexico. 

"Faithfully, your obedient servant, 

" R. F. STOCKTON, Commodore, etc." 
" To Capt. Wm. Mehvine, U. S. Frigate ' Savannah.'" 

The Commodore, hearing rumors of hostile movements 
among the Indians, in the north, sailed for YerbaBnena, 
where he found that tho information was incorrect; and 
was received at that place, by tho inhabitants, with ban- 
quets and general rejoicing. This state of things was 
doomed to a short lived existence; the hope of " shaking 
hands with General Taylor, at the gates of Mexico" van- 
ished, as a courier dashed into Yerba Buena wilh the news 
that he had, four days before, worked his way out of Los 
Angeles, where Captain Gillespie was besieged by the 
Californians, under General Jose Ma. Flores, who had 
hoisted the standard of revolt. This was one of the most 
noted rides on record, performed by John Brown, called 
by the Spaniards Juan Flacco, who died at Stockton, Cal- 
ifornia, in 18G3, When Captain Gillespie found that he 
must have assistance or surrender, this man volnuteorod 
to convey dispatches calling for relief. He succeeded iu 
working his way through tho enemy's lines, but was dis- 
covered as ho was passing beyond their reach, and a de- 
termined pursuit was at once dispatched to captiuo or kill 
tiio courier. His horse was shot under him, and escaping 
on foot, he ran twenty-seven miles to llie raiiolio of one 
fiiendlv to tho Americans, and again mounting, rode Uireo 
hundred and fifteen miles, to Monterey, in three days; 
and, nob finding Stockton there, rode to Yerba Buena, 
one hundred and thirty miles, between sunrise and eight 
o'clock P. M. of tiie samo day. 

The Flores Insurrection. 

to llut or tbe Oalif«.Ua'.-Th« Bff«t of Eccb Knowledge -Tho I^"";" °^ 

A»gol«-Li=n«n.nt TJbot E.«p« «lth bi» Coa^mna from ^^fj^^^nt^ 

Uta-Our For^s IUpal,>»d-F«mo.t B«U. for 8a.ta ^'^^"^"'""'^"l^JJu.J'" 

Hirn^lt Tho«, and Opon, a Ca.p ol In.txnction-Qenoral Zomy AP^'^ "^ '_^ 
Bcao=-Ho i. Dof«.taa, aod .onds for Holp-Tho He«.o an ^'^--^""J^f^^ 
th. Chlof Co..».a. and B««s nnd.r Bto.ktoa-Fr^noat lo.«a ^-t« J"^^-* 
M.«b. to HonUr.7-Ho B.nda D!.p.tch« .0 B.i^r'. Port '^'''^B "^jj^^ 
Co^pad^gofro. lh«ot.Joln Hlm-E=cruiting Sold:m in 'J«J^''''--^"'5^'»^". 

InLj-V. 8 Con^ol Larkin'a Description ot It-Tho " California f^'f'"^^- 
S; me, on lb. anMO Snblaot-rroMont MorcboB .0 tbo ABsi».^« of bU E^^it^- 
Gaptain Charl« M. Wob« «nda HorM. (o Promont by Li^ten^nt Bryant-Tbo Ull- 
rorniB Battalion =lart« for I^ Angelea-liBt of tbo Offi«ra "^^^"P^'^'J,""^"; 
Tbr« Indd^nta of Fola in tbdr Marcb . Pint, an Indian SPT 8bo t, ««.a , 
Don Joso da J«-aa Flco Cc^domn^d to bo E«>:nUd, bnt B^priovcd, tbird, '""Tmlbla 
M.«h down tbo MonaUin on Oirlatmos Niebt-Ob.i^ in on Lo. Angdo»-H<«Hlitlea 
Broak Oat in tbo lUnr of tbo Army nndar FrflndBco Sancb^-Li.nt;»mnt Bartlatt Ca^ 
tnrod-Liitottbo Foroo tbat Marcb to hl« E^soi^Tho B.ttl. nt Santa Barbw., and 
Bnnoader of Sancloa-StoAton'a CommMid.what it Conaistaa of-Ho Moves on Loa 
ADEolM-B.ttb of tbo 8th and 0th of Jannary, 1847-Ha Entora tbo Tow, and tbo 
Flag U ngaia Hobitad tbots-Tha Enomy Bumndor to Fremi>at-Ail!dea of Capllnla- 
tion— Ibfl IninirecUon Haded- 

it the time Stockton captured Los Angeles there were 
a number of Mexican officers who surrendered as prison- 
ers of war and were allowed to go free on their parole. 
Among those set at liberty was General Jose M. Flores. 
When he, as well as his associates, came to know that the 
force of the Americans was far inferior in numbers to 
what they had supposed at the time of the surrender; they 
were filled with chagrin and shame, and Flores, forgetting 
that he was bound by the laws of honor and nations to re- 
frain from hostile acts while under parole, immediately 
after the Commodore had sailed for the north, commenced 
gathering his scattered forces, and on the 23d of Septem- 
ber, forty days after the capture of Los Angeles by Stock- 
ton, he invested tho place and demanded the surrender of 
Capt. Gillespie and his fifty men as prisoners of war. 
From the besieged garrison John Brown, aa a courier, 
made his escape and famous ride. Capt. Gillespie was 
forced to surrender, conditionally, on the 30th of Septem- 
ber and retired to Monterey. Lieut. T. Talbot was 
besieged at Santa Barbara by an overwhelming force, but 
refused to surrender, and finally made his escape to Mon- 
terey. The following proclamation shows that the people 
of Southern California were animated by a bitter feeling 
of hostility, and tiiat something more than imaginary big 
guns and large armies would be required to subdue them; 
plainly it meant ' ' "War to the knife :" 

Mesioan Army, Section op OpEEATioNa, i 
ANGELE3, Oct. 1st, 184G. I 

" Fellow Citizens: It is a month and a half that, by 
■ lamentable fatality, fruit of cowardice and inability of 
' the first authorities of the department, we behold our- 
' selves subjugated and oppressed by an insignificant 
' force of adventurers of the United States of America, 
' and placing us in a worse condition than-that of slaves. 

" They are dictating to us despotic and arbitrary laws, 
' and loading us with contributions and onerous burdens 
* which have for an object the ruin of our industry and 
' agriculture, and to force us to abandon our property, to 
' be possessed and divided among themselves. 

" And shall we be capable to allow ourselves to be sub- 
' jugated, and to accept by our silence the weighty chains 
' of slavery ? Shall we permit to be lost the soil inherited 
' from our fathers, which cost them so much blood and so 
' many sarifices? Shall we make our fjimilies victims of 
" the most barbarous slavery? Shall we wait to see our 
" wives violated? our innocent children punished by the 
" American whips; our property sacked; our temples pro- 
" faned; and, lastly, to drag through an existence full of 
" insult and shame? No! ii thousand times no ! Country- 
" men; first death! 

" Who of you does not feel his heartbeat with violence; 
" who does not feel his blood boil, to contemplate our 
"situation; and who will bo the Mexican who will not 
" feel indignant, and who will not rise to take up arms to 
" destroy our oppressors ? We believe there is not one 
" 80 vile and cowardly. With such a motive tho majority 
" of the inhabitjints of Uio districts, justly indignant 
" against our tyrants, raise the cry of war wiUi aims in 
" tiioir hands, and of oue aooord swear to sustain Uie fol- 
" lowing articles: 
" 1st. We, tho inhabitants of the department of Oali- 

" foi-nia, as members of the great Mexican nation, de- 
" clare that it is, and has been, our wish to belong to her 
" alone, free and independent. 

" 2d. Consequently the authorities intended and named 
" by the invading forces of the United States are held nail 
" and void. 

3d. All the North Americans, being enemies of Mexi- 
" CO, we swear not to lay down our arms till they are ex- 
" pelled from the Mexican Territoiy. 

" 4th. All Mexican citizens, from the age of fifteen to 
" sixty, who do not take up arms to forward the present 
" plan, are declared traitors and under pain ot death. 

" 5th. Every Mexican or foreigner who may directly, 
" or indirectly, aid the enemies of Mexico will be pUD- 
" ished in the same manner. 

" 6th, The property of the North Americana, inthede- 
" partment. who may directly or indirectly have takeu 
' ' part with, or aided the enemies, shall be confiscated aad 
" used for the expenses of war, and their persona shall be 
" taken to the interior of the Republic. 

" 7th. All those who may oppose the present plan will 
" be punished with arms. 

" 8th. All the inhabitants of Santa Barbara, and the 
" district of the north, will be invited immediately to ad- 
" here to the present plan. 


" Camp in Angeles, Sept. 2ith, 1846." 

(Signed by more Utan three hundred persona.) 

As soon as Brown, the courier, reached Terba BneDa, 
October 1st, Stockton dispatched the "Savannah" to Snn 
Pedro, with three hundred and twenty men, under Cap- 
tain Mervine, to aid Captain Gillespie. They arrived too 
late; and landing, met the enemy some twelve miles out, 
and were repulsed with a loss of five killed and six 
wounded. Fremont was recalled from Sutter's, and sailed 
for Santa Barbara on the 12ih, with one hundred and sixty 
men; from whore be was expected to mount his command 
and join iu the recapture of Los Angeles. Stockton sailed 
from Yerba Buena as soon as he had completed plans, by 
which he deemed the north would be made secure, and 
disembarked at San Pedro, on the 23d of Oetoher. Some 
eight hundred of the enemy were there, bnt did not at- 
tempt to prevent the landing, and fell back into the in- 
terior. When he had lauded it was found that the chances 
of procuring supplies were very limited, and knowing that 
he had no safe anchorage for his vessels and wishing to 
give Fremont time to mount his Battahon, he decided to 
re-embark and sail for San Diego, wheie, on his arrival, 
he unfortunately beached one of his vessels, but made a 
landing, and drove the enemy from the place, and took 
possession. He immediately established himself there 
and commenced erecting a fort, making shoes, saddles, 
and various things necessary in the outfit for his army; 
not forgetting the drill that was to convert his mariues 
into land forces. Captain S. J. Hensley was sent down 
the coast, and succeeded in capturing one hundred and 
forty horses and five hundred cattle. 

On the 3d of December a courier rode into camp with 
a dispatch from General Kearny, stating that he was ap- 
proaching from the east, and wished to open commumca- 
tion. The same evening, Capt:uu Gillespie Avas sent mtli 
thirty-five men, to meet the generel and escort him to San 
Diego. Three days later, another messenger brought, 
upon a foam-fiaked hoi-se. the startling news, that Keamy 
bad been defeated at San Pasqnal, with a loss of eighteen 
men killed and thirteen wounded; the General and Caii- 
tain Gillespie being among the latter; and that one of 1»* 
howitzei-s had been captured. Other information followed 
that lead Stockton to believe that the case was not des- 
perate, and prevented his moving with his whole com- 
mand, as he had at first contemplated; but on the .tn. 
Kit Carson, Lieut. Beal, and an Indian reached him. 
direct from General Koariiy, asking for reiuforoeiueut^- 
The news brought soon spread in the camp, that Koarnj 
was besieged at tho hill of San Fernando, hemmed m.o"» 
of ammunition, with provisions nearly exhausted, ami e - 
cumbered with wounded, was standing at bay, mixmn- . 
looking towards San Diego for relief; that the eiiowv 
kept the e.\hausted tioops constantly harrisstHl from f"'-, 
side, and, unless succor .-amo speedily, that tlicy «t>uM 
have nothing left to choose from but to die or ''"^'^"'^j 
Tho long-roll sounded to arms, and tho ivsponso slu> ^ 
tho eagerness of those (tailors to bo led to tho *^'-*^'"^, 
their comrades and llu' dra-oous. Two hiinditnl *u^ 
fifty men weixi solocted, nnd, under Liout. t'l^'J- ' 
patched to the soouo of nctioii; and ou tho uight ol 

Plate N? 5 

Plate N? 6 




10th, tbo Califorfliana soddenly retreatod, as thej beard 
tlie advancing lioof-beats of horses upon the road, a^ the 
mounted marines moved on the gallop march to raiee the 
siege. On the 12th, the exhausted little command 
entered San Diego. Tlie general had left Xew Mexico, 
having conquered that temtory and established a civil 
government there; aud was on his way here, knowing that 
Californiii had been already subjugated, to establish a 
civil government. He had with him but a small detach- 
ment of dragoons, and Kit Carson, whom he had met on 
his way to the east with a despatch, and turned back. 
Commodore Stoctton ofl'ered to j-ield the command of the 
army to General Kearny, but the compliment was de- 
clined, and the General took service under Stockton. 

In the north, B'reraont had found that it was impossible 
to mount ills command at Santa Barbara, and hud moved 
up the country to Monterey, aud recruiting, as well as the 
procuring of horees, to transform his force into cavalry, 
was prosecuted with energy. On the evening of the '28th 
of October, a courier from Fremont at Monterey arrived 
at Sutter's Fort, the bearer of dispatches giving to the 
north the news of the defeat of Captain Gillespie at Los 
Angeles, Lieut. Talbot at Santa Barbara, and Captain 
Mervine at San Pedro, and in the despatch Fremont asked 
fur horses and men. On that day, the 28tli, J. F. Reed, of 
the ill-fated Donner party, reached Sutter's Fort. He im- 
mediately put down his name as a recruit for the war in the 
company that commenced its organization that night; that 
afterwards became two companies, one commanded by 
Captain Burroughs, who was killed on the IGtb, near Siiu 
Juan; the other by Gaptaiu B. T. Jacobs, Lieut. Edwin 
Bryant (afterwards Alcalde at Sau Francisco) and Lieut. 
George M. Lippincott. In this company five men enlisted 
at the ranch of William Gordon, in Tolo county; also Mr. 
Grayson, who lived in a log house near the mouth of Ca- 
pay Valley. Seven men were temporarily camped on Pu- 
to Creek, en route for Sonoma. Lieut. Bryant chanced 
to pass that way, and five o( them became recruits, and thus 
the spavk kindled to a flame, swept the country, swelling 
the little Battalion of 180 to 428 before it had moved be- 
yond Gilroy, in its march toward Los Angeles. 

A company was erdisted in Napa Valley and vicinity, 
commanded by John Grigsby, D. T.Bird, of Yolo county, 
being its Second Lieutenant. Another company, under 
Captain Thompson, that Captain Weber recruited at San 
Jose', was added to the " California Battalion." 

The organization of the company at Suttera Fort had 
not been completed, when about sixty, the total number 
at the rendezvous at the time, left for Monterey under 
command of Captain Bttrrough=i, in charge of some foiu- 
hundred Government horses that Fremont had requested 
should be sent to him. Ou the 16th of October, Bryant. 
Reed aud Jacobs, with what recruits had assembled at the 
Fort since the departure of the main body, started South. 
In passing through what is now San Joaquin county, they 
were joined by thirty ludians, among whom was the Chief, 
Jose Jesus. They arrived at San Jose' on the 21st, where 
thev first learued of the engagement between those pre- 
ceding them under Captain Burroughs, from Sutter's Fort, 
and the Califoruians, that had taken place on the I6th, 
ten miles south of San Juan on the Monterey road. What 
had led to this encounter and its results is thus described 
by Thos. O. Larkin, U. S. Consul, who was a prisoner at 
the time. 

" On the 15th of November, from information received 
" of the sickness of my family in San Francisco, where 
" they had gone to escape the expected revolutionary 
■' troubles in Monterey, and from letters from Captaui 
"Montgomery, requesting my presence respecting some 
" stores for the ' Portsmouth,' I, with one servant, left 
" Monterey for San Francisco, knowing that for one mouth 
" no Californiau forces had been within 100 miles of us. 
" That night I put up at the house of Don Joaqum Go- 
" mez, sending my servant to San Juan, six miles beyond, 
" to request Mr. J. Thompson to wait for me, as he was 
" on the road for San Francisco. About midnight 1 was 
" aroused from my bed bv the noise made by ten Califor- 
■' niaus (unshaved and unwashed for months, being mthe 
" mountains) rushing into my chamber with gnus, swords, 
I " pistols and torches in their hands. I needed but a mo- 
I " ment to be fully awake and know my exact situation ; 
' " the hrst cry was, 'Oomoestamos Sefior Consul, 'Vamos 
" Senor Larkin .' At my bedside were several letters that 
" I had re-read before going to bed. On dressing my- 
" self, while my captors were saddling my hoi-so, I assorted 
■■ these letters, and put them into different pockets. 
" After taking my own time to dress and arrange my va- 
" lise, we started, and rode to a camp of seventy or eiglity 

" men on the banks of the Monterey River. There each i 
" officer and principal person pajised the lime of uight 
" with me, and aremark or two. Thecommandante took 
** me to one side, and informed me that his people de- j 
" manded that I should write to San Juan, to the Ameri- i 
" can Captain of Volanfeors, saying that I had left Mon- ; 
" terey to visit the distressed families on the river, and 
" request or demand that twenty men should meet me be- 
" fore daylight, that I could station tliem, before my re- 
" turn to town, in a manner to piotect these families. 
" The natives, he said, were determined on the act being 
" accomplislied. I at first endeavored to reason with him 
" on the infamy and the impossibility of the deed, but to 
" no avail; he said my life depended on the letter; that he 
" was willing, nay, anxious, to presen-e my life as an old 
" acquaintance, but could nut control his people in this 
" affair. From argument I came to a refusal; he advised, 
" urged and demanded. At this period an officer called 
" out (* * * * come here, those who arc named.) I 
" then said, 'In this manner you may act aud threaten 
" night by night ; my life on such condition is of no value 
" or pleasure to me. I am by accident your prisoner — 
" make the most of mo — write, I will not; shoot as you 
" see fit, and I am done talking ou the subject." I left 
" him and went to the cauip-fiie. For a half-hour or more 
" there was some commotion around me, when all dis- 
" turbance subsided. 

" At daylight we started, with a flag flying and a drum 
"beating, aud traveled eight or ten miles, when we camped 
" in a low valley or hollow. There they caught with the 
" lasso three or four head of cattle belonging to tlio uear- 
" est rancho, and breakfasted. The whole day their out- 
" riders rode in every direction, on the lookout to see if 
" the American company left the Mission of San Juan, or 
" Lieutenant-Colonel Fremont left Monterey; they also 
" rode to all the neighboring ranchos aud forced the 
" rancheros to join them. 

" At one o'clock they began their march with one hun- 
" dred and thirty men (and two or three hundred extra 
"horses); they marched in four single files, occupying 
" tour positions, myself under charge of an oflicer and 
" five or six men in the center. Their plan of operations 
" for the night was to rush into San Juan ten or fifteen 
" men who were to retreat under the expectation that the 
" Americans would follow them, in which case the whole 
" party outside was to cut them off. I was to be retained 
" in the center of the party. Ten miles south of the Mis- 
" sion they encountered eight or teu Americans, a part of 
" whom retreated into a low ground covered with oaks, 
" the others returned to the house of Senor Gomez, to 
" alarm their companions. For over one hour the liun- 
" dred and thirty Califomians surrounded this six or eight 
" Americans, occasionally giving and receiving shots- 
" During this period I was several times requested, then 
" commanded, to go among the oaks and bring out my 
" countrymen, and offer them their lives on giving up their 
" rifles and persons. I at last offered to go and call them 
" out ou condition that they should return to San Juan or 
" go to Monterey, with their arms; this being refused, I 
" told the commandante to go in and bring them out him- 
" self. While they were consulting how this could be 
" done, fifty Americans came down on them, which caused 
" an action' of about twenty or thirty minutes. Thirty or 
"forty of the natives leaving the field at the first fire, 
" the remainder drew off by fives and tens until the Ameri- 
" cans had the field to themselves. Both parties remained 
" within a mile of each other until dark. Onr coiintry- 
" men lost Captain Burroughs, of St. Louis, Missouri, 
" Captain Foster and two others, with two or three wound- 
" ed. The Califoruians lost two of their countrymen and 
" Jose' Garcia, of Val., Chili, with seven wounded. 

The California)}, of Nov. 21st, 1846, published at 
Monterev, says, in addition to what was recorded by 
Larkin, that "Burroughs and Foster were killed at the 
" first onset. The Americans fired and tiien charged on 
" the enemy with their empty rifles and ran them off. 
"However, they still kept rallying and firing now and 
" then a musket at the Americans, until about 11 o'clock 
" at night, when one of the Walla Walla Indians ofl'ered 
" his services to come into Monterey and give Colonel 
" Fremont notice of what was passing. Soon after he 
'•■ started he was pursued by a party of the enemy. The 
"foremost in pursuit drove a lance at the Indian, who, 
" trying to parry it, received the lance through his hand; 
" he immediately, with the other hand, seized his toma- 
" hawk and struck a blow at his opponent, which split his 
" head from the crown to the mouth. By this time the 
" others had come up, and, with the most extraordinary 

" dexterity and bravery, the Indian vanquished two more, 
" and tho rest run nway. He rodo on towards this town 
" as far as his horse was able to carry him, and tliun left 
" his horse uod saddle aud came iu on foot- He arrived 
" here nbuut 80'clock on Tuesday morning, Nov. 17th." 

Fremont at once marched to tho assistance of tho Ameri- 
cans, but failed to moot with tho enemy, and oampod at 
San Juan, where for several days ho waited for reinforce- 
ments. The first night after his arrival at tho Mission tho 
soldiers, some of them, were iittaoked, when sloeping, by 
numerous half-starved dogs that had boon loft behind by 
the people when they ronuvod from tho Mission. One 
aoldioi liadhis nose bitten off by them, and in the morning 
there were some throe hundred of those famishing curs 
shot by order of Freemont. 

On tho 26th of November, Lioutoimut Bryant left San 
Jose en route for San Jnan, to join tho Battalion. He 
had with him between two and threu hundred horscH, 
that Captain C. M. Weher had succeeded in scouring 
for our forces, and had availed himself of this opportu- 
nity to forward thorn. On tho IlOth of November tho 
Battalion started for Los Angeles, commanded by Colonel 
Fremont, under whom wore 428 men. rank and file, includ- 
ing Indians and servants; accompaiucd by about 600 
loose horses for u change. Tho Battalion wad officered as 
follows : 

Officera, Hank or liemnrhi. 

J. C. FnEMONT, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding. 

A. H. Gillespie, Major. 

P. B. Keadino, Paymaster. 

Henry King, Commissary. 

J. R. Snyder, Quartermaster. 

Wm. H. Russell, Ordnnnce Officer. 

T. Talbot, Adjutant. 

T T Mvpna i Sargeant- Major. 

J.J. MYBH9, -j j^ppointed Lieutenant iu June, 1847. 

Company A. 
EiOHARD Owens, Captain. 

^T yj T I 1st Lieutenant. 

WM. iN. LOKEit,... -j Appointed Adjutant Fob. 10th, 1847. 

T. ti- TT „ ( 2nd Lieutenant. 

B. M. Hudspeth, | Appointed Captain February, 1847. 

j Lieutenant- 

Appointed Captain February, 1847. 

Wsr. FiNDLAY, . . . 

Company B. 
Henry Fono, Captain. 

Andrew Copeland, Ist Lieutenant. 

Company C. 

Granville P. Swift, Captain. 

Wm. Baldridge, - Ist Lieutenant. 

Wm. Hartorove, 2nd Lieutenant. 

Company D. 

JoBN Seajis, Captain. 

Wm. Bradshaw, Ist Lieutenant. 

Company E. 

John Grigsby, Captain. 

Archibald Jesse (afterwards of Yolo Co.), 1st Lieutenant. 

D. T. Bird (afterwards of Yolo Co.) 2nd Lieutenant. 

Company F. 

L. W. H,4STiNGS (author of a work on California), Captain. 
M. M. WoMEOUQH (later. Senator from Yolo Co.), Ist Lient. 
J. M. Hudspeth, 2nd Lieutenant, 

Company O. 

Thompson, Captain. 

Davis, let Lieutenant. 

Bock, 2nd Lieutenant. 

Company U. 

E. T. Jacobs, Captain. 

Edward Bryant (later, Alcadeof San Francisco) Ist Lieut. 
Geo. M. Lippincott, 2nd Lieutenant. 

JrtUlery Company. 

LoDls McLane (afterwards Major), Captain. 

John K. Wilson (made Captain in .Ian. 1847), Ist Lient. 
Wm. Blackburn (later Alcade at Santa Croz), 2nd Lieut. 

This company had two pieces of artilleiy. There were 
a number of officers who did not accompany their bat- 
talion ou this march; but were performing duties in other 
parts of the State, as follows: 



S. J. Hessley Capiat- 

S. Gmaos (kneed throagh the body at Sau Posqaal). Capt. 

Miguel Pedborena (a Spaniard), Captain. 

Stgo Abgcello (a Calitomian), Captain. 

Bell (an old resident of Loa Angeles) . . . Captain. 

H.KHENbBAW, lat Lieutenant. 

A. GODEY, 1st Lieutenant. 

Ja8. Barton, 1st Lieutenant. 

L. AnoiJELLO (a Californian) 1st Lieutenant. 

The march south was during the rainy season, and the 
suffering of the troops before reaching Santa Barbara on 
the 27th of December was very severe; and the loss in 
horses was so great that not enough were left to mount 
the command. Only three events of special interest had 
occurred up to that time on the march through the coun- 
try. Tiie first was the capture of an Indian, who was con- 
demned and shot as a spy on the 13th of December, about 
fifteen miles out from the Mission of San Miguel, on the 
road to San Lais Obispo. He was fired upon by a file of 
soldier.s, and, sajs Lieutenant Bryant, " He fell upon his 
" knees, and remained in that position several miuutes 
" without uttering a gioau, and then sank upon the earth. 
" No human being could have met his fate with more 
" composure, or with stronger manifestations of courage. 
" It was a scene such as I desire never to witness aRain." 
"We called Lieutenant Bird's attention to this passage in 
Bryant's work, and he said, "It's all right except the 
" courage part; I saw him shot, and' thought he was badly 
" scared." Thedead Indian had been the servant of Jose 
de Jesus Pico, and two days later his master was captured 
at San Luis Obispo, and condemned to be executed, 
but a pvocessiou of females with covered faces, except 
the leader, who was, says Bryant, " of fine appear- 
" ance, aod dressed with remarkable taste * * * * 
"whose beautiful features * * * * required no 
" concealment," visited the quarters of Fremont, pray- 
ing that the life of Pico might be spared. The Colonel, 
deeming it policy, granted a pardon, and the prisoner 
went free, although he was to have been executed for hav- 
ing brokeu his parole. The third event was the terrible 
march of the army on Christmas Day and night, from the 
summit of St. Ines mountain down into the valley of Santa 
Barbara. Again we introduce an extract from that excel- 
lent joui^al kept by Lieut. Bryant, when accompanying, 
as an officer, the California Battalion in its march to Los 
Angeles : 

" DECEiiBBK 25th.— Christmas Day, and a memorable 
" one to me. Owing to the difficulty in hauling the 
" cannon up the steep acclivities of the mountains, the 
" main body of the Battalion did not come up with ua 
" until twelve o'clock, and before we commenced the 
" descent of the mountain a furious storm commenced, 
" racing with a violeuce rarely surpassed. The rain fell 
" in°torrents, and the wind blew almost with the force 
" of a tornado. This fierce strife of the elements con- 
" tinued without abatement the entire afternoon, and 
" until two o'clock at night. Driving our horses before 
" us ws were compelled to slide down the steep and slip- 
'■ pery rocks, or wade through deep gullies and ravines 
"filled with mud and foaming torrents of water, that 
" rushed downward with such force as to carry along the 
■' loose rock, and tear up the trees and shrubbery by the 
" roots. Many of the horses falling into the ravines re- 
" fused to make an effort to extricate themselves, and were 
"swept downwards and drowned. Others, bewildered 
" by the fierceness and terrors of the storm, rushed or 
" fell headlong over the steep precipices and were killed. 
" Others, obstinately refused to proceed, but stood quak- 
■' ing with fear or shivering with cold; and many of these 
"perished iu the night from the severity of the storm. 
" The advance party did not reach the foot of the mouu- 
" tain and find a place to encamp, until night— and a 
■' ni"bfcbf more impenetrable and terrific darkness I never 
" witnessed. The ground upon which our camp was 
" made although sloping from the hills to a small stream, 
" was 80 saturated with water, that men as well as horses 
'■ sank deep at every step. The rain fell iu such quanti- 
' ■ ties, that fires with groat difficulty could be lighted, and 
" most of them were immediately extinguished. 

" The officers and men belonging to the company having 
" the cannon in charge, labored untd nine or ten o'clock to 
" bring them down the mountain, but they were finally com- 
" polled to leave them. Much of the baggage, also, re- 
•■ inained on the side of the mountain, with the pack- 
" mules and horses conveying them, all efforts to force 
" the animals down being fruitless. The men continued 

" to straggle into the camp until a late hour of the mght; 
" some crept under the shelving rocks and did not come 
" in until the next morning. ^ were so foi-tuuate as to 
" find our tent, and after much difficulty pitched it undei 
" an oak tree. All efforts to Ught a fire and keep it blaz- 
- iug proving abortive, we spread our blankets upon the 
" ground and endeavored to sleep, although we couldfeel 
'< the cold streams of water running through the tent, 
" and between and around our bodies. In this condition 
" we remained until about two o'clock in the morning, 
"when, the storm having abated, I rose, and shaking 
" from my garments the dripping water, after many unsuc- 
" cessful efforts succeeded iu kindling a fire. Near our 
" tent. I found three soldiers who had reached camp at a 

" late hour. , , , ,t 

" They were fast asleep on the ground, the water around 
" them being two or three inchesdeep; but Ihey had taken 
" care to keep their head above water by using a log of 
" wood for a pillow. Tho fire beginning to blaze freely, 
" I dug a ditch with my hands and a sharp stick of wood, 
" which drained off the pool surrounding the tent. One 
" of the men, when he felt the sensation consequent upon 
" being 'high and dry,' roused himself, and sitting up- 
" right, looked around for some time with an expression 
" of bewildered amazement. At length he seemed to 
" realize the true state of the case, and exclaimed m 
" a tone of energetic soUIoquy. 

" • Well, who woaldn'i, be a soldier and fight for Califor- 
" nia ?' 

" ' You are mistaken,' I replied. 

" Bubbing his eyes, he gazed at me with astonishment, 
" as if having been entirely unconscious of iny presence; 
" but, reassuring himself, he said: 

" ' How mistaken ?" 

" 'Why,' I answered, 'you are not fighting for Oalifor- 


" ' What the d— 1, then, am I fighting for?' he inquired. 

" 'For Texas.' 

" 'Texas be d-d; but hurrah for Gen'l Jackson! and 
" with this exclamation ho threw himself back again upon 
" his wooden pillow, and was soon snoring in a profound 
" slumber. 

" Dkoember 26th.— Parties were detailed early this 
" morning, and despatched up the mountain to bring 
" down the cannon and collect the living horses and bag- 
" gage. The destruction of horseflesh by those who wit- 
" nessed the scene by daylight, is described as frightful. 
" In some places large numbers of dead horses were piled 
" together. In others, horses half buried in the mud of 
" the ravines, or among the rocks, were gasping in the 
" agonies of death. The number of dead animals is vari- 
" ously estimated at from seventy-five to one hundred and 
" fifty by different persons. The cannon, most of the miss- 
" ing baggage and the living horses were all brought in 
' ' by noon. The day was busily employed in cleaning our 
" rifles and pistols, and drying our drenched baggage." 

immediately tendered his services and that of his company 
of mounted men to Captain Montgomery commanding for 
service in going to his rescue. Montgomery at once 
accepted the offer, and promptly fitted out a party, 
under Captain Ward Marston, to pursue Sanches. That 
expedition, 101 strong, marched from Yerba Buena 
on the 29th of December, 1846, the same day that Com- 
modore Stockton started from San Diego for Los Angelea, 
Fremont being with the California Battalion at the time, 
in Santa Barbara. 

The following is a list of the force constituting the com- 
mand, that marched from Yerba Buena in pui-auit of 
Francisco Sanches: 

The Organization. 

Wabd Mabston. V. S. M. Corps, Captain Commanding. 

J. DovAL, Assistant Surgeon, acting Aid de Camp. 

John Pbay, Interpreter. 

Tansil .... Lieutenant, in command of 34 marines. 

Wsi. F. D. loNGH, Master, I Commanding one field piece 
u, I and 10 men. 

JohsM.Kell, Midshipman 
C. M. Weber, Captain, 
John M. Muri-hy, 1st Lieut.. 
John F. Reed, acting 2d Lieut., 
Wm. M. Sjuth, Captain, 
John Rose, 1st Lieutenant, 
JULIDS Martin, 2nd Lieutenant, 


Commanding San Jos^ 
Vols., 33 men. 

Commanding Yerba 
Buena Vols., 12 men, 


On the 3d of January, 1847, Fremont resumed his 
march, leaving Santa Barbara en route for Los Augeles, 
approaching it from the north, while Commodore Stock- 
ton, who had started from San Diego on the 29th of De- 
cember, was approaching that place from the south, nei- 
ther of those commanders knowing what the other was 
doing. Leaving them on the march, let us return to the 
North and see what had transpired there, after the re- 
moval of so many Americans, who had gone to the south 
by sea and land, with the two armies. 

At the time Fremont left Gilroy. the first of December, 
Captain C. M. Weber had started from San Jose' to join 
him with a company of men that he had recruited for that 
purpose, and there were but ten men left in Sau Jose' and 
Santa Clara to protect the families of those who had joined 
the armies from those places. The Captain and his Lieu- 
tenant, James Williams, became so strongly impressed 
with the fact that danger and duty both demanded of them 
to tnrn back and protect the families and homes of those 
Tvho were away, that both left their command, that con- 
tinued on its way and joined Fremont, aud immediately 
set about recruiting another company for that purpose. 
With the assistance of John M. Murphy, Weber was so 
far successful as to enlist thirty-three men, some of 
whom were from Yerba Buena. He was at that place 
with his company when Lieut. Washington A. Bartlottwas 
captured in the outskirts of that town by Francisco Sanches, 
who had raised the standard of revolt as soon os the Cali- 
fornia Battalion had reached iu its march a point suffi- 
ciently far south to make it (as he supposed) safe for lum 
to do 80. Bartlett was a fi-iend of Weber's, and the latter 

On the 2d of January, 1847, they came up with Sanches, 
who, with one hundred men and one piece of artillery, was 
about to attack the Santa Clara Mission, where some thirty 
immigrant families had congregated, with only fifteen 
men, under Captain Joseph Aram, to protect them. All 
night the camp fires of Sanches' forces had been seen 
within a half mile of the mission. The fifteen riflemen 
were out as skirmishers and in the belfry of tho church, 
watching for the enemy, with feelings better imagined 
than described. They knew of the fate of the Americans 
at " the Alamo." As the morning came, with a heavy fog 
that obscured everything from view, there suddenly broke 
upon the ear of the sentinel in the tower the report of a . 
rifle-shot, then another followed by an uneven rumbling ' 
detonation, that led the watches to believe that Sanches 
was driving their weak little line of skirmishers, who had 
no force to support them, back into the town. There 
were others, beside the sentinel there, listening— helpless 
women aud children, whose paled faces marked the agony 
of fear, as they waited with bated breath and white lips, 
a something that should tell if there was hope for them 
out yonder, in the gloom and fog. Suddenly, there came 
a sound like the falling of a distant tree, then another and 
another, when the watchman, quickly comprehending the 
cause, shouted from the tower to the listeners below. "Ks 
volleys of musketry— they are firing by platoons." "It's 
Weber come to our rescue witli the marines." Elmer 
Brown, who was that sentinel, in speaking of the event says: 
"It caused many a big tear to trickle down the faces of the 
poor immigi-ants," as they realized the glad message borne 
to them on the air, from over the i^laius, like a Scottish 
slogan, telling them that friends were coming through the 
smoke of battle to their relief. The fog was soon dis- 
pelled, and the people at the mission could, from the 
house tops, see tho contending forces. Au old Califorman, 
at the mission, whose feelings were hostile to the Ameii- 
cans. kept saying of his friends, as he watched the strife: 
"Ohl they can't shoot! They can't fight! !" The eneniy 
were finally driven away, and our forces entered Santa 
Clara, about eleven A. M, on the 2nd of January. 

The following extract we take from " The CaU/orma 
" Star " of Feb. 6th. 1S47, a paper published by bamuei 
"Branuan and edited by E. P. Jones, at Yerba Bueiia: 
"The following particulars of the recent expedition from 
" this place we have received from an authentic source. 
"We believe it to be * * * the most correct ac- 
" count of the movement of our troops aud of the one- 
"my. aud of the fiual settlement of tlie difficulties yet 
" givLn to the public." The article, iu speaking of the 
battle on the plains of Santa Clara, after briugiug the t«o 
forces together, says: "An attack was i">|^?;^;«';'^^;^- 
" dored, the enemy was forced to retire, which thej were 
" able to do in safety after some resistance ui wiiSt^tiffHW 
" f/ their superior horsvs. 

" The aflair lasted about ono hour, during whioli Hino 
" we had one marine slightly wounded in the head, ami 
" one voUmteorof Capt. Weber's eoinpauy m the leg, huu 
" the euerav had one lioise killed and some of their fo«o 
" supposed to bo killed or wounded. In the ovening tJie 

Plate N? 7 

Plate N? 8. 




TT-TfTT?^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^"^ H.A.CLAUSE 










Iiis c 









too I 











* enemy sent in a flag of trnce. with a communication re- 
'■ questing an inter\-iew with the commanding officer of 
" the expedition the next day, which was granted, when 
" an armistice was entered into preparatory to a settle- 
' meiit of the difficnltiee. 

" On the 3d of January the expedition was reinforced 
" by fifty-nine mounted Monterey volanteers. under com- 
" maud of Capt. Wra. A. T. MaJdox, and on the 7th of 
■■ tUe same month, by the arrival of Lieut. Grayson with 
" fifteen men. On the 8th a treaty was concluded bywbich 
" the enemy surrendered Lieut. Bartlett and the other 
" prifioners, aa well as all their arms, inclading a small 
" field piece, their ammunition and accoutrements, andm 
•■ return wcro permitted to go peaceably to their homes 
" and the expedition returned to their respective ports. 
-' Since the above was put in type, we have learned from 
" persons from Santa Clara that it has been ascertamed 
" that four Calitornians were killed and five badly 
" wounded." 

With the capitulation of Sanches there was nothing left 
of the rebellion except the force under General Flores, 
possibly 1.000 strong, camped at Lo3 Angeles, that was 
bein;; rapidly approached from both north and south by 
our little armies. 

Stockton's forces that had moved from San Diego on 
the 29th of December consisted of i 

Commodore R. F. Stockton Commander-in-Chief. 

General S. W. Kea«ny Commandmg Troops. 

. . .CommautlmgMarmes. 

Capt. Turner^ one Co.'lst U.' s'. Dragoons (Kearny's) . . 60 
Capt. TiLoasuN, one Co. artillery with 6 guns. 

(3j , Co. A, Cal. Battalion, M'td Eifles. 

(3) !co. B, " 

Detachment U. S. Marines. 

Kit Carson and his scouts. j ^^^ 



As Stockton advanced, propositions were received from 
Floies asking negotiations, but ^^'^^^Jf^f ^^J^", "". 
formed that no communication would be held with h.m 
ou the contrary, that if he or any of l^-/-"^^"^^^^^^ 
had forfeited their paroles, were taken, they would be un- 
ceremoniously shot On the evening of the ^th of January. 
hoy arrived near the south bank of the San Gabriel River 
aud ou the following morning found the enemy on the 

l-th bank of that stream, ready ^o f ^^put^^rd ^The 
a.e The guns were all discharged and freshly oaded. The 

ommand'formed in a hollow square, -f ^^^^.^^f ^^^ 
and cattle in the centre, and moved owards ^^^fj^; 

On the opposite side, on an elevation of about Mty feet, 
the enemy's Srtillery was placed some fifty yards from «ie 
crossing. TLe Americans were thrown into line as they ap- 
;rch?d the stream, and. under orders, were prevented 
from firii." a gun until the river was crossed. General 
Kely >°th the advance, sent word to Stockton that the 
Softbe stream was quicksand, and the artillery could 
not cross thongh the water was only about four feet 
a p So^ktof immediately repaired to the f ran and 
eiJng the rope, himself helped to land the guos on the 
oppostte side. The line of battle was again farmed and 
?be artillery, trained by the Commodore, so effectually 
sUenced the enemy's guns, that they were driven from 
wld General' KeU started to b-S^3m in bu 
the Californians rallied and earned t^em off before he 
could reach the point where they were abandoned Stock 
Ssl ftwas then violently assailed, but the atta^l= --^^ 
ouhed A^aiu they formed on the high ground, and the 
S y being brought into play, the Commodore sighted 
hsownguosrand the enemy's lines were ^^^ ^r"^^"" 

They made a charge and were repnls^^ 7 *^rl he 

n.en^ crossed the stream and attempted to capture tbe 
stores and ba"ga"o and stampede the cattle, but were 
tZ in oonfifio^n back again by Captain Gillespie and 
thev then retreated from the field, cavrymg tiieir dead and 

wounded with them. Our loss -« If -S-^g^/X. 
having been killed and nine wounded, mat the CaWor 
nians lost was never known. On the followmg day S^c^ 
ton marched about six miles towards Los Angeles finaUy 
coming upon the enemy posted upon the ?^«"^ "^ '^^ 
Mesa He again formed in a hollow sqnare.witb the cat le 
Ses and baggage in the center, and awaited the result^ 
The charge made by the Californians and their gallant and 

repeated effort to penetrate that square is thus described 
in the Annals of San Francisco. 

" It is said, by those who witnessed it, to have been 
" a brilliant spectacle. Gayly caparisoned, with banners 
" flying, mounted on fleet and splendid horses, they 
" bounded on. spurring to the top of their speed, on to 
" the small but compact square into which the American 
"force was compressed. The very eartli appeared to 
" tremble beneath their thnndering hoots, and nothing 
" seemed capable of r6si.stiug such cavalry. But. inspired 
" with the cool courage and dauntless heroism of their 
" leader, his men patiently awaited the result. The signal 
" was at length given, and a deadly fire, directed accord- 
'■ ing to orders, at the hoi-ses, was poured into the ranks 
" of the advancing foe, which emptied many saddles and 
" threw them into complete confusion. Retreating a few 
" hundred yards, they again formed, and, despatching a 
" part of their force to the rear, they attacked simul- 
" taneously three sides of the square. Orders were re- 
" newed to reserve fire until the enemy's near approach, 
" and with the same decisive result, their ranks breaking 
" up and retreating in disorder. A third time, having 
' ' rallied, they returned to the charge, but once more their 
"ranks were thinned by the deadly aim of the assailed; 
" and. despairing of their ability to cope with men so 
" cool, unflinching and resolute, confusedaud discomfited, 
" they scattered and fled in every direction." 

On the I'Jth, the American forces entered Los Angeles 
as the enemy refci-eated towards San Fernando in the 
direction from which the California BattaUon was ap- 
proaching under Fremont, and Major Gillespie again 
raised the flag in the little Spanish town where he had been 
forced to lower it three months before. 

In the meantime, Fremont hud been making haste to 
reach the scene of action from the north. On the 9th, he 
had received a dispatch from Stockton, advising him to 
avoid a collision with the enemy until he (Stockton) was 
within striking distance. The dispatch bore date of Jan- 
uary 5th, three days before the battle had begun. On the 
11th, as the Battalion- was on the march, entering the head 
of Couenga plain, news came to Fremont of the battles of 
the 8th and 9th and the occupation of Los Angeles, and 
also a letter from General Kearny. That nighthe camped 
at the Mission of San Fernando, and the ne.xt morning 
Don Jose de Jesus Fico, accompanied by two of the 
enemy's officers, entered camp to treat for peace, ihe 
terms were partially arranged, and they departed about 
noon. The march was resumed, and the next halt was 
made twelve miles out from the town at the foot of the 
Couenga plains, where the Peace Commissioners from I're- 
mont met those from the hostile force, and the terms of a 
capitulation were entered into, of which the following is a 

California as are enjoyed by the citizens of thu United 
States of Xorlh .America. 

Article m-M\ officers, citizens, foreigners, or others. 

shall receive the protection guaranteed by the ad Articlo. 

^riW«m— This capitulation is intended to bo no bar in 

effecting such arrangements as may in future be in justice 

required by both parties. 

Bittes. then Bryant is m error, ond thej were wiin oio 
with Fremont. 

Articles op GAPrroLiTioN. 
Made and entered into at the Ranch of Couenga this 
13th day of January, 18i7, between P. B. Reading Major 
Louis McLane, Jr., commanding Third Artdlery; Wm. fl. 
Russell. Ordnance Officer. Commissioners appointed by 
J Fremont. Colonel V. S. and Mditaiy Com- 
mander of California, and Jose Antonio Camllo, Com- 
mandahte Squadron. Augnstin Olivera Deputado. Com- 
Lsioners appointed by Don Andreas Pico Commander- 
in-Chief of the California forces under the Mexican fiag. 

Article 1st— Ihe Commissioner.'^, on the part of the Cal- 
ifornians, agree that their entire foi-ce shall, on presenta- 
t on of hemselves to Lieutenant-Colonel Fremont, de- 
°er up their artillery and public arms, and that they 
shall return peaceably to their homes, comforming to the 
aws and regulations of the United States, and not again 
ta^e up arms during the war between the United Sta es 
and Mexico, but will assist and aid in placing the country 
iQ a state of peace and tranquility. 

Ariich 2cf-The Commissioners, on the part of Lieuten- 

n.fcolonel Fremont, agree and bind themselves, on the 

alfiSment of tte first'arHcle by the Californians, that they 

shaU be guaranteed protection of life and property. 

whether on parole or otherwise. 

Arttde 3rc;-ThatuntiU treaty of peace be made and 
siiedbetteenthe United States of North Amenca and 
rRepnblic of Mexico, no Oalifornian. or o her Mexican 
litizenf shall be bound to take the oath of allegiance. 

ArticU 4(A-That any Californian, or citizen of Me.ico^ 
de^ri^-^, is permitted by this capitulation to leave the 
countiy without let or hindrance. 

Article 5(A-That in virtue of the aforesaid articles, equal 
rigltl and privileges are vouchsafed to every eituen of 

Additional Abtiole. 

CicD.\D DE Los AsoEU-s, January 10th, 1S47. 
That the paroles of all officers, citizens, and otliors, of 
the United Stites, and of naturalized citizens of Mexico, 
are by this foregoing capitulation cancelled, and every 
condition of said paroles, from and after tliis date, are of 
no further force and effect, and all prisoners of both par- 
ties are hereby rolenaed. 

P. B. READIsa, Maj. Oal'a Ballalion. 

Louis MoL.vne, Com'd Avtillory. 

Wm. H. Russell. Ordnance Oflicov, 

Joafi ^\„STONio CABaiLLO, Comd't of Squadron, 

Adodbtih Olivbba, Deputado, 

Approved; _ 

' J. C. FnEMONT, 

Lieut. Col. U. S. Army and Slditary Commandant of Cal- 

Andiieas Pico, 

Commandant of Squadron and Chief of the National 
Forces of California. 

On the morning of the Uth, the brass howitiier that 
Kearny had lost at San Pasqual was brought m and de- 
livered over to Fremont, and the same day he ontoied 
Los Angeles, and the insurrection had ended. Chore was 
no longer an armed enemy to the United States in Cali- 
fornia, and. from that day to this, there has been none. 


California After the Conquest, until Admitted into the 
Union as a State, in 1850. 


Stockton, Kearny and Fremont, having conquered once inaugurated war among themselves. No 
ZZ halg a common enemy to fight, they became hos- 
tUelo each other. General Kearny, as we have be ore 
sUted ame from New Mexico with orders. ;/ /<c««W,^^ 
teLlZ on the Pacific Coast, to estabUsh a civil gov 
!f here He had entered the Territory, met the 
" IsanPosqual and.but for the timely assistance 
rmXa::o':rid'havcbeen theirs; therer^^^^^^^^^ 
not in a position to assume the right to ;='vd contioUt the 
cstb ishment of peace on the grounds of ''-'"S -- 
lc\ the country. The Commodore claimed that the 
Tneral con a s t'np no other reason for authority, as 

llLs a condition precedent in the Government. 
::ders to him thai the conditions not havingbeen com- 
pUed witb, the whole was null and void, and consequently. 



California after it had been -nqoered; and tbatlhe cob- 
ditiou precedent was. tbat the country should be sabdued 
not that he «hoald do it. The countiy bemg now at 
;l . ho cUimed to be it. Governor and to been, led^o 
Lume command. He also believed it to be b.s right by 
virtue of his rank as General. ' 

ThiH difference of opinion bad ansen ''^-f •^'^'^^'y "P^° 
the occupation of Lo. Angeles, and Fremont ^^^ J.^-- 
awaro of the fact before entering the place. He was ont 
raTked by both those officers, and the qnesiou became a 
Trioas one with him as to which of them he fouUlre- 
^ort and thus recognize as the head of the Western or P ^ 
cific Department. The one to whom he reported for orders 
would I'o placed in a position to maintain bis ^fP^^^^^y 
by force of arms, if necessary, by the support of the Cal- 
ifornia Battalion. General Kearny said, " Recognize my 
authority, and eventually I will leave you here as Gov- 
ernor-Commodore Stockton said. "You have been 
acting under my orders; there is a doubt as to whom is en- 
titled to control; give me tho benefit of the doubt amU «ill 
make you Governor at once." Fremont reported to Stock- 
ton on the 14lh of January. 18i7. andreceivedbisappo.n - 
meat as Governor from that officer two days later with 
Col W H. Russell as Secretary of State. On the 18tb of 
January, Kearny left for San Diego with bis Dragoons. 
On the 19tb, Stockton also departed for S.n Pe^^°' ^^^^"^ 
he embarked and sailed for Mexico. On the 22d. ^^e- 
moot issued at Los Angeles his proclamation, signing it as 
"Governor and Commander-in-Chief of California. On 
the next day, Commodore W. B. Shubrick arrived at Mon- 
terey, and assumed the title and duties of *■ Commander- 
in-Chief " as evinced in his proclamation of February 
1st 1847. One mouth later be joined General Kearny in 
the following circular order, it being practically a notice to 
Fremont tbat he was an usurper, and tbat if be played at 
being Governor any longer, it "would be at hia own peril. 


!Ib all loliom it may concern, he it fciiowra— Tbat the Pres- 
ident of the United States, desirous to give and secure to 
the people of California a share of the good government 
and happv civil organization enjoyed by the people of the 
United States, and to protect them at the same time from 
the attacks of foreign foes, and from internal commotions, 
has invested the undersigned with separate and distinct 
powers, civil and military, a cordial co-operation m the 
exercise of which, it is hoped and believed, will have the 
happy result desired. 

To the Commander-in-OhiBf of the Naval Forces, the 
President has assigned the regulations of the import 
trade— the conditions on which vessels of all nations, our 
own as well as foreign, may be admitted into the ports of 
the Territory, and the establishment of all port regulations. 

To the commanding military officer, the President has 
assigned the direction of the operations on land, and has 
invested him with administrative functions of government 
over the people and territory occupied by the forces of the 
United States. 

Done at Monterey, Capital of California, this Ist day of 

March, 1847. 

"W. Bradford Shddrick, 

Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces. 

S. W. Kearny, 
Brigadier-General U. S. A. and Governor of California. 

On the same day Kearny issued the following proclama- 
tion as Governor, in which he ignored the existence of the 
Treaty of Couenga and notified the Californians that 
they were citizens of the United States and were ab- 
solved from their allegiance to Mexico. 

Proclamation to the People of California. 

The President of the United States, having instructed 
the undersigned to take charge of the Civil Government of 
California, he enters upon his duties with an ardent desire 
to promote, as far as be is able, the interests of the 
country and the welfare of its inhabitants. 

The undersigned has instructions from the President 
to respect and protect the religious institutions of Cal- 
ifornia, and to see tbat the religious rights of the people 
are in the amplest manner preserved to them, the Con- 
stitution of the United States allowing every man to wor- 
ship his Creator in such a manner as his own conscience 
may dictate to him. 

The undersigned is also instructed to protect the per- 
sons and property of the quiet and peaceable inhabitants 
of the country against all or any of their enemies, whether 

from abroad or at home; and ^hen he now assures the 
CaTfo™;::' that it will be his duty and pleasure to com 
plv with those instructions, be calls upon the m all to exert 
themselves in preserving order and ^t^-^^'l;'^; '" ^""^ 
moting harmony and concord, and in maintaming the 
authoiitv and efficiency of the law. , „, , 

It is the wish and desigu of the United Slates to y o^ 
vide for Califoi-nia. with the least possible ^^.f J- "^ ^^^^ 
government, similar to those in her other *-- -;-• ^^ 
the people will soon be called upon to tl>er rights 
OS freemen in electing their own representatives to make 
such laws as may be deemed best for heir interest and 
welfare. But. until this can be done, the laws now in ex- 
istence, and not in conflict with the Constituticn of the 
United States, will be continued until changed by coni- 
petent authority; and those persons who hold office wiU 
continue in the same for the present, provided they 
swear to support the Constitution and to faithfully pei- 

form their duty. ■ i L-i. i 

The undersigned hereby absolves all the inhabitants 

of California from any further allegiance to the E^pubhc 

of Mexico, and will consider them as citizens of the Lmted 

, States. Those who remain quiet and peaceable will be re- 

! spected in their rights and protected in them. Should 

' any t^ke up arms against, or oppose the CTOvemment of 

this Territory, or instigate others to do so, they will be 

considered as enemies, and treated accordingly. 

When Mexico forced war upon the United States, time 
did not permit the latter to invite the Californians as 
friends to join her standard, but compelled her to take 
possession of the country to prevent any European Power 
from seizing upon it, and, in doing so, some excesses 
and unauthorized acts were no doubt committed by per- 
sons employed in the service of the United States, by 
which a few of the inhabitants have met with a loss of 
property. Such losses will be duly investigated, and 
those entitled to remuneration will receive it. 

California has for many years suffered greatly from 
domestic troubles. Civil wars have been the poison 
fouutains which have sent forth trouble and pestilence 
over her beautiful land. Now those fountains are dried 
up, the star-spangled banner floats over California, and 
as long as the sun continues to shine upon her, so long 
will it float there, over the natives of the land as well 
as others who have found a home in her bosom; and, 
under it, agriculture must improve, and the arts and 
sciences flourish, as seed in a rich and fertile soil. 

The Americans and Californians are now but one peo- 
ple. Let us cherish one wish, one hope, and let that be 
for the peace and quiet of our country. Let ns, us a 
band of brothers, unite and emulate each other in our 
exertions to benefit and improve this beautiful, and. 
which soon must be, our happy and prosperous home. 

Done at Monterey, Capital of California, this 1st day 
of March, A. D. 1847, and in the seventy-first year of In- 
dependence of the United Slates. 

eral Kearny for the East, overland, a prisoner. He was 
tried at Fortress Monroe, and convicted by a militarj- 
court-martial, of having been guilty of mutiny, disobe- 
dience and disorderly conduct, and was sentenced to for- 
feit bis commission iu the army. Tim president approved 
the finding of the court, but ordered him on duty again. 
This he declined, and abandoned the military 8er\'ice. \ 
few j-ears later be narrowly escaped being made President 
of the United States, because of the opinion that had 
become rooted in the minds of the people, that be had, 
through jealousy, been made a victim by his superiors ia 
rank, because of his justly-earned fame iu the acquisition 
of California. At present (1879), he is Governor of 

S. W. Kearny, 
Brigadier-General U. S. A. and Governor of Oaliforuia. 

Lieut. E. Bi7ant records that "The proclamation of 
General Kearny gave great satisfaction to the native as 
well as the immigrant population of the country." That 
was probably true as regarded the immigrants and some 
of the natives, but, as to a majority of Californians, it 
was not correct. They had been forced to surrender 
upon agreed conditions, signed at Couenga, and those 
conditions had been ignored. It was a breach of faith, 
and they were justifiable in doubting the integrity of 
those into whose bauds they had fallen. 

On the 11th of March, orders reached Fremont, that 
satisfied him of the intentions on the part of the homo 
government to sustain neither Commodore Stockton or 
himself. He received orders to either disband the Cali- 
fornia Battalion or muster it into the United States 
service; and that force refused to be mustered, and asked 
for their pay. Fremont immediately visited Kearny, at 
Monterey, to see if his men could be paid; and was 
ordered to return and ship by water such of his command 
to Monterey as would not muster, and to follow it by land. 
Upon Fremont's return to Los Angeles, he found tbat 
Colonel P. St. George Cook, of the Mormon Battalion 
bad arrived during lus absence and demanded possession 
of bis artillery; the demand not having been complied 
with. Colonel B. B. Masou (afterwards governor), visited 
Los Angeles, with the intention of mustering out or into 
the United States service the Battalion. He was followed 
early in May by General Kearny, when Fremont yielded 
to the pressure, and on May 31st, 1847, started with Gen- 

With Fremont's departure, dissentions censed; and 
Colonel R. B. Masou* of the Isfc United States dragoons 
assumed the duties of Governor, with W. T. Sherman (now 
one of the World's great captains), ashis Adjutant-Geuornl, 
and H. W. Halleck (the late commanding general of the 
United States army), as Secretary of State. 

The administration of Governor Mason commenced 
May 31st, 1847, and ended April 13th. 1849. It was, 
therefore, during his administration, tbat gold was dis- 
covered at Coloma, on the 19th of January, 1848. 
Fourteen days later, a treaty was made between tho 
United States and Mexico, that gave to the former 
the territory of California and New Mexico, for which 
the United States Government paid that country $15,000.- 
000, besides assuming an indemnity debt of 53,500,000, 
tbat Mexico owed citizens of our republic. Neither of tho 
contracting parties knowing at the time of the discovery 
of gold. 

This was not the first known of the royal metals on this 
coast, for as early as 1802 silver is reported to have been 
discovered at Alizal, in Monterey county. "We have given 
in this volume the letter of Thomas Sptague regarding 
the discovery of gold, by Jedediah S. Smith, in 1825. 
between Mono and Salt Lake. In 1828, that metal whs 
found at San Isidor, in San Diego couuty, and in 1833 
was also discovered on the west border of what is now 
Santa Clara county. In the fall of 1841 , a Canadian French- 
man discovered placers about forty-five miles north-east 
from Los Angeles; and they were worked until 1848, 
yielding about six thousand dollars per year. In 1842, 
Professor Dana, who accompanied the Wilkes expedition 
us Geologist, in naming the places where he believed gold 
existed, mentioned "California, between the Sierra Se- 
vadas and theSacramento and San Joaquin rivers." In 
1843, Dr. Siindels. a Swede of culture aud extensive ex- 
perience in gold mining, in South America, visited Sutter 
at hia fort, and was induced by the captain to make a 
short excursion up the Sacramento river, as far as the 
present town of Chico, with the purpose of discovering 
any indications, tbat might exist in the country, of gold. 
He gave it as his opinion, that, "judging from the Butte 
mountains, I believe there is gold in the country, hut do 
not think there will ever bo enough found to pay for the 

In the report of J. Boss Browne on the mineral re- 
sources of the States and Temtories, west of the Eock)- 
mountains, occurs the following: "The existence of gold 
" in California was known long before the acquisition of 
" that territory by the United States. Placers had long 
" been worked on a limited scale by the Indians; but the 
" priests who had established the missionary settlements, 
*■ knowing tbat a dissemination of the discoveries thus 
" made would frustrate their plans for the conversion of 
" the aboriginal races, discouraged by all means in their 
" power tho prosecution of this pursuit, and in some in- 
" stances suppressed it by force. As early as December, 
"1843 however, Manuel Castanares. a Mexican officer, 
" made strenuous efibrts to arouse the attention of the 
Mexican Government to the importance of this great 

General Bidwell came near making the great gold dis- 
covery iu 1844; that was reserved by fortune or fate four 
years later, that the name of James W. Marshall migUt 
be fastened upon the world's history forever. The Gene- 
ral, when in charge of the "Hock Farm," had in his em- 
ploy as vaquero. a Mexican who was somewhat acquaintea 
-with placer mining in bis own country. When ranging for 
cattle in the foot-hills, be discovered in a canon some 
black sand aud other unquestionable signs of the precious 
metttl, aud on his return reported the disc overy J o^ 

•Cnloiiol Unaou died of Cholera iu St. Louis, in 1819. aud bis wiaoiv 
ninined Gcnernl D. 0. Boell. auA is low living iu Kculueky. 


D£ pi/r&ca Pu&s.F. 



KTM* r wtu'iy.^t'-^-J^ 




General, who accompaDied bira to the place on the north 
Mi.le of Bear Biver. Pojntiug oat to him the varions in- 
(licatioKB, he uiformcd hi» employer that to separate the 
i-.M from the accompanyiug earth, or sand, rctjotrea a 
h'l/fa; uuil to get Hnch a machine would necessitate a trip 
t., Mexieo. Mr. Bidwell not having sufficieut means to 
warrant the expense of «a<:h a trip, theyconcloae.l to keep 
the matter a wert^t until snch time as tof-etlier they oonld 
visit Mexico aud procure the indispensable contrivance. In 
the Hpring of 1«^5. the vaquero was tilled and with him 
the project of gohl discovery by General Bidweli. Had 
he known that mvstcrious device called a Ontca waa con- 
structed \u the bewilderins form of a milk-pan, and that 
such a pan, orau old-fashioned butter bowl, was to all in- 
tents and purposes a (-alea, gold would have been dis- 
covered four years earlier than it was. In that event 
it would have been General Bidv.ell instead of Marshall 
who would have introduced to the world the reality of the 
trolden fables hantled down from past centuries regaidrng 
the laud of (Juivera-California. Thi^o hundred years 
a..„ it was believed that a powerful king reigned here 
called Tatara^us, who was amply provided with riches 
from his exliaustless royal mines. 

James W. Marshall was a Mormon meraher of the Cali- 
fornia Battalion, and when that command disbanded, after 
wa had ceased, he returned to Sutter s Port, from where 
, L had joined Vremont to aid the Flag party. Soon 
after hs return lie made an excursion up he Amencn 
ad south fork of that river to a place calkd -Cn loomah 
by the Indians, and now known as Caloma, where he o. ind 
'\hc water power was abundant and the surroumling hi U 
I .. fnrnished timber in apparently inexhaustible qimuti- 
« ties " Deeming tlio locality favorable 
be decided that it would be the proper 
place to locate a saw mill. He then re- 
turned to New Helvetia, where, about 
August 19th, 1847, articles of agreement 
were entered into between himself and 
General Sutter that made them partners 
in the erection of the proposed mill at 
Coloma. Satter wns to fui;a..h the 
money, Marshall to superintend the con- 
struction and run it when finished. On 
the 28th ot the same month MarslialL 
started from the tort with men and an 

outfit for the prosecution of the en cr- 
prise, and in January, five months later, 
Lad so far progressed with the work as 

to have nearly completed the construc- 
tion of the building and a tad-race that 
was to conduct the water away after pass- 
in- the mill wheel. To do this he had 
fi^st cut a small ditch to give direction 
to the water, and then at mght -onld ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^Ue 

and let out the flood that in ' « -P^ ^^ ^^ ^^trnofhing 
i mud and saud, carrying it out nto the u.e ^^^^ ^^^^.^^^ 
but a stony bed was left lu the aay 
under charge of Peter L Werner ^^-^J ^^^^^^^ ,f j,„. 
stones; and thus the work went on untd the 
uavy, 18i8. 

The following account of the gold d-overy^is ^^J^^^ 
fvom "The life oud adventures of ^^"^^^ 7" ^.^ ''' ^v 
trdiscoverer. published by hi^elf, and wnU by 
George P. Parsons, in 1870: '* ^% "^^.^Pl^^:!^, 
.. .nost importaut event, not only in the Ufa of Marshall 
.. but in the history of California, and as -^^^^ZZ 
.. statements have been made and P^^^^^'^^ ;„■:, i'L^a 
"time coucerning the manner of t^^.^ f ^* '^"^^ f^^ ,,,. 
" as attempts have been made to foist a ^F" ^^^^ .^ ^^ 
.. ever upon the public, we deem i ^\'f2ZTS^So^ 
" details with such minuteness -^f^ ^'^^ ^'^;'' '' 
" the events appears to demand and to war.ant. 

-. The names of the men who were tUe.Jorking^t he, and who, if living, «- -^^^-^^^^ L ^^-ei- 
.. of this narrative, are -^^'^^^'^^^^J^': ,,rStephens, 
..William, Ja">«^13^^■S«^'^^H\;^%^^^^ (the 
..James Browu. Wm. J^^'^-.^J^^ ,:\j:W; with 
'■ latter afterwards moved to Salt Lake, to„e 
.. Cwn. Stephens and Barge^e and^became au EUUr 
1 " the Mormon Church.) Marshall 

.. Oa Ibe moruing of tW "--"'^^V ^^'a^d-Itt 
., ,ve„t out as usual to ■>°l«'"'""f ''j'^Ty/g off the 

•* Tioosly entertained the idea that there might be min- 
" erals in the mountains, and had expressed it to Sutter. 
" who, howeror, ooly iaaghed at him. 

" Od this occasion, having strolled to the lower end of 
" the race, he stood for a moment examining the mass of 
" debris that had been washed down, and. at this )unc- 
■• ture, his eve caught the glitter of something that lay 
" lodged in a crevice, on a riffle of soft granite, some six 
" inches under water. His first act was to stoop and pick 
" ap the subsbince. K was heavy, of a peculiar color, 
'■ and unlike anvthing he had seen in the stream before. 
" For a few minutes he stood with it in his hand, roflect- 
" ing and endeavoring to recall all that he had heard or 
" read concerning the various minerals. After a close ex- 
" amination, he became satisfied that what he held m his 
" hand must bo one ot three substances-mica, sulphnrot 
" of copper, or gold. The weight assured him that it was 
"not mica. Could it be sulpburet of copper? He re- 
" membered that that mineral is brittle, and that gold is 
" raallsable. and, as this thonglit passed through his mind, 
" he turned about, placed the specimen npon a flat stone, 
" and proceeded to test it by striking it with another 
" The substimco did not cracker ilako off ; it simply bent 
" under the blows. This, then, was gold, and, in ^this 
" manner, was the first gold found in California. 
" The discoverer proceeded with his work ns usual, after 
'■ showing the nugget to his men and indulging m a few 
"coniectures concerning the probable extent of the gold 
'■ fields. As a matter ot course, he watched closely from 
" time to time for further developments, and, in the course 
" of a few days, had collected several ounces of the pre- 
" cious metal. 

" Although, however, he w.s satisfied in his own mind 
■• that it was gold, there were some who were skeptical. 
.. ': as he had no means of testing it ^-iea iy e de- 
.. termined to take some down to his partner at tlie foit 
"llTLethe question finally decided, ^-^^-fj^ 
" after the discovery it became necessary foi him togoue 
" bw for Sutter had failed to send asupply of provisions 


. . ;,.! at. office, an.l Frocee.lea to >„qu,re .uto l^e -use o 

■ rngbeentiispaiLi. o ^^^^^^ ^^ 

. Satter inquu;ed whether thej-e J .^ ^^^^^^^ 

" (aiDish) and a pair of small scales or balances having 
.' been obtained. Marshall proceeded to weigh the dust. 
" first in the air and then in two howls of water. iUe ex- 
" periment re-suUed as ho had fowseen. The dust went 
" down, the coin rose lightly up. Sutter g;m>d and Im 
•■ doubts faded, and a snhsciuent test w.Ui the acid 
" which, bv this time, had arrived, settled the question 
" 6»allv Thou the excitement began to spread, butter 
" know well the value of the discovory, and in a short 
" time having made hurried arrangements at tlio fort, he 
" relumed with Marshall to Coloma. to see for himself the 
" wonder that had beim reported to him." 

The following, from the "Memoirs of General W. T. 
Shoi-mnn." would indicate that Marshall w..s not so exces- 
sively cool about the disi-ovcry as would appear froiu his 
own account: " Captain Sutter hiniadf related to me Mar- 
" shall-s account, saying that, ns he sat in hw room at the 
" fort one day in rebruary or March, IHIS. a k.ioek was 
" heard at his door, and he called ont, ' Come in. In 
" walked Marshall, who was a half crazy man nt best, 
" but then looked strangely wild. * What is the laaHor, 
" Marshall?' Marshall iuquircd if any one was within 
" bearin" and began to peer about the room, and looked 
" nnderUio bed. when, fearing that some calamity 
" had befallen the parly up at the saw-mill, and that Mi.r- 
" shall was really crazv. began to make hm way to t lio 
" door, demanding of Marshall to explain what was the 
" matter. At liftt ho revealed his diseoveiy. and laid be- 
" fore Captain Sutter the pL-lliclcs of gold he Imd picked 
" up in the ditch. At first Sutter attached but httlo im- 
" nortauce to the discovery, and told Marshall to go back 
.. to the mill and say nothing of what ho had seen to his 
" family or any one else. Yet, as it 
" might add value to the location, ho 
" dispatched to our heailquartcrs in 
" Monterey, tis I have already related, 
" the two men with written application 
" for a pre-emption to the tpinrter aoo- 
" tioii of hind at Coloma." 

,In Tiithill's History, wo find it record- 
ed that "Peter \'. Werner claims that 
" he was with Marshall when the first 
" piece of tho ' yellow stufi' was picked 
" np. It was a pebble weighing six 
" pennyweights and eleven grains. Mar- 
" shall gave it to Mrs. Werner, and asked 
" her to boil it in saleiatus- water and 
" see what came of it. As she was 
" making soap at tho Urac, she pitched 
" it iuto the soap-kettlo. About twonty- 
" four hours afterwards it was fished out 
" and found all tho brighter for ita 
" boiling." 
On the aamo subject, tho old pioneer General J. A. Sntr 
ter whose name is dear to all the early settlers, made the 
following entries iu his journal at the time, which we give 
verbatim as published in the Argomid: "January 28th, 
" 1848 Marshall arrived iu the evening- It ^^^^ i-'^io'^g 
" very heavy, but he told mo that he came on important bns- 
" ness After wo was alone in a private room, he showed 
" me tho first specimens of is he was not cer- 
" tain if it was gold or not, but he though i might be; 
"immediately I made the poof and found fhat .t was 
- Gold I told him even that most ot all is 23-Carat 
.' Gold; he wished that I should come up Mith him im- 
" mediately, but I told him that I have to give first my 
" orders to the people in all my factories and shops 

"February Ist-Lelt for the Sawmill attended by a 
" Baquero [oiimpio); was absent 2d 3d. 4th, and 5tli^ 
"I olamined myself everything and picked np a few 
" Specimens of Gold myself in the tailrace o theSawmi 1 
" this Geld and others which Marshall and some of tl e 
..other laborers gave to me (it was ro7\ -;"•« ^ 
" 1 employ and Wages.) I told them tliat I would 
.. r'in=. got made of it so soon as a Go dsmith would 
" be here I had a talk with my employed people all at 
^-the Sawmill, I told them that as they do know now 
.' that this Metal is Gold, I wished that they would do me 
" the -reat favor and keep it secret only {fi weeks be- 
" cans: my large Plour Mill at Brighton would have been 
.. Operatioir in suc-h a time, which nndertakmg would 
"L-e been a fortune tome, and unfortanately the peo- 
" Te would not keep it secret, and so I lost on this Mill, 
" at the lowest calculation about ?25,000. _ 

Inr.brnary, General Bidwell took some specimens to 
San Francisco and a man by the name of Isaac Hum- 
nhrey seeing them, pronounced them genuine gold and 
piney, h««i' b * j; , , o^nro an cold miner, 

&r;;L:r'^:;;r;;^ old ^^.o.^^ ,ou .>„=. 

Luced In a few days he was joined by B^rtipte 
ZZt tUc discoverer of gold .e.r Los A"ge - .u 18«^ 
fnd those two men became the teachers of the process 
to the hamun tide that flowed in their wake. 

On the 25tU of the «ame month the CaliMnrn A ar pub- 
lished in SflD Francisco, auaoanced to its readers that gold 
dtst imd Wme an article of traffic at New Helvetia (bac- 

^^rte'iatter part of March specimens of -ale gold-^ 
taken to Stockton, then called " Tnlebargh, -^^^^f'^;^ 
C M. Weber was located on his grant. He immediately 
fitted out a prospecting party, of which a --^^^^^^ ^^_ 
yak-um-na Imlians were a pavt. and commenced the e^- 
^lovatioo ofthemountainsnorth from the » 7;!-^ "^^^ 
But tho gold fevev had takeu possession of them. Haste 
aud nuggets b.came their ^-atehword, inexperience their 
ompaiTi^n. and failure the result, until ^^^ ^f ^^ J/ 
riveJwas reached. Here the Captain decided to make a 
„.oro deliberate search, the result being a discovery by 
him of the first gold found in the region of country aftei^ 
^ards known us the Southern mines. They were so called 
To distinguish them from those, that, from geographi al 
location, were more easily approached from Sacrameu 
After this they prospected with more care, and go d ^as 
found in every stream and gulch between tUe Moke 
and American rivers. A location was not made, however 
until the latter was reached, where they commenced wo k 
in earnest on what has since been known as Weber cieeL- 
As soon as the Indians accompanying the expedition had 
learned how to prospect, the Captain sent them all back 
to their chief. Jesus, on the Stanislaus nver, yheie 
Knight's Ferry now is, with instructions to prospect that 
stream aud others for gold, and report results to his 
" Major-domo - at " Tuloburgh." Not many days had 
passed before an express rider dashed into Weber s camp 
lith the exciting news that his Indians had ^ o^^f S^ f 
in quantities everywhere between the Calaveras and Stan- 
islaus rivers. He immediately returned to his home, 
fitted out the "Stockton Mining Company.' and luangura- 
ted the working of those afterwards famous mmes. ihe 
operations of this company were numerous aud ^overed a 
large extent of country. They had a small army of Ind ans 
in their employ, the different members conducting their 
various enterprises. Murphy's Camp. Sulhvaus Dig- 
gings. Sansevina Bar. Jamestown, Woods Creek and Aa- 
gel's Camp, all derived their names from members of that 
pioneer company. 

Jonaa Speck, ^ho later became the founder of the town 
of Fremont, in Yolo county, and a member from there ot 
the first State Senate, was on his way to the States from 
San Francisco, and camped on the night of April 24th, 
1848, near Knight's Lauding, on the Sacramento river. 
He was the first discoverer of gold north of the Ajmerican 
river and its tributAries; aud the following is his own 
description of the occurrence, commencing at his camp on 
the night of tlie above date: 

" Up to this time there had been no excitement about 
" the gold diggings; but at that place we .vere overtaken 
" by Spaniards, who were on their way to Sutter s mill to 
"di" "old. and they reported stories of fabulously rich 
" di°-hi-s. After discussing the matter, we changed our 
" course to the gold mines, aud hurried on. arriving at the 
" mill on the aOth of AprU. It was true that severa 
"rich strikes had been made, bub the miners then at 
"work did not average two aud a half dollars per 
" day Marshall aud Sutter claimed the land and rented 
" the mines. Everyone supposed gold was confined to 
" that particular locality. We did not engage in minmg. 
" and concluded to resume our journey across the plains. 
" Oq our return trip, we learned that gold had been 
" found on Morman Island; but we took no further notice 
" of it, and on the twelfth of May arrived at Johnson s 
" ranch We fonnd one man there waiting our arrival, 
'■ but we expected many others iu a short time. We 
" waited until about the twenty-fifth, when we learned 
" that there was another rush to the mines, and then van- 
" ished all prospect of any company ciossmg the monn- 
" tains th«t summer. My partner loft for the American 
" river and I proposed to Johnson that we should pros- 
" pBct 'for gold on Bear river. We went some distance 
" up the stream and spent three days in the search with- 

.. „„t any satisfactory .es„l.a I f- -f .f ^^^'^^i that he should seed •"» I°'> »° " * T ' .„3 

son tlial he suon a »"" • ^ ^„3 

„„„ld P-r'' te^„t; r^f he A„erlca„ river. 
•• about the size of the soutli loiK ^^^ 




" I mosnected on the Bar and found some gold, but not 
.LSrto be ;e--ive.,r^^^^^^^ 

" washed tome of th^ dirt and found three lumps of gold 
" rr^ about seven dollars. I pitched -y tent ^-« on 
.. le uh'U of June second, and sent the Indian home for 
" nppi^es In about a week. I moved down on the creek 
.-and'remained there until No.e-nber twentie h vdien I 
.. left the mines forever. June third, the °e^Vw-ii 
.. the location of my camp. Michael Nye and WrUmm 
" Foster came up the creek prospecting for gold. 

When the people on this coast began to realize that the 
royal me al lay hidden away in the foot-hills and a ong the 
monntaiu streams of the Sierra, a change, sudden and 
Absolute "came o'er the spirit of their d;«'^'"%^l^^";S 
the desire for sudden wealth as the only P-^ommaut 
impulse that moved tho masses and contro led then acts. 
Those who had come to California -^-^ ^^P^ ^"^ °J 
this country their permanent homes, sudden y lost sight of 
hat fact and became possessed of an irresistible des re to 
abandon them that they might dig weath from natuie 
secret places, and then return to enjoy the fruits o then 
brief labors. During 18i8. those only were benefited by 
the gold discovery who were residents of the country, or 
upon the Coast. But the herald had gone forth into the 
h ghwajs and by-places of earth to summons the adven- 
turous of all countries to the '-Eldorado" of the world. 
The estimated population of California on the first ot 
January, 1849. was : 

r-^-- TZ 


Total 26.000 

Early iu the spring the first vessel came laden with gold- 
seekers, who were followed in rapid succession by others. 
This was the premonition of the tidal wave that swept this 
shore that and the ensuing year from the outside world. 
Between the twelfth of April. 1849. and the 28th of Febru- 
ary 1850. there arrived in San Francisco 43,824 passen- 
ger's of whom 31,725 were American men; 951 American 
women; 10.394 foreign men; 754.foreign women. 

At the same time that the higli seas were bringing these 
myriads of humanity to our shores, a steady stream of 
immigration was pouring over the mountains from the 
plains. Their numbers can be best realized by a glance at 
the census returns for California; 

From that time forward there v?as no law existmg, under 
which the military branch of the "Cuited States Govera- 
ment could, yet it did, continue to control the country. 
General Bennett Biley superceded E. B. Mason as Gov- 
ernor April 13th, 1849. and, going into office, found that 
a spirit of discontent pervaded the people, becanse 
of the uncertainty that seemed to exist in regard to what 
laws were operative in the Territoiy. They were 
given to understand that those existing at the time 
of its conquest remained in force within ite limits, 
provided that they were not contrary to the Constitutioii 
of the United States, and would continue to do so until ! 
changed by competent authority. This fact was not a 
popular one with tlie incoming inhabilauta. especially the 
American portion of it, aud the result was that but little 
respect was paid to any law except that of the revolver. 

Under such a state of things General Riley, under ad- 
Tice of the President, deemed it advisable to set on 
foot a Territorial organization, alUiough not authorized 
by law to do so. Consequently, on June 3d, 1849, bo 
issued a call for an election of delegates to take place 
on the first day of the coming August, at which time 
Alcaldes (Justices of the Peace) aud Judges ot the 
Courts of the First Instance were also to bo elected 
in places entitled to such officers. The election oc- 
curred in accordance with the call, and the delegatea 
assembled at Monterey, September 1st, when they com- 
menced the organization of a Territorial Goyemmcnt 
by framing a Constitution, and, completing their labors, 
adjourned October 13th, 1849. The Constitution was 
submitted to the people on the 13th of the next 
month (November), at which time a general election ot 
State officers occurred. The vote was almost solid m its 
favor- twelve thousand and sixty-four having been cast 
for aid only eight hundred and eleven against its adop- 
tion At the election the votes cast for officers were: 


Yf^j. Foputalion. 

Jau'y 1st. 1349 (Estimated) 26. 000 

" 1850 107.069 

• ' 1852 264,435 

1860 379,994 

1870 560,247 



It needs but a glance at this table to see the necessity 
that existed of some acceptable form of government for 
this Territory, that was receiving those tens of thousands, 
coming from the pulpit (but tew), the colleges, the bar, 
the factories, the shops, the manufacturies. the yeomen. 
the dens of vice, the prison-ships and penal colonies of 

the world. „,,,.« 

Gold was discovered January 19th. The treaty of 
peace was signed February 2d. the United States rati- 
fied that treaty March 10th, Mexico ratified it May 24th. 
Official News of the gold discovery was sent to Washington 
August 17 th, and the official news of peace was received 
by Gov. Mason in September; all in 1848. 
■prom the 7th of July, 1846. when Sloat had hoisted the 
flag at Monterey, until the news was received officially in 
September. 1848. that peace was declared, a military 
Governor was the proper head of the Government here. 

Peter H. Burnett, Governor 6.716 

■W. Scott Sherwood 3,188 

J- W- Geary MJ^ 

John A. Sutter ^>f]^ 

Wm. M. Stewart ■ ^ 

Total vote for Governor 1*.199 

John McDongall was elected Lientenant-Governor, and 
Edward Gilbert with George W. Wright were chosen to 
represent the Territory in Congress The light^t^' 
^here a few weeks later a population of 107,069 wa 
claimed, proves conclusively that the miners cared but 
little for politics. 

On the 15th of December, the Legislature met at San 
Jose, and on the 20th of the same month Genera E.ley 
turned over the governmental control of aflairs to the care 
ot the newly-elected territorial officials, and the machinery 
of state was set in motion. " The Legislature of a thou- 
sand drinks" immediately inaugurated busmess, and on 
the sixth day went into joint convention for the election 
of two United States Senators, to represent the bta e at 
Washington as soon as she became such, by being admit- 

cinto'the Union. The balloting resulted m the cho 
of John 0. Fremont and Wm. M. Gwin. who afterwards 
served tor a few days in the capacity tor which they were 
elected Those gentlemen, our first senatorial represen- 
ts -tnessel that fierce contest of the Titians, « 
they struggled against each other in Congi-ess over ue 
question o'f' slavefy. that the California Constitution bad 
hurled into their midst as a firebrand Y'T^'LZ 
that was only quenched by the shock of ^^^^'f^l^^'' 
melted away under Grant and Lee, around Kichmond- 

The people on the Pacific Coast had said in theu^"^ 
ganic law, that slavery should "ot^e tolerated w^tb- 
fheir territory. Calhoun, Foote and J^f -" ^^^^ " 
plied-backed by an almost unanimous South tba J 
Lu never become a State of the Umon while uch 
declaration is engrafted in y«"^C<>f '^"^'°"- " ^i^. 
response tosucha sentiment, coming ^^^^ ^/^ J^^^.^^t 
that the great American orator. Henry Clay, >"=;"o " ' 
body said: " Coming, as I do. from a slave ^ta - J ^^ ^^ 
" solemn, deliberate and well-matured aetermmation. tu 
"no power-no earthly power-shall -^o'-^l^^' "^° *" i .^ 
" for the posiUve introduction of slavery, eithei som 
"north of that line." (Missouri compromise line^ 
this debate, Daniel Webster, always Calhoun's antj-t 
uttered one of those sentences, Uiat ^f «" f?f;^„s 
upon the memory ot mankind:-" I -^uld not take p.u^^ 
" to reaffirm an ordinance of nature, nor to le-eua 
",vill of God." Wm. H. Seward, then ---""S >J 
Senate, was found battling aide by side withMeb.i 

Plate N? 10. 



Plate N?11. 



Clay, Bfcutou, anii tlic "Little Giant of lUinoU," Stephen | 
A. DJUglasH, in llic-ir effort* to gain admijwioD for Culifor- 
uia, un<l ill lii** t-iithasiastic wanntli ottered the (ollowins ; 
beautiful thought: " Let California come in— Culiforuia j 
" that conies from the climo where the west dies away i 
" into the rifiing fe.tst, California, that honuOs at oneo the 
" empire and the continent. California, the voulhlnl 
"Queen of the Piteific. in the robes of (reedom, yorye- 
" ously iiil.tid with gold, m doubly weU-ome. She stunils 
'■ justified for all the irregidarities in the method of her 
" coming." 

While this contest waH in progress, the Temtorml Leg- 
iBlatore had y.iie quietly on enacting laws. One was 
n^iased February 18th, 1850, dividing California into 
counties*, and on March 2d another was enacted authorizing 
the firot county elections that took place on the first of 
April. On the twenty-second of April the Legislature ad- 
iourne.l, having enacted in lis four months' session one 
hundred and forty law- that were supposed to so com- 
pletely «:'^'V'^'' ""^ rcquireinonta of the times as to warrant 
that boily, in its own judgaient, in making their enactments 

the only e.\i«tiiig law. . ,., t - i i *i 

Four inontbsafter the a.ljournmentof the Legislature, the 
bill for the admission of California passed the Senate, the 
vote being taken August thirteenth and going to the Lower 
House pated that body Sentember seventh. It was signed 
bv President Fillmore on the nintli of tbesame month and 
Senators Fremont and Gwiu were permitted to take their 
HHJvta as well as the other two representatives of the youtli- 
Uiueen of the Pacific," and ol-tober 18th. 18o0. General 
13klwell arrived in San Francisco on the steamer Oie- 
con " the bearer of tho welcome news. i 1 1 r 

^ With California standing as a State at the threshold of 
her destiny; with her limits defined and laws e^t«b bshed; 
with her name a magic talisman to the world; with the 
$1110,000. OUO in gold from her ravines, gulche_s and c^^^^^^ 
distr butcd among the nations; with her $45o.00J,000 hat 
in the coming eight yeurs was to follow in the same chan- 
ol with thenittl^ that is said and tho much that i^ma.ns 
nutokl we are compelled to close this history. We lay 
on he pen with !v feeling of regret, that what is here 
wv tten is iiot better told, and that time does not peru^ t 
us to record the events that have transpired between the 
years of 1850 and 1830. 

GovEBNons OF Ca-liforsi.\. 


Kn)> f- Term 

1 00M..T011N-U SLOAT J"ly ^ ff- t"'.'/'' Isf? 

2 COil.ltOBl^UTF.STOCra'OS. ...Aug. 17. 84 . J;« >■ 7 ^ ' 

3 COL JOHN n.FREMOVr Jnn'y-.1S7 M-rch. , 817 

4 GEN STEFilEN W. KEAltNY .. . M«t.U 1. 1817. M,.y 31. 18i7 

s! COL. lilClIARUB. MASON Muy 31,1847. 

6. GEN. BliNSETT RILEY April U, 1819. 


jY«»i«. Tnnunuroled. 

1 . PETER H. BUllNETX Decembar 20, 1813 

a JOHN MoDOUG.XLL ■J'"»'">- »■ 1851 

3. JONH lilGLER Jni.nury 


.t J.NEELY,IOSNSON Jpinmiry 

S JOHN n. WELLER Janimry 

G • MILTON S. LATHAM Janntiry 

7 JOHN G. DOWNEY Tanuury 

8. LELAND ST.\N1-0UD -''^"■^"^ 

9.t FREDERICK F. LO\V December 2. Su.. 

10. HESRYn.llAIGHT December 5, 8b. 

lU- NEWTON BOOTH ?T"'" .7 87 

12. ROMUALDO PAOHECO F^br"''^? =7. 87o 

in. WM.IRWIN D.oc.n.b.r 9 3,5 

H. GEORGE C. PERKINS J"'"'"'? »■ 1^^" 

t Term of offiou inoreaaefl from two to fonr yentfl. 


NoTB.-TUe pop-al«.ion Riven below for 1870 is as fibown by Ihe l.ial 
Nnlionnl census; lUal for 1S77 nccordine lo cslimntes. 

As Impobtast Docoiest. 

The histories of California, since its acquisition by tho 
United States, have uU givun a similar veision of the 
position, acts, nod intentions of thu British government, 
in regard to the possession of this State, prior to auJ at 
the time when Commodore Hloat solved tho problem of 
who sbould posse*.s it, by the swizure of Monterey. Think- 
ing, from the tone of those versions, that it was possible 
that they might be partizan statements, instead of authen- 
tic history, a letter of inquiry was adilressi-d to -J. Alex. 
Forbes, ex-British vice-consul, and the following reply, 
that speaks in no uncertain terms, was received: 

April 13. 16-10 
D(!C. — , 1849 

8, 185-2 
H, 1854 
8. 1850 
8, 18.'8 
8, I HOI) 
14, IL'GO 
8. 18U2 

. AUmedft .... 

! Alpiue 

J Aiutidnr 

4I Butte 



7 Coiilr.v Ci'^Iu. 
8,ny1 N'Tte - . 
O^ElDomil'.i , -. 
10':Eitsiio . . .- 
ll'nniuboldl - 


13Kvru --- 


14Lnkf .. .- 


16 Los Aiigu;lus — 

17 Miiiiu .. -- 

■^'^''-"- 2«S 

asiSncrftiiii'iito. . .- 
2it'Sim Bciii'o. 
ao.Siiu BiTnnrdioo 
aiiSnii Diep". -■ 
aa.Wiin Fniuci^co. 
:i;i Sim JoiiqH'n.- 
;l5iS(iu Mftten. . - 

:t7lMi;.lii CInrft 

3s'Snnln Cms. ■- 









!7 Tiiiiily 

js riiliiro 

750 r.rruoliimae 

50 VcuturA 

1 Yolo 












li 12.500 





t S.OltO 









11 6.000 



5C0.247! 911.000 

3. OSS 




4 77; 



2''.. 240 










• Bv Act appronJ U.«h=S. 1ST.. tBc l.rtjlor^r --umpris^l In llie coontjof Kl. 

I 5in Bsnlt.. coaniy >v.s Ionn.-,1 from Ihe CMlcra p.rt ^f """"S; """„ J y. 
J Toutnr* coanty WM (onuBl from the CMitro pirl of SanH Ditotn coomi. 

"West Oakllnd, Caufobsia, Dec. 12th, 1879. 
" Colonel FR.iXK T. Gilbebt, "Woodland, Yolo county— 

'* Dear Sie: I received duly your letter of the 10th 
" current, informing me that you are engaged in writing 
" ft ' California State History," for Messrs. De Pue A Co., 
" and desiring to adhere strictly to correctness, in your 
" narration of political occurrences iu this State, prior to 
" its acquisition by the Uuited States, you send me two 
" extracts from historical compilations of California, by 
" Messrs. Tuthill & Cronise, for the purpose of testing 
" the accuracy of certain statements therein published, 
" relative to negotiations, which they allege I had, in 
" 184C, with Governor Pico, General Vallejo and General 
" Castro, for affecting a separation of California from the 
" Mexican KepuhUc, anti for placing the former under the 
" protection of Great Britain. 

" As 1 have taken no exception to those statements, my 
"silence regarding them may perhaps bo ascribed to a 
" tacit recognition of the same as true. Never having 
" seen those compilations, I was entirely ignorant of the 
" inaccuracies therein published until I read the above 
" meutioneil extracts. My notice tliereof, at this late day, 
'* may appear superogatory, and, so far as concerns my- 
" self, I rei-ard those statements with indifference; but I 
" feel' it my duty to defend the aforesaid respectable Cal- 
" ifornians from the illiberal unauthorized imputatious 
" cast upon tliem by those compilers, in their erroneous 
"assertions, respecting which, even if those statements 
" were true iu fact, I deny tbe right of Messrs. Tuthill &. 
" Cronise to censure Governor Pico, General Vallejo and 
" General Castro, for their personal or official acts, in pro- 
" ceedings which they were at perfect liberty to carry 
" into full effect for achieving the independence of Cali- 
" nia. by and with the consent of a majority of the iuhab- 
'■ itants thereof, and without the least responsibility to 
"any foreign power. Furthermore, I declare that the 
"statements contained iu the aforesaid extracts are ab- 
" solutely inaccurate, unfounded iu fact, and based upon 
" heresay evidence, originating in incorrect official reports 
" of Mr. Thos. O. Larkiu to the United States government, 
"under which, since 1844, he held the appointment of 
" consul at Monterey, of whose official acts alone, and with 
" due respect to his memory, I speak in this couuectiou. 
" Mr. Lai-kin's very limited knowledge of the Spanish 
" language, and his exclusiveuess, prevented him from 
" exercising political or social iuflnence with the rulers 
" or the people of California, and rendered difficult his 
" acquisition of reliable information of the political oc- 
" currences that were passing in the Spring of 1846; 
" when he informed his government, that he had discov- 
" ered the existence of an intrigue or scheme, in which 
" Governor Pico, General Vallejo, General Caatro and 
"myself, were secretly negotiating 'for passing their 
" country to the possession of England, under the direc- 
" tiou of a Catholic priest named Macnamara, who was to 
" conduct a colony of Irishmen to California, as he Iiad 
■' petitioned tlie Mexican government for large grants of 
" lands around the bays of San Francisco and Monlerey, 
at Santa Barbara and along the San Joaquin, of which 
lands that government had readily granted; not all that 
Macnamara asked, but three thousand .square leagues 

■ in the San JoaquiQ valley, and for the perfection of the 
^ patent, it only needed the signature of Governor Pico.' 

■ Here we have the absurd assertion, that the executive 
■■ authority of a Departmental Governor suddenly became 
■■ superior to that of the Supreme Government of Mexico, 
< in that the former had to approve the official act of the 

• latter, bv signing the patent for the said grant made to 

• Macnam"ara,whom Mr. Cronise says was ' an agent of tho 
' British Government ;' and that his title deeds for said laud 
' 'fortunately fell into the hands of the Federal Govern- 
' ment before they were signed by Governor Pico!' etc, 
' ind further, 'to show bow thoroughly informed the 

• Federal Government were of this design, we quote the 
' following instructions from Secretary Bancroft to Com- 

" modoTO Sloal, nnder date of July U. 18^6, only tffo ; 
" mouths 'i/(er Forbes' cotiltvcl htitl brrn xvpitii.' I uow 
" ftsfc. what contrucl. when and where signed? 

'• In justice toGovcruor Pioo. General Vallejo and Geno- 
" ntl Castro. Isuy that noithorof thrin yvorhad any nego- 
" tinlion with me asabovestAteil. 1 deny that the Uov. Mr. 
"Macnamara was an agnut of Ih.' British GovornmiMil. 
" That gt'utleman came from Irvland to Mexico, for tho 
" purposo of soliciting a grunt of land for colonizing it 
•■ with Irisli emigrants. Ho was informed by tho Moxi- 
" can President that largo grants ..f land suitablofor nolo- 
" nizatioa could only be t>bt»ined in California, as there 
" were largo tracts vacant in this department. Acconl- 
" iugly Mr. Macnamara wiuit to Maz^dlau to take passage 
" for Monterey, but not liiiding any vessel thuie bound 
"for this coasl. lie finally Kuccecdod iu obtaining a paa- 
" sage in an English corvette, whose capljiin Wiis a coun- 
" tryman of Macnamaia. He arrived at Monterey in 
" June 1S4I1. when 1 made hisacquaintanci\ and bring ui- 
" formed by him of his desire to petition Governor Pico 
" for a large tiact of laud for iclonization I, informed 
"him that the only lands suitablt* for his purpose were 
" situated in tho San .loa.iuin valley. He petilioncd tho 
" Governor and recoivod a giaut of Iw.. hnmlrcd squavo 
" leagues, subject to thoappioval of ttm Supn'mc (Jovlhii- 
" ment of Mexico, and with the condition of placing two 
" hundred famiUes of immigrants iqiou said lands within 
" one year from the date of his grant. 

" These are the facta lespccling the occurrences lliut 
" caused so much apprchonsion in the mind of i\lr. (%in- 
" aul Larkin, tliat //«■ Uuital SintcH amuUl be clwnk^f onl <>, 
" the priiiripal prize lliul maih war wri-p(able lo her. 

" As Mr. Croniso, th.d ' llic deeds for three thou- 
" sand square leagues of land in Ihc Sau Joaquin and Kac- 
" ramento valleys, niado in favor of llits Macnamara, very 
" fortunately fell into tho hands of the Pedcnd Goveru- 
" ment before they were signed by Governor Pico. Mr. 
" Macnamara had no muniment of tille upon whicli iobase 
" bis Iranctulous claim for compensation; conscpicntly, no 
" body was injured by his petition to the Governor for 
" that grant of laud, and there was no noccssdy for the 
" unfounded animadversion of tho aforesaid alleged par- 
"ticil.ants in the pretended political, above-mentioned 
" intrigue. Mr. Croniso forgot to explain to hm readers 
" how Mr. Macnamara's deeds for three thousand square 
" leagues of land fell into tho hands of the FedL^ral Oov- 
" ernraent, before they were signed by Governor Pico. 

" Those uusigned title deeds were the copies or regis- 
" ter of Macnamaia's gi-ant, which were doubtless found 
' in the Government archives alter the change of Hag, and, 
' of course, they were unsigned by Governor Pico. Mae- 
' namara bad the original. ,t .■ i i 

" Tbe only facts upon which Mr. Consul Larkin based 
' his official report to the United States Government of 
' the supposed intrigue tor placing California under Brit- 
■■ ish protection, originated in tbe following information 
.. imparted to him by myself: 1st. That Governor Pico 
" and two members of the Departmental Assembly, who 
" were Don Juan Bandini and Dou Santiago Argiiello, 
" had informed me, that as California was in r<3ality aban- 
" doued by the Government of Mexico, tlie authorities 
" of this Department were seriously discussing tbe ne- 
" cessity of severing their political relations with that Be- 
" public for the purpose of soliciting the protection of a 
" foreign power, for whicli object the Governor and said 
.' members requested me to inform her Majesty s Gov- 
" ernment thereof, to ascertain if its protection would be 
" extended over California, ^d. That in reply thereto I 
"informed Governor Pico and tlie said memhers that 1 
"was absolutely without authority to give them any of- 
" ficial answer upon the subject, but that I would dulyin- 
" form her Majcstys Government of the mailer, 

" On tbe 17th of July, 184(3, Bear Admiral Sir George 

" Sevmour, in command of her Majesty's hhip* Collmg- 

" tiuT arrived at Monterey, and forthwith addrcs.sed an 

" official letter to Governor Pico, at Los Angeles, inform- 

" rnTldm that, in view of the existing war between the 

"U&ted States and Mexico, her Majesty sGoyernmcn 

" would not interfere in the affairs of Cabforn.a 1 at 

" official note was sent by me to Governor Pico b) a 

"special messenger, under a safe conduct gi-anted by 

" Commodore Stockton. Ou the return of the mes^-fjg 

' to Monterey, I paid him one hundred dollars for h s 

■ m^ce Sfdel-nered the safe conduct into the hands 

* of Captain Mervin, then in command of the bnitecl 

' States"forces at that port. >. . .i „ T!..;i;..l, 

"In conclusion. I deny, positively, that the Bnljsh 

' Government ever bad any intention of establishing a 

' protectorate over California. 

EespeetfuUy yours, 



FROM 1825 TO 1880. 

Introduction and Plan of the Work. 

Tha PfMBot not AppwcUlca, and why It la nol-Pawiiig EtbdU Doemed of Lfttlo Acomnt 
nnlen Tragic or Ahinrd— Whst twcomc* o[ Imprauloni Mada— The ProTioca of tbo 
HIrtorl»a-Wh«t He an oot bs Bi(r!etad to Accofnpl!»Ii-H"ny » Lint L<wl In the 
Put of Sicrimsnto VMej and Tolo Oonnty-It li dao to tbs Bcideri Hiat Thej 
Bhoald Kdo» tlis Anlhorltfra from whlcl This Hisloij li Wrillsn-AottotitlM Prior 
to 1819, aod Thwa tHet That Diila-A FonoidHble Array of EvidoncD, but Ebb It Been 
Proparly Rmderei-Tho DiEcnlMo of Saparating the Tmth from Error lUostraled by 
an Incfdont-Tho Plan of Thlt Work. 

Tlie future is clothed by hope in a belief of fruition as 
it passes through her uncertain realm; and fancy paints its 
shadowy outline with silvery tints. It comes to man"s 
possession from the untried, sheened in a beauty that ex- 
perience dissolves, and passes beyond, a naked reality to 
mingle with that which was. The past like a shoreless 
ocean, from infancy to age, swallows up the dead hopes of 
mankind ; and each billow of memory rising from its vast 
bosom, gives back to him by reflection a glimpse of some- 
thing bright and beautiful that he had failed to see when 
time was " on the wing." Between the two mankind ex- 
ists a living present, with his hopes of the future and re- 
grets of the past, he is ever weighing the unappreciated 
hours as they go. He is not satisfied with their posses- 
sion, when robbed by experience of the sheeny lustre that 
his fancy had pictured them in; but regrets their loss 
when gone, because disappointment had obscured for the 
time their many attractions. Few people note the pass- 
ing hours, or the events transpiring within them, unless it 
be of extremes, tragic or absurd. The ooourrences com- 
mon from day to day that weave themselves into a net- 
work of ordinary incidents, constituting the lives of men, 
are so tame and far short of the fancy conception had 
mapped in advance, that they are deemed of little moment 
and drop out of memory into oblivion. Occasionally an 
impression is made, leaving a fading imprint that becomes 
more and more obscure as it travels back into the past, 
first becoming shadowy, then passing into legend and 
finally vanishing, unless fastened ere it has gone, upon the 
iudellible page of history. 

It is the province and pleasant task of those who write 
to search for those dissolving shadows, and, gathering them , 
strive, though they fail, to construct therefrom a skeleton 
so perfect iu its parts that it may seem to be the living 
presence of a dead past. If, in the construction of the 
form, it is found that important parts are lost, it is not 
expected that a perfect reproduction of that which was 
will be obtained from the imperfect material. 

In the early history of the Sacramento valley, of which 
Yolo county is a part, many a link is missing, many an im- 
print gone, and of those still left numbers are found in 
unexpected and obscure places, rendering the search ar- 
duous and the task difficult. Had those who came first 
into this valley known with what interest the generations 
following would look upon what seemed to them their 
trivial acts, they would probably have sought to stamp 
more of their presence on that time. But they then, like 
we of the present, could see but little where hope had 
promised so much, in the tame monotonous to-day that 
could be of interest to anyone in the future. Thus is lost 
to the present that which we are wishing to know, as will 
be lost to the future much in our time that would be 
scanned with pleasure by those who are to people this rich 
valley in the centuries that Ho bej-ond. 

To the readers it is duo that we should inform them to 
whom and what we are indebted for the little obtained of 
events prior to 1849, that has not been already given in 
the history of the State accompanying this work, that its 
reliability may be judged. Of the few published works 
from which we were able to obtain reliable data, we would 
mention a journal of 1846, by Edwin Bryant; a history of 
California by Edmund Kandolph; several publications by 
Dr. John F. Morse, of Sacramento; the work of Cronise 
and a number of brief histories of Sacramento, published 
in directories. From these, however, but a small propor- 

tion of the little we have was obtained. The information 
was principally derived from those who were telling us of 
what they saw, or from men who wore personally acquainted 
with the early trappers and learned the facts uarratud di- 
rectly from them. Of this class to whom wo are indebted 
for important facts, is Colonel J. J. Warner, of Los 
Angeles, who came to California iu the Fall of 1831, vis- 
ited the Sacramento and Capay valleys as early as 1832, 
and was an intimate friend and companion of Jedediah S. 
Smith. Hon. J. Alex. Forbes, of Oakland, a resident of 
this State since 1830, who, iu connection with W. G. Eay, 
had charge of the Hudson Bay Trappers in California, 
from 1833 to 1845. Capt. C. M'. AVeber, of Stockton, and 
Green McMahon, of Solano county, both of whom have 
lived since 1841 within sight, if not within the limits, of 
the Great Oal. valley. J. B. Wolfskill, of Solano, a resi- 
dent on Puto creek since 1842. Lieut. D. T. Bird, who 
first visited Tolo county in 1844. S. If. Chase, of Capay 
valley, who has been a resident of this county most of the 
time since 1845. Jerome C. Davis, who came to this coast 
with Fremont, and from whom Davisville derived its 
name. Major Stephen Cooper, who came to this county 
first in 184G. The widow of James McDowell, the 
founder of Washington in this county, who settled there 
in 1846, and Mrs. M. A. Hunt, the daughter of James 
McDowell; and to all these persons we would return ouv 
sincere thanks. 

Since 1849, the number of persons conversant with the 
history of the county increases as the present date is ap- 
proached, and to give the names of all such as have kindly 
aided us would occupy the space of a small book, for such 
a purpose alone; but it is due to those who peruse these 
pages that they should know the sources of our informa- 
tion since, as well as before, 1849. From this last date 
up to 1859, the history is drawn from County Court and 
Supervisors' records — that from incompleteness leaves 
many a missing link — proceedings of the State Legisla- 
ture; files of newspapers, found in the State Library; 
private journals, kept by individuals; and the memories 
of those now, or at some time, residents of Yolo county. 
In November, 1859, the Knight's Landing News, a weekly 
paper, was started, and from that time until the present 
the county papers have been the daily records of passing 
events. To all this, add the assistance rendered by the 
County Officials, under both the old and new Constitutions, 
the names of the following parties, and the readers have 
before them the field wherein research has uncovered the 
foot-prints of the past; Charles E. Green, of Plain- 
field, who kept a journal, was part owner of and super- 
vised "The Big ranch" for a number of years, commenc- 
ing in the Spring of 1854; W. J. Frierson, of Knight's 
Landing, a resident of Yolo county since August 6th, 1849; 
A. Griffith, of Cacheville, a resident of that place since 
1849; J. E. Braly, of Santa Clara county, who preached 
the first sermon ever delivered in this county; Judge I. 
N. Hoag, of Washington, Secretary of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, a resident of this county since 1850; H. B. 
Wood, now of Woodland, one of the merchants of 
Fremont in 1849; W. J. Clarke, of Colusa county, who 
came to Yolo in 1849, and for many years a resident here; 
Jonas Spect, the founder of Fremont in 1849; Hou. J. 
M. Kelley, John Morris, -James T. Lillard, D. W. Edson, 
Hon. C. F. Reed, and Hon. F. S. Freeman, all of 1849; 
Hon. Jason Watkins, 1850; John D. Stevens, 1850; Geo. 
W. Scott, W. G. Hunt, James A. Douglas, Judge Harri- 
son Gwinn, Carey Barney, of 1851; N. Wyckoft", Jay 
Green, F. G. Russell, A. W. Morris, S. N. Mering, J. D. 
Laugenour, of 1852; Wm. Hatcher, Hon D. N. Horshey, 
John HoUingsworth, Amos W. Gable, M. A. Rahm, C. S. 
Thomas, J. W. Snowball, of 1853; James Moore, H. P. 
Merritt, Rev. J. N. Pendegast, Benjumin Ely, D. Q. Adams, 
William Gwynn of Sacramento, Robert Gardner of Oak- 
land, Venable Morris, Theodore Winters, T. A. Martin, 
H. C. Gable, Wm. Duncan, Wm. Sims, P. G. Everett, 
D. C. Rumsey, Dr. E. L. Parramore. And to all these 
we would return thanks; and also to R. O. Cravens, the 

gentlemanly State Librarian; the genial Secretary of tho 
Society of Pioneers, Asa P. Andrews; as well as the pub- 
lishers of the Yolo County papers, for courtesitis recoiveil 
at their bands. 

It is a formidable array of authorities, but there still ro- 
mains the question of whether the author of this work has 
correctly interpreted them. It would be slrnnge it no 
error had crept in, but such as it contains are those that 
came to us clothed in the undetectable guise of tmth. Nono 
but those who have tried can have an idea of the diflicultiea 
that attend the separation of truth from ori'or iua compil. 
ation like this. The following incident miiy serve to illus- 
trate the case in point, Iu writing upon tho suhjoct of 
storms wo found there was a doubt as to the year iuwiiich 
the first snow-storm had occurred iu Yolo comity since 
white occupation, and referred the matter to Jay Green. 
He thought it was in 1855, but wished to conBult somo 
data at home. A few days Inter he called and changed 
the date to 1854, being thoroughly satisfied of its correct- 
ness; but to make doubly sure the same question was 
asked W. J. Clarke, and he, too, desired time to exaniiue 
his journal kept in early days. Not long after a letter came 
from him stating that some of his old memoranda Lad been 
mislaid, but he, too, gave the date as 1854. This settled 
the matter for a time, but one day meeting Mr. J. Hol- 
liugsworth tho subject of storms was again broached, aud 
he observed: "I am certain that the first snow was i a 
1855." But, said we, Mr. Green and Clarke think differ- 
ently. Tliis was a dampener and he hesitated, then called 

E. L. Clark, who happened to be passing, and they finally 
decided between them that 1855 was correct. "Ton 
needn't hunt any further on the subject," resumed Mr. H., 
" for I can remember as though it was only a week ogo, 
and I know it was 1855." We began to wish it had been 
fair weather both of those years, aud crossed the street to 

F. S. Freeman's store, cornered that gentleman, and said; 
"Mr. Freeman it snowed; I am son-y it did, hut that 
don't help the matter. I want to know whether it was in 
1854 or 1855 that it did it?" A thoughtful, far away look 
crept over that gentleman's visage, and in a kind of thiuk 
out loud, self-communing sort of way, he said: "Yes- 
well — let me see— snowed — well, by George, I hadn't 
thought of that before in a coon's age; remember it? of 
course, I do. I went to a party up at Glasscock's that 
night. 'Twas Christmas, and when I came out to go home 
my horse and saddle were covered with snow. Remem- 
it ? reckon I do, as plainly as though it was last Winter. 
It was on the night before Christmas, 1854." "But, Mr. 
Freeman "-—we mildly suggested — "may it not have been 
Christmas, 1855 ? Mr. HoUingsworth and E. L. Clark 
thinks the date was thai; in fact, they say they are certain 
of it." " They are certain of it, are they? they are mis- 
taken, sir; why, thunder and blazes, I can remember it as 
distinctly as though it was last night. Halloo, Peart; see 
here; do you remember whether the snow-storm of — of; 
do you remember what year you saw the first snow-storm 
in California?" Mr. Peart with promptness, born of cer- 
tainty, replied that he remembered distinctly, it havmg 
been fastened upon his mind " by a little incident that oc- 
curred in Sacramento," where he was at the time. "A 
prominent merchant," said Mr. P., " took one of his dry 
goods boxes, and, rigging some runners and thills to it, 
rode up and down the streets, n la Illinois, or some other 
cold country, and that occurrence was in 1854 — yes, with- 
out a question it wns in 1854 that the storm occurred." 

There was too much circumstnntial evidence connected 
with this last testimony to warrant a doubt of its being 
the correct version, and we stai'ted for the office sntisfieu 
that at last the vexed question was settled correcth', aud 
with liead down looking for ten cent pieces on the side- 
walk — we don't expect a crown — was meditating upon the 
manner in which 1854 could bo written in connection 
with the occurrence, in an undertone, so as not to attract 
the attention of the eighteen hundred and fifty -fives to the 
fact that their opinions had been ignored; when — "Well, 
what did Freeman say ?" coming in the familiar tones of 

Tvff-. -V''-'-"'^^^-'- 

Ot tJUErSCO-dt/d.5.f. 







n«r friend, Hollingsworlb, stopped our dime hunting and I 
? nncht as back to face the Btorm. The bndget of new 
liluras promptly anloaded. and the under lip of Mr. H. 
llun to close on the upper in a snggestwe manner. He 
looked for a little time, uway over the heads of some boys 
\n the street, and for all the world as if he had jnst re- 
.!ived an order to fix bayonets and repel a charge of 
Mexican lancers (he is a Mexican war veteran): ' He 

SLks rm mistaken does he. by , I guess I know. 

Wberes Wyckoff? He was with me that day. We went 
to Solano connty after grape vmes and started m the 
LrDing. the snow was about two mchcs deep in Wood- 
ZZ\ and by the time we reached Puto ,t had commenced 
' i' and there was no snow south of that .reek. 
M^U.; how do you do; you were here in 1850' 
.' Xo t was down in the tnle country. 
.. Were you here in the Winter of l^Sf.^^^l G? __ 

"Yes. I was stopping with Matt. Harbin at that time. 
"Well, do you remember anything of a snow that 

^^'"ceHai«ly, I do. It was a good while ago but I re- 
member that it astonished me at the time, as I bad sup- 
Cd that snow never fell in this valley. It was abou 
Emas or New Year's. I was sjoppmg over n.ght a 
CacheviUe, and my horse was picketed out. Yes. 1 have 

a very ear recollection of it. I had to turn my horse 

Us3 so that he could brouse. as the snow had covered all I 

the crass. It was 1855, without a doubt. 

AW this time Mr. Wjckoff's genial face appeared. 

J h s vote was cast for 1855. Another man (we have 

r^t V toigei-the move we learned the les-ve toew, 

■:f, .e -^«^Votof t cjrr:; 

and from the fastness of room No. d ot tueora , to haunt another poor devd that is tiym, V 

facts from fiction, in writing history. ^^ 

The plan adopted m writing ^;; JX.^^ ,ior to 

g..oup together ^^^^^^^XS^^ -^' ''^^^^^ 
the time when, m 1850, t^^^ bta „ ^^^ ^^^^. 

H into counties, and S^^ ^.^J^^^'^ainly by subjects, 
and after that date to give the ^^^^^^J' . /j„ ^ chapter 
that is, to Pl--vhatis knownof e t , 
byitself.makingacontinuou narawe ^^^^^.^^ 

from the beginning up *°/^;j ^re, stock-raising, 
schools, societies, churches, ^S^^*^""^ ^ ^^ „ped 
Bwamp-kuds.andaUothevma ersH^ate^nb gi 

undei the head of subjects m the same way. 


Occupation of the Country by Trappers. 

Exp^JWo. U 1820 th. rix»l Eno^ W ^" in 1820-Th.y «« Ham*~« in 

LI. B.y Tr^pp- Enters th. ^f^;^^^^^ ^ , B^»-S.itb !..«» f« tho 
Tapping Gro..a. ot Hi. ow. Oo-P^-'^'.'Xf "?„,^ E.p=ii«on of 1839 «a 1830 

,io» !. 1833 and lB33-Thor A. tb. r« Whlt« ^^ ^^^^^ ^, , no 

Ax, E«PP-a by tho lodlM. to h3^ ^4VmE^^i"— *"^*"^' "''^": 
Bonn^lUo Expadltioa to Calife.ia '" ^f ,^'^^pa.y-Tb= !"« nt » Tra^ 

.Ue ™l.e, o< Cllforeia l.^l^^irrJ^naS 
Nevada a.d Coast o --'^-\„,.„„e n^Ues ia 
miles long, averages a tntle less ^^^^^^_ 

width, andcontain3 20,391square miles. Its general course I 
from the south is in a northerly direction, bearing to the 
west about la^'. Approaching each other through its center 
two large rivers flow; one from its source among the monn- j 
tains bordering upon Oregon; the other from the south 
where the Sierra Nevada and Coast llange lose themselves 
in the Mohave Desert; and joining from the north and 
south, their waters mingle and move away into the ocean 
through the Straits of Carciuiuez and the bays of Suiann, 
San Pablo and San Francisco. These two rivers are 
the channels through which flows back to iU original 
fount the waters cast by the winds in rain aad snow upon 
33,574 square miles of mountains, peaks, slopes and ca- 
nons, flanking this great valley of California. Tliey are 
both fed by numerous small streams, the one north being 
known as the Sacramento, that from the south as the San 
Joaquin; and their names are given to the country 
through which they flow. Thus wo have the great valloy 
divided by names Into lesser ones; starting with Keni on 
the extreme south, borderieg upon the Mohave Desert, 
the Tulare joining on its north followed by the San Joa- 
quin until the north line of the county by that name is 
reached, where the Sacramento-the section m which the 
majoritv of our readers are more especially interestecl- 
begin3."and stretches away to the north one huodred and 
fifty miles to the head of Iron Canon. This last-named 
subdivision of the great valley maintains a gradually dimin- 
ishing width for a distance of uiuetyfivo nules from its 
south liue, starting with a width of about fifty-five nules and 
losinc but ten in that distance north. Beyond that pomt 
the east and west borders approach each other more rap- 
idly until a point is reached fifty-five miles further up a 
the head of Iron Caiion. The Sacramento nver makes its 
rreglv tortuous course through the ^lley approaching 
nearer the Coast range than the Sierra Nevada, and in its 
wTndTngs has established a channel 255 miles long throi^h 
15? miles of low lands. la this great b,ism in various 
' aceThave been found the remains of extinct species o 
ElB-^mong which are those of the hairy elephant tha 
JoUowed upon the track of the receding glaciers, the first 
of krown berbiverous animals to feed upon the 
1 .Inf (he earth-ere man appeared upon the scene- 
nlh stoi- ci: mal that became extinct while the human 
a premsto ic ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ referring 

race ^'^^^ "\^j;f „^^7i^;, ;i,e. describes them as -mere 

" ^f "'v rand S i^ie cav^^^^^^^^ ^^^^''^^^ '"'' '''" 

" ^^'^^"'='' i , Uu pro-ress that some of these troglo- 

;; TSr^t s ufh of France made tolerable carvings in 
" ty^^ ^^ ?1 aw u"S Of various animals upon horn and 
::^rsoTfvot Picturesofthelong-hairedelephantand 
"tusksof ivoi>._ ^ 4, ^ * prove that these artists 

.. of groups of reindeer V ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^^ 

.. ,vere famihar ^itl^ tj^« ^"^^^ ^^^,^.^ t„ the modern 

'■ one (the long-haired E^P^ant) __s ^^ ^^^ ^^^^_ 

" -^'^°%\t r^t-sl- was'found in sinking a 
etonof one of these u^iry . county. It was rest- 

well in Tulare towns^P.^-^^^^^^^ ^^, ^ ,,„ 

i„g upon a bed «^ Jj^*^^;; J^f^j f^e ground. Some of the 
feet ^el- t^e P^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,J, of ages, and Hiram 

hair was yet P'^^^^'T"^ ^ ^j ^.^^^ ,vorc for several years 
Hamilton, an acquaintance of ou ..arse fiber 

a braided watch Cham of the I^^r ^^^^ ^^^ 

about eighteen inches m lengtli, and 

stituting the mane of a horse. 

stitunng bave been recently 

The remains of "^^^J^^^^^'y^ba City, by parties who 
discoveredaboutoaemileaboveYubaL, y.^yi^^^^^.^^^ 

,,ere building a levee on be -st b ^ ^ ^^_^^ .^ 

The remains were found '^''l^\ ^^^ ^^^.j^ee. Some 

a standing position, three ^^fj^'^l^l^ Bank of Wood- 
of tbe teeth weighed 4itt>s^acK ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

land, is a portion of "J"^*; j^^jj feet in length and 
a.imals.whichmea^nre s.a a,a^^ the largest point 
twenty-two inches in circu .^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ 

that in form describes a half ciic^e.p ^^^^^^ 

end of the tusk is gone. a°dj s o . ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^ 
therefore be determined I wa^^« ^^ ^,^ j,,^ 

embededin a cement ^^ar char g^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^.^ 

I of Messrs. Gable ^^rothers oi U ^^^^ ^^^ 

station, in t^^-^-tLvfedtL the hills, considerably 
localitywherei w^^disco-ere ^^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^,^^^^ 

channel some sixteen feet deep in the soil, in its com.e 
towanls lower ground, thus bni.gmg to hght the (oss I 
'^mains. Ovorl^ig the cement, in which it «as fonud. 
are four stratas of deposit, varying (rxun one to fiy feet 
in thickness. Next .hove the cement lies ouo fmHo oaso 
gravel and sand, supporting a three-foot stmta "^ >- - ' ^ 
Sav. on which rests throe feet of adobe, overlaid with t^ 
fee't of sediment surface soil. Within thirty feet of this 
place, two years earlier, in the same cement strata, which 
seem; to contain the romaias of other cotemporan- 
oiis animals, was found the under jaw of some F^b.« - c 
monster that most resembled that o an u. 1 be bono 
i weighed nearly seventy pounds, and its gruider teeth all 
perfect, measured each four and a hall molies -.■«-': J « 
fossil remains of these hairy denuons o the PVelusto i. 
time arc found in fabulous quantities in the (vo/ou regions 
of the north, whme nature so.'m>. to have poured out her 
vials of wrath upon them, entoldiug their ^-l--'^" J" 
fields of ice to keep for the inspection of the present 
gelation. Their ilesh. embalmed in those r"«;yombs 
I often so perfectly preserved that,when thaw.d. dogs eat 
of the animal, possibly ten thousand years dead X s a 
louK way back that those remains curry the fancy, but they 

ll'edown to us from a t''"V^^f '^'^f ^-'"uv to^ul^i 
plan of Creation had not developed sulheieutly to adm. 
mortals among its results; and, because oi its anciea 
Tttis worthy of a place in the memory o men aud 
among the monuments of the pa.t that are no U> be foi- 
grtte!. It brings a strange weird sensation o lo».dmc«s 
ffeeling of isolation, as though iu th.H gi'ea world you 
^ r done, when the mind comes home with the though ; 
Zt once in this now beautiful valley those animal- 
monsters roamed at will, when man was nowhere to bo 
found upon the earth. 

The bones of these ancient mouarchs are not the on y 
rehcs that come to us out of the past from tb.«great Oah- 
fornia valley, for near her borders was found U- "-^ -; 
cient evidence of earth's occupat.oo by man. A human 
sku iw s found imbedded in cement one hundred and 
fiay feet below tlie surface of the ground, two miK. from 
Aueelos in Calaveras county. Over it rested hve d.s 
U^ft deposits of volcanic matter, and four '"jds or layer 
of i^ohl-bearing gravel, solid and compact. In this m las 
I otccumulation through the centuries there was not a 
' ah rdice to have given it access to tbo P - ;b- 
found It must have gained the position when th t at. ata, 
now turned! cement, was the surface of the earth; s.nco 
Xn volcanoes have been horn in those '"ounta.ns tl t 
leThe hand of time extinguished them, had joined the olc- 
mut in five separate efforts, with their fiery outbursts o 
t 1 Ll lava to cover the remains and evidence that 
"ud ^U us oVthe age when this Adam of Califorma 
W But this volumt is not intended as a record of tlio 
dscoveries made in the Sacramento or Great Valley of 
CaUforTa that gives a glimpse of the prehistoric aeimak 
ll^nand thouKb reluctantly, wo must pass the chasm 
" ra^inrthenin^^^^^^^^ tbe shadowy age, 

S: reCrt time when our own. the white race, 
first saw this garden of the Pacific Slope. 

Father Ciespi, a Catholic priest in charge ^^ "" -Pj-' 
in^ expedition, on the 30th day of March 1773, di.cov 
ered X S n Joaquin river at a point now known as Ant - 
t atd his party' were probably the ^-^ .-ep-enta^i c 

a F ;n:hman, changed it to that which they now bear. 

" the Sierra Nevada into Califorma. It that be trii 
thy must have come to aud passed through the Sacra 
^ !^l«v A"ain the same author states that The 
^Tv oYtheTnar , San Joaquin aud Sacramento in 



" mals whose pelts were liighiy prized by these trappers 
^ who rutd h^m. m nun^UA in 1321 and 182-2 as to pro- 
■■ Joce qaite a revenaeto the Mexican Government ^ 
"charged them a license for the privilege of hunting 
, , ♦ • "The American river takes Its 

" name from a company of western trappers ^}'^J;'f °^ 
" its banks for several years between 182-2 and IHSU. 

In JS21, another expedition, acting nnder orders from 
the Governor of California, explored the Sacramento val- 
ley and discovered what is now called the Yuba river, to 
which they gave the name of Uva^a Spanish word 
meaning grapes-becanse of the great quantity of wild 
vines of that species found hanging over its banks. 

Wm. H. Ashley, of St. Louis, Mo., of whom many a 
tale of thrilling mountain adventure is told, in 1824 dis- 
covered the Great Salt Lalco of Utah, and a smaller one 
in its vicinity, that received his name; and he erected a 
fort and established a station close by the latter that wa9 
occupied by his men until he retired from the business. 
He had a partner by the name of Jededlah S. Smith, a 
native of New York, who was equally brave and had bis 
full share of desperate adventure in the wilds of the west. 
In their employ were two men named David Jackson and 
Wm. Sublette, and these men all headed companies of 
trappers in their yearly excursions in quest of furs in the 
new as well as old fields of adventure and profit. lu 182o, 
J S Smith, in charge of a party numbering forty trap- 
pers, some of whom were friendly Indians, left bis ren- 
dezvous on the Yellow Stone river for California, and pass- 
in" througli Western Wyoming, Eastern Utah and SoulU- 
eru Nevada, he finally reached, in July, the San Joaquin 
valley, through what is now known as Walker's Pass. He 
was the first white man known to have passed overland 
from the east to California. There may have been others 
who came overland earlier, but if there were the record is 
lost, and Jedediab S. Smith will stand in history as the 
pioneer overland traveler to visit California. He trapped 
the San Joaquin and its tributaries, passed north into the 
Sacramento, thence up that stream to the American river; 
where he found in the vicinity of the present site of Sac- 
ramento city a camp of American trappers. He continued 
on up the American river, about twenty-two miles, untd 
reaching a point near where Folsom now stands, where 
he established his rendezvous. The season proved a favor- 
able one. His hunters explored the streams of the Sac- 
ramento valley and probably cauglit beaver in Puto and 
Cache creeks. 

In October, in company with two companions, be re- 
crossed tbe mountains, with his furs packed on horses, and 
reached the headquarters of the company, in the vicinity 
of Salt Lake. lu the following spring Mv. Ashley -with- 
drew from the firm, selling his interest to J. S. Smith, 
David Jackson and Wm. Sublette, who, as the Eocky 
Mountain Fur Company, continued tlie business. The 
new firm was so well pleased with Smith's California suc- 
cess that it was determined that he should return to tliat 
section with an additional force. He set out in May, 1826, 
to return to the Sacramento valley, but passed so far soutli 
as to come in contact with the Indians on the Colorado 
river, when all but himself and two companions lost their 
lives in a battle that occurred between his party and the 
natives. The names of his associates that escaped were 
Turner and Galbraith, and the three made their way to 
San Gabriel, in this State, where they were arrested as fil- 
ibnsterers, and sent ta San Diego, but were eventually re- 
leased upon producing satisfactory proof of their peace- 
able designs. The evidence produced by Smith was in 
the form of a certificate from several ship captains that 
chanced to be on the coast with tlieir vessels at the time, 
to the effect that the assumed trappers were unquestionably 
such, and that tlieir passports were, as tbey purported to 
be, from the Superintendent of Indian Aflairs in the United 
States, etc. The certificate by the American ship captains 
bears the date of December 20tb, 1826. On the 19th of the 
following May, five months later, he addressed that pa- 
thetic letter to Father Dnran, at the mission of San Jose', 
in which he said: " I am a long way from home, and am 
"anxious to get there," and signed himself as "Your 
" stiange but real friend and Christian brother."* 

Eventually lie reached his old quarters on the American 
river, and some time during the summer broke camp, and 
with all his party, except the two who bad escaped deuth 
at the Colorado— they remained in Califoniia— went np 
the valley, passed out of it to the west, near its upper ex- 
tremity, and, reaching the ocean, moved north again, until 
once more all of his men, except two, fell victims to the 

' See pago 9 of Stnte History. 

treachery Of the Indians. This last tragedy occurred near 

Company where they were kindly received. J'- \"^»^^ 
the resident agent of that company a P^'^P^f^^" ^"^j;" 
effect that if he would send a force and recover his propeity 
lost a the Umpqua river, that he would ether furnish a 
luide o go himself and conduct a party of Hudson Ba 
frapperlto the beaver-stocked riversot Culifoi-uia; and an 
Sngementwasenteredintoupon that basis. Anexpedi- 

t ion was accordingly fitted out, that visited the scene of W 
aster, severely chastised the Indians, and procured ^he^ost 
property, with which Smith and a portion of the Hudson 
S7men returned to the fort. The balance, under the 
leadership of Alexander Roderick McLeod, entered Cah- 
forn at the winter of 1827-8,t by the way that Smith had 
left it, and trapped the waters of the Sacramento valley 
In the early part of the following winter he passed on up 
into the mountainous counU-y north, and was caught by 
the winter snows in what is now Shasta county, on the 
viver that has since borne his name. The company nai- 
rowly escaped the fate that befell the since amous Donner 
party They lost all their horses, and finally cached then- 
furs that all spoiled before they could bo removed and 
made their way out oyer the snow from the first starva- 
tion camp in California.'' 

To say the river has since borne McLeod's name would 
be wrong, for with an inexcusable carelessness it is p aced 
upon the map of California as McCloud, in very much the 
same spirit that one would use, if the opportunity was pre- 
sented, the bath tub of Constantine for a pig trough, or 
stop up a hole in a window with the original Declaration 
of Independence. In very much the same way the creek, 
forming the southern boundary-line of Yolo county was 
changed from Puto, so called after a tribe of Indians, 
that lormerly lived along its banks, to Putab, a Spanish 
word meaning a prostitute. The people of the two counties 
that it divides should see that the old and right numeis 
retauied, or it will bear to the coming generations a sig- 
nificance not creditable to those who live there now. 

Upon the return to Vancouver, another trapping party 
was sent out, under charge of Captoin Peter Ogden a 
native of New York, and Smith accompanied it. They 
passed up the Columbia and Lewis rivers to the source 
of the latter, where Smith left them and sought the 
trapping grounds of his own— the Kocky Mountain Fur 
Company. In 1830, he visited St. Louis, Mo., where he 
sold his interest in the business, and in 1831 started from 
Missouri to visit Santa Fe, New Mexico, in charge of 
eleven teams, and when camped by the dry bed of the 
Cimeron river, near Teas, while digging in its sand for 
water, was ambushed by Indians, and killed by a shot in 
the back Mr. P. S. Chiles, living in this county, near Davis- 
ville has been at the place where he fell. They buried him 
out there, upon the plains, in the dry sand of the Cimeron 
channel, where soon the rushing waters of that stream 
would sweep a torrent over the lost grave— of all that was 
left, except in the pages of history— of the California 
pioneer, who first passed from ocean to ocean across the 
continent of America through our golden State. 

The company of trappers, under Captain Ogden, whom 
Smith had left on Lewis river, passed through Utah and 
Nevada, finally entering the San Joaquin valley, by the 
way of what has since been known as Walker's pass. 
having traversed about the same route passed over by 
Smith when he first entered California. The Ogden party 
trapped north, until the upper limits of the Sacramento 
valley w6re reached, and then returned to Fort Vancouver, 
by the same way that Smith and McLeod had reached 
that fort. 

In the Winter of 1829-30, Ewing Young, with a party, 
entered the San Joaquin valley, through the Walker pass, 
and trapped the waters of that valley and the streams 
emptying into the Tulare lake. He was a native of Ten- 
nessee, and had for several years previous been in charge 
of trapping expeditions into the country lying in the vici- 
nity of the Upper Del Norte, and bead waters of the 
Grand and Colorado rivers. 

In the Spring or Summer of 1832, Michael Laframbois, 
in charge of a company from Fort Vancouver, entered the 
Great valley, trapped its rivers as far south as Tulare lake, 
and returned over the usual route to Fort Vancouver, in 
the following Spring. 

In the Fall of the same year, 1832, when Lefraraboia 
was in the valley, Ewing Young returned to it, entering 

.. m « 1 1._ :^ ^ ^^ ^ i m,w. fvnm T .n(? A iirrAli-in lufi-l.^ m 

I The entry of McLeod iuto CalitoriiU ami his ilisQstor on tlio rivtr lieur- 
iiig his name is givfu by eamo nuthora us oocurring iu ilia Intler pnrt of 

the Tulaie lake country from Los Angeles, by the way of 
"CaJnuUelos Uvax" (Fort Tejon route). His inteutions 
being to hunt the country he had previously traversed. 
The party passed around the lakes, leaving them to their 
left, until, arriving at King's river, they ascended that 
stream to the foot-hills, where it was abandouea, and the 
whole party moved north, reaching the Sau Joaquin 
where it passes out of tho mountains into the valley. A 
halt was made at this place until a canoe could be lunde, 
that, when completed, was placed in charge of a couple of 
trappers, who passed down the water course in it until 
they reached the month of the Merced river. Tboy were 
joined here by the balance of the party, who had skirled 
the foot-hills, reaching the last named river, when Ihey 
passed down to its mouth. On both those streame were 
found evidence of their having been recently visited by 
other trappers. This caused Young to strike aeioss the 
country, with tho purpose of getting in advance o[ those 
who were heading him. Ho reached the Sacramento river, 
about ton miles below the present site of Sacramento city, 
where he found Laframbois and his party. Tho Ameri- 
can company pushed on up tho river to a point whore the 
town of Fremont was started, in 1849, at tho mouth of 
Feather river, on tho west side of the Sacramento. Hero 
they left that stream, passed up Cache creek, and camped 
for a time, not far from what is now called the Adoho 
ranch, in Capay valley 

This was in the Fall of 1832, and the following Summer 
an epidemic swept the whole of the great valley as clear 
of Indians as though it had been the day of final reckoning; 
those not stricken fled to the mountains, and some of tlieir 
descendants— a little band of possibly fifteen— still live in 
Capay valley. Their chief, who spealcs the English lan- 
guage plainly, says, that the first white men ever 
there came and camped for a few days, hunted for 
game, and then went away over the mountains to the west; 
and when they were gone the plague came, and his father 
and mother and all his friends died, and they believed 
it to be the party of whites who " brought the groat Death 
with them." Colonel J. J- Warner, of Los Angeles, was 
a member of the Ewing Young party, who camped ia 
Capay valley, in 1832,* and from him we learned the par- 
ticulars of the two-year bunt, and combining the Indian 
legend with his narrative, it makes the evidence conclusive 
that they were there, and were the first of their race in 
that valley. Ten years later, Wm. Gordon settled on 
Cache creek, and became the firat white man to locate in 
what is now Yolo county. 

This company of trappers in moving west eventually 
reached the Pacific Ocean, and passing to the north anived 
at the scene of Smith's disaster on the Umpqua river. 
From there they recrossed the mountains to the east, and 
finally re-entered in the Winter of 1833-34, the Great 
valley from the north, trapped its numerous streams aod | 
passed out as they came by the way of Fort Tejon. The 
particulars of their passage to the south through it wiU j 
be given more fully under the beading of " The Scoarge of 
1833 among the Indians." 1 

Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville explored the Eocky moun- | 
tains, starting In 1831 from the States, and fitting out a 
party of about forty sent them from Green river in July, 
1833 to explore the countiy called Cahfornia. They passed 
through the Humboldt valley, entered that of the Sacra- 
mento, aud passed to the south as far as Monterey. They 
then returned by way of the southern route, commit- 
ting on tho wav numerous acts of barbarism, in kilJmg 
without cause 'the Indians as they would a coyote or a 
wolf. The same year Capt. Joseph Walker entered the 
San Joaquin valley through the pass that has smce borne 
his name, and wintered there. These were the last Amer- 
ican trapping companies to visit this section of conntij', 
the date of their final exit being the Winter of 183if-4, tue 
season of the scourge. 

The Hddson Bay Company. 
J. Alex. Forbes, in connection with W. G. Ray. took 
charge in 1833 of the California Department of the Hud- 
son Bay Company's business. Their headquarters were 
at Xerba Buena until 1845, when the depai-tmeut was sus- 
pended. During this time their nearest trappmg station 
to headquarters was at French Camp, in San Joaqum 
county, and they had another at French Camp, m \oio 
county; it was located about one mile east from Cacbeviu , 
on the north bank of the Creek, in a grove of oak timber. 
The circumstances under which that company first visite 
the Sacramento valley have nlveady been noted as well fts 

Plate N912 

Plate H° 13 

0£: PUE A CO. Pua s f" 




the expedition under A. B. McLeod, in 1827, followed by 

PcterOgdcD, who retarned to Vanooverio 1830, and that 
of M. LafrauiboiB id the Winter of 1832, that returned in 
1833. The leaders of the succeeding espeditions for the 
balfiDce of the time that the trappers of that company vis- 
ited the valley— the h-Lst being in the Winter of 184i-5 
were M. LaframboiH, assisted by a half-breed named Fin- 
Icy, Bucceeded by Ermetiuger, who conducted the last 
expedition into thia eeotioD of country before the field won 

After iho return of Ermetinger to the fort he was so 
injudicious aa to marry a woman he loved without first ob- 
taining the coubent of the company. It was against their 
policy to allow their men to burden themselves with a 
family, because they would outer reluctantly upon expe- 
ditions that were likely to cause a protracted separation. 
This flagrant bniuch of discipliue was considered to be 
oue that called fur a punishment that would serve to pre- 
vent a repetition of the offence, and the unfortunate Erme- 
tinger was ordered to head an expedition at once, its 
destination being Siberia. Through long years he was 
kept among those frozea regions, always moving u little 
further from the young bride that had been left behind, 
uutil he lind passed through the frigid zone overland to 
St. Petersburg, in Eussia. It's all a sad tale, a 
romance in real life; oue of those events that proves 
truth to be stranger than fiction. The years passed by, 
and the young wife growing old watched at the outer door 
for one that never came. The snows of the mauy winters 
had began to leave their color on her raven locks ere the 
hope faded from her heart, and with it the spirit that had 
become a burden, leaving behind to greet him, on his re- 
turu a grave only and a brolien life, when Ermetinger 
should seek, as an old man, the bride of his early years. 

The Hudson Bay trappers had no collisions with the na- 
tives in the valley that is remembered by Mr. Forbes; if 
any, they were of a trivial nature. The company's mode 
of dealing with the Indians was to fulfill promises, punish 
severely any hostile or treacherous acts, and never allow 
one to approach a camp line or enter it without permission 
and strict surveillance. The result was that as the savages 
could get no undue advantage they avoided hostile acts. 
Had Jododiah S. Smith practiced a similar policy, the 
American, instead of the English trappers would have 
gathered the rich harvest of valuable California furs. The 
party of trappers that visited this section were termed by 
the company the " Southern trapping party of the Hudson 
Bay Company." They numbered about fifty, und were 
divided up into small parties. There was also a class of 
men who were termed "free trappers," who purchased their 
outfits from the company on condition of selling to no one 
else their furs. They received ten shillings, or two and a 
half dollars, for a beaver skin. The winter season was the 
time for trajiping because of the better quality of furs dur- 
ing that portion ot the year. In the summer the company 
allowed their men to hunt elk or deer, and tan their hides 
for their own benefit. 

The successful occupation ot the valley by Capt. J. A. 
Sutter iu later years was due largely to the wholesome fear 
by the Indians of whites, that had become a fixed influ- 
ence with those natives from their intercourse with the des- 
perate, reckless men that constituted the hunting and trap- 
ping parties of those early days, and to the further fact 
that they were given to understand by Mr. Forbes that 
Sutter was the friend of the Hudson Bay company, and to 
molest him would be considered au act tor which the com- 
pany would hold them responsible. 


From Settlement of the Valley in 1839 up to Organi- 
zation of the County. 

Capt J. A. SDtto ft« Fi«t 3«lUar in th. Great Vall.r-Somi, of ths TrW. Indaenllo 
Hi! Ewly Oecapitloo ot t!i= Ooaatrr-Bulj Saltkn Ea wtit is now Yolo Countr- 
On, of tb> THrlUias Aa«iitura in tlio Eirly Lif» ot Wm. Gordon-Hs Att^npW W 
Hwg Jadp, KncpV-S^mtttiag co.wrolng Wild tHm. Toucd by ths P.oemt, 
Id iii. S=r.ioiL-ArUd« <.f Tr3ffic to Early Tim.^Tlio Gordon Grant-D^^t 
HunMof CadiBCiwk. iKia 

Hathao Cwnto ^«.m=s a Oili«n of YolQ-He Hftrrowly Eiawi Dm* in m '^^^' 
with a Orinly B«r, being Savisd hj tho Coartge snJ BbrewdMss of a Do;--TboDU 
J. 8b!dd« an E«lr 3*ltlet-Thom» M. Harfj and Wh^t U Known of a=i-Wm. 
Kniglit and tom. Inddails ot Hi. Llffl-Tbe FlBt Hoa» BnmBd and tl.» Furt l*g- 
honis Boitt ia tlio Conaly. 

n* Bdwiiti Onal Ml BtaMkiac Ononlsf A> llM-Tki Onga Fkitj of ISH TWI 
e«<«n(kck* OrMk-Tha Dlftnu KMitK* <rf U> Fatty ul tktTnffie E^l*«l 

B«u of Bm -Th« FliM WUiBT«uaUTaI«CaKMy.aal3W8^ru>rfBw 
I^Un iaklt -FnM> Fln-Brl a»l e«ift )te &tt>« to Up HkUlKW - Hv 
riw fmtal^ labi U. (W*^-Th* Hnt )brrta<>, WtUl^c T»f a«4 Brt«.1 Btf 
pn ta Iota Otstr. 

Flm Onla nlnd in tU f*iily-Ort(« Piny Ebsp br a T!a» In Capy V»Uiy anl 
fcMaH«n-£aaUiCUU0rant-3. D CliM .Bd Mfcn Flm 'Viii* ikliTalltj- 
Koljfafi Boom EmM a>d tba Ffnt L^h««a( enctad. 


Ib« Finl WUu CUld Bora-Juua VcDotll Scttlu wbtit WiaUagtoB now li-Sos^ 
thioj of HIi Ult ud Drath-Tbt Firat Bd-m Sisona mad* in Callfsmifc-WUlUm 
Kolgbfi Firtt Atlempt at Eatilsg Oraln-A Prinatin Uoda of Hajnwiag-CUada 
di Otpiy Onst-SnfBbf* Oranl-A aUm-hnatlos EijadiUoi-EMklri Hmia and 
Party Pia Qordiin'i bo Ihdr »»y U Capton Coioma - NioiH of IhoM »bo Jainad 
lhrai(roaiTol»a-onty-ArTlnlof Majors. Coop«r and Fariy— J. B. Wolfiklll inak« 
the CompatLj a Preient In bli CiiaraeteriiUc way- An E»tr«rt frea Llol. E. Bryiol'a 
Jowoal Sagatdiag Hia Jonniy tbrcng^ I^li Coonty Bacraltigg br Fnmonl. 

Tbs Fint Femalo WUta Chill Bora in th» Oaaoty-DHtli ol lb« OH Moanlalnt«r Tnraw 
-Paddy Olaik Ballli a fl»uaj In Cajuy VaJIty with a VIbw of ICaUog Bit Fotore 
Bomo iben~£oise thing of Eit Ufa and Hyiteiiaiu Diupp»annc»-BIa BaUlo WItb 

I>^'t8 iiixl ISIU. 

Toio'B Teat of Bolltode-Hlitory ot lb* ViUapi of Pntnoat. where the Flnt Slaw a&d 
Hole] wen Opened and th« Fint PiMcblng and Uaiiei In the Conn^ Took Flaco-A 
Ccaple oF InddenU Cbarieterlatlc of the Time— D, W. EdHn [dcked np fi» » Onen- 
boro-Iho SeltloM ollB19-Vota ot Koiember. 

ISaO to 1H93. 

Organijatloo ot Tolo CooDty-lti Andenl LInei-eocet jlog o( lb* Fint Conaty Etertloa 
— ABieainjtnt HoU of 1660— Soao of tbo Beltlen ot tbit Tear not In the L'jt-Tha 
Fint Joorth of Joly Oelobtatlon-Prltei of lB50-Drownlng of Joeh Harbin In Caihe 
Creek-Tho Fir« Connly Convent Iod-1 be Vldnlly of Woodland Id 1852-Popnlatlon 
and EeaonrcBi ot Ibo Connty u per Cenioi of that Tear- Election Betoroi of 1853. 

The First Settler, 

The firat white man to settle in the Great Valley was 
John A. Sutter. He was born in Baden, Germany, Febru- 
ary 28th, 1803, of Swiss parents, and upon arrival at man- 
hood became a captain iu the French army. Being of an 
adventurous nature, and having become tired of European 
affairs, he abandoned forever his country and sailed for 
America, lauding in New York in July, 1834. He imme- 
diately set out for the West, and wlien passing through 
New Mexico iu the same year learned from trappers — pos- 
sibly some of Smith's men — of the attractions that ren- 
dered the Sacramento valley his beau ideal of a country 
to settle in. It was April 1st, 1838, before he finally set 
out from Missouri, intent ujion reaching the place that 
the trappers had described to him in California. He 
reached Fort Vancouver, Oregon, and finiilly the Sandwich 
Islands, in 1838, and leaving the latter place sailed with 
his colonists — picked up in those islands— for Sitka, Rus- 
sian America. From Sitka he sailed down the coast at 
last master of an opportunity to reach the country he had 
been striving to enter since his first arrival on the coast. 

On the 2d of July, 1839, he cast anchor iu the harbor at 
Terba Buena, after having been tor five years searching 
out a place in America where he would be willing to settle 
and make his future home. He was promptly ordered by 
the Spanish authorities to leave, but was granted forty- 
eight hours in which to repair damages that the vessel had 
received in a storm, and at the expiration of that time he 
again put to sea, directing his course for Monterey, where 
he proposed laying his project before the California au- 
thorities. Governor Alvarado, on learning his purpose, 
and that he desired to settle in the country away to the 
north, where neither the civil or military power of Cal- 
ifornia was recognized by the natives and hostile tribes 
of Indians, was very much pleased, and with cordiality at 
once granted Sutter's request of being permitted to take 
possession of that region for himself, subject to Alvarado's 
jurisdiction. The Captain was given to understand that 
after he had selected a location on the Sacramento river, 
and had occupied it for one year, that he would be given a 
citizenship and title to the land, as well as civil and mili- 
tary jurisdiction of the country. 

He returned to Terba Buena, and sent the brig back to 
the Sandwich Islands, and purchasing some launches, he 
chartered a small schooner, "The Isabella, "and made his 
-way to the mouth of Feather river. He explored that 
stream in his small boats, but found on his return to the ves- 
sel that his crew were in a state of mutiny. They insisted 
upon being permitted to return with the schooner to Verba 
Buena. The captain took the matter under advisement, 
and informed them that he would give an answer on the 
following morning. When that time arrived, he, without 
giving anyreplyto the demand of the previous night, gave 
orders to drop down the stream, and, of course, was 
obeyed promptly, as it was an apparent compliance with 
their wishes. Arriving at the mouth of the American 
river, he entered it and, saUing up the stream a short dis- 

tance, disembarked his effects. This was on the I'Jih of 
August, 1839, and frt>ra that time vommonoos the settle- 
ment ot the valley, although it had been previously oc- 
cupied by trapiiers for at least nineteen yt'ars. 
I At last he was on land, iu the valley that hiul beon, fi>r 
I five yeant. the goal of his ambition, with munition of 
! war — iuolnding three cannon fur defence- with articles of 
husbandry, for the tillage of the soil; with eight Kanakas 
(two with familiea.l still faithful, and sis mutinous whito 
men, three of whom were mechanics. As soon as the 
tents were pitched, the cannon in position, to iutiniidato 
any hostile Indians, and his camp properly arningcd for 
temporary occupancy, the captain called amund him the 
six men, who had como so noitr dashing all hia ho]iofl, 
and requested them to ul onco decide upon their future 
plan of action. He gave them to understand, that the 
schooner would return to Yoiba Buena, and if ihoy wore 
disposed to abnnduii him, that this was their favoiablo 
opportunity for doing so; lliat ho would nilhi'i- bo left 
alone than have unwilling associiites, and for them to 
remain clieertully or go on the " Isabella " that would sail 
the next morning. The feeling with which ho walked 
away, to give those men an opportunity to privately delib- 
erate upon and decide whether they would slay or go, was 
possibly not written upon hiw face; _V('t it wns a tiniu of 
terrible suspense, and the result was awaited with an 
anxiety, so acute, that ho could never, in after life, refer 
to it without emotion. Hu had ventured to this isolated 
locality, among the not friendly and possibly hostile In- 
dians, beyond any hope of assistance in case of an emer- 
gency — except to bo avenged by his friend Forbes, with 
the Hudson Bay trappers, provided ho and his party were 
massaorcd — and the question of being abandoned there, 
by those upon whom ho had principally relied ia 
placing himself in the position, was one that could have 
been contemplated by that brave old pioneer, in the then 
wilderness, only with feelings of burning Indignation and 
intense anxiety. His feelings can be bettor iniat^incd than 
described, when he was informed that throe of them would 
remain. The residt was so much better than he antici- 
pated, that the departure on the following day of the 
renegades, was viewed with a sentiment only of digust, 

Thia was the commencement. Soon the natives begun 
to make themselves familiar, and not having suflicient re- 
spect for the laws of ownership, were given a few lessons 
by the Captain's orders that soon convinced theiu that the 
new colony were not disposed to be mild-mannered in their 
handling of thieves. But tiiough they had apparently all 
become "good Ingins,' they had not abandoned the do- 
sire to possess the property of the settler, and plotted to 
obtain it iu the mode peculiarly Indian. The result of 
their efforts in this line has been given by Dr. J. F. 
Morse, who learned them direct from the Captain, and the 
following is from his pen: 

"Their intercourse was at once distinguished by acta of 
" kindness, by freedom of communication, and even by 
" manifesting an interest in sharing some ot the toils and 
" hardships of the colonists. By this condnct they ac- 
" quired the confidence of the Captain and his associates, 
" and lulled them into a conviction of security that came 
" near fixing their fate forever. Indeed, nothing rescued 
" them from a wily and malignant plot of assassination but 
" the superior instinct and vigilance of an immense buU- 
" dog belonging to the Captain, and whose claims as an 
" integral and fortunate portion of the colony have been 
" almost criminally overlooked. 

" A few of the most daring Indians had determined, as 
" soon as they discovered a sufficient lack of caution on 
" the part of the whites, to 8f«al upon them in the night 
" with such a force as to enable them to murder the eii- 
" tire company at a single blow. In the day-time they 
" were around the camp exhibiting a kindness, a familiar- 
" ity, and a general friendliness which was rapidly con- 
" ciliating the good-will of the coloni.sts, and for the time 
" being overruled the suspicions of the faithful bulldog. 
" So well did they perform their part iu the maturing con- 
" spiracy that the captaiu and his friends began to wel- 
" come night and sleep without the disagreeable necessity 
" of a constant sentinelship. This was recognized with o 
" sort of savage congeniality by the villainous conspira- 
" tors. They watched its progress with the eagerness of 
" fiends, and yet were never surprised into a betrayal of 
"their own feelings. One precaution after another was 
" abandoned until little show of suspicion was evinced, 
" and then the Indians prepared for the contemplated 
" slaughter. Furnishing themselves with hunting knives, 
" procured from the southern tribes in trade, they sallied 
" out one night at an hour when all was silent and qniet 



" in the camp of the coloniste, and stealthfally crawled ap 
" towards tlie tents. All this far was raost promising to 
" their appetite for vengeance and plnnder. Every one of 
" the tired eolonists were bnried in sleep, while their ap- 
" preaching mnrderorB had stolen in perfect secarity to 
" within a few feet of the intended victims; and the ring- 
" leader, in advance of the rest, was about crawling into 
" the month of the old captain's tent. Fortonately for the 
" unsuspecting adventarers, who were upon the very verge 
•* of an awful slaaghter, there was a friendly sentinel 
"about that never slept, whoso instinct was the watch- 
" word of fidelity, and whose sense of danger could be 
" aroused where stillness reigned. Thus was it with the 
'^ noble old bulldog referred to. Close to his master's 
" tent, concealed from view by darkness of night, he 
" watched the movements of the murderous wretches until 
j " he could stand their impudence no longer, and then, se- 
I " lecting the boldest one, he pounced upon him without a 
1 *' bark or growl, and sinking his teeth into a protuberant 
" angle of his body, he put the speediest possible end to 
" the conspiracy. The air was instantly filled with the 
" piteous yelh of the ring-leader, whose misery and tor- 
" ment, and the cause thereof, the accomplices did not 
" stop to investigate. The camp was of course aroused, 
" and who ever has observed or experienced the power of 
•• a bulldog's grip can appreciate the difficulty of the In- 
•' dian attempting his escape. Instinct, which in this case 
" was a sort of apoateriori argument, induced the villain to 
" throw away his intended instrument of destraction, and, 
" assuming a less criminal intent, get some of the cap- 
''^ tain's men to choke off the dog. In this he succeeded 
" so well as to escape the punishment due him, and twice 
' afterwards wore similar stratagems concocted and each 
^' time defeated through the sagacity of this noble animal. 
" The nature of the conspiracies were revealed to the cap- 
" tain subsequently by his civilized and educated In- 
" dians. 

" Before Captain Sutter came up the river, he pur- 
" chased a number of horses aud cattle from the ranchoof 
" Senor Martinez; but it was with great difficulty that he 
" succeeded in getting his stock up to his station. The 
" Indians were so troublesome, that he had to detail 
" almost the whole of his force from the camp, and then 
" they could barely accomplish the undertaking. They 
" did, however, finally get to their new home about five 
"hundred head of cattle, fifty horses, and a 'manada' 
" of twenty-five mares. 

"Prior to the arrival of the stock, they had subsisted 
"principally upon gams, elk, deer, bear, etc., which es- 
" isted in great abundance, and which, probably, consti- 
"tuted the principal subsistence of Captain ' Joseph 
" Walker, in the year 1833. 

" After the captain had got his stock together, and after 
" he had succeeded in getting the natives to render him 
" some assistance, he began to lay out different and more 
" substantial plans for the future. The site first selected 
" he did not feel satisfied with, and accordingly changed 
" his location, from the bank of the American, up to the 
^1 present location of the Old Fort. With the Indians 
" and his own men, he soon made enough adobes 
" to build one good-sized house and two small ones, 
" within the grounds afterwards enclosed by the walls of 
" the fort. His Kanakas built themselves three grass 
" houses, such as they were iu the habit of living in at the 
" Sandwich Islands. These houses, which were subse- 
" quently burned, afforded them very comfortable quar- 
" ters during their first rainy season or winter. 

" At the same time that he was prosecuting these 
" important and very commendable improvements^at the 
" fort, he was also employing a number of his friendly 
" Indians in opening a road direct to the Sacramento, 
" where it was intersected by the American. After com- 
" pleting this road of communication, which required a 
" vast deal of labor, on account of the almost impenet-a- 
" ble chapparel, through which the road had to be cut, 
" He named his landing place upon the main river, his 
" Embarcadora," now the city of Sacramento." 

In lSi2, Captain Sutter, with forty white men and about 
150 Indians, made a visit to -the place where Colusa now 
stands, and in the night attacked a rancheria of Indians 
kdlmg about one hundred and capturing as many more' 
The startled victims were first warned of an enemy's pres- 
ence by the burning rushes of the cabins iu which they 
were sleeping, and many perished in the flames. It was 
done iu retaliation for aa attack made by those Indians a 
feft- days before, upon a party coming from Oregon under 
charge of L. W. Hastmgs, in which none of the company 
were hurt, but twenty-two of the assailants were killed. 


The location by Sutter was a nucleus of strength and 
ouon became a point where the stray hunter made his reu- 
! dez^-ons, and it thus became a place of importance and an 
i encouragement to settlement in the country. 

Early Settlers in what is now Xolo Codntv. 
In 1812, J. B. Wolfskin became the first settler on Puto 
creek, but his cabin was south of it, and consequently not 
in what has since become Yolo county. A few weeks later, 
within the same year, Wra. Gordon moved with his fam- 
ily from Los Angeles to this section, and located on the 
north side of Cache creek, where ho built a house by set- 
ting poles on end, filling thecracks between with mud aud 
covering the structure with oak shakes, This was the 
pioneer habitation of Yolo county, and the occupant was 
to this section what Sutter was to the vallev — the pioneer 
and nucleus of future settlement, 

Twenty-two years before the Spanish explorers, under 
Argiiello, passed north between the river nud foot-hills. 
Ten years earlier Ewing Young's trappers camped on 
Cache creek, at the mouth of Capay valley. Since the early 
traversing of the Great Valley by the Hudson Bay men, they 
had, when in this vicinity, rendezvoused at French camp, be- 
low the present site of Cacheville. Possibly many others 
stopped for a time or bunted near the waters of Puto and 
Cache creeks, and then, like the leaves from the beautiful 
oaks along those streams, passed on their way and left no 
trail; but Wm. Gordon was the first who came here, seek- 
ing rest from his wanderings, and to make of the country a 
home for his family. 

This pioneer Yolo settler was bom in Adam's county, 
Ohio, September 16th, 1801, and being of a venturesome 
nature his fancy was caught by the indistinct glimmer that 
came to him from the Far West, of a country where the 
snow never faded from its mountain peaks, where the flow- 
ers blossomed in its valleys all the year round; a country 
where as yet the wild game had not been taught to flee at 
the crack of the hunter's deadly rifle-a hunter's paradise 
—where the Indian st'dl roamed undisturbed monarch of 
all. At eighteen years of age he left his home, and with 
his rifle for a companion started for the country of his 
fancy dreams, and two years later was hunting in the Rocky 
mountains, a pursuit he followed until some four years 
later, when he met with an adventure that caused him to 
abandon it forever as a business. In the Wiuter of 1825 
the same year that Smith's party first saw this valley and 
Cahforma, Mr. Gordon was hunting with a companiou 
named Cooper in the Eocky mountains. They had been out 
about four weeks, and had taken quite a large stock of furs 
and were about to return to the settlements. They were 
camping on the side of a mountain, and having seen no si-ns 
of Indians went to sleep by their camp fire, unsuspicious of 
danger. For tne first time since going on this hunt Mr Gor- 
don removed his powder-horn,and placed it beside him as he 
aid down to rest. Some time in the night he was awakened 
by a stinging sensation in the side, and springing to his 
feet, r.fle m hp, he received a spear thruft in'the breast 

hand ^ fl "''P?' '"■"'^^^ ^-^ *''« mountaineer's 

hand- he nfle-caused his assailants to recoil for a 
moment from the assault. He glanced around, and aw 
by the flickering light of the camp-fire, the forms of 
savages on every side. Giving his sleepiig-compaln a 
vigorous thrust with his foot, to arouse him'from'such an 
unaccountable slumber-poor Cooper was dead-he sud 
deny comprehended the full calamity, and instantly bxng- 

ng to bearhis rifle upon the Indians in front, they sprau. 
to one side to get out of its deadly range, and thus Lf! 
an opening, through which, as the stag'' boundrp L ed 

he vanishmg form of the hunter. In the gloom beyond 
he was out of sight in a moment, followed bv ^.ZT ' 
volley of bullets and arrows, that o ly setve^i t^^^^^^^^^^ 
possible, to increase the speed of the'^ruoner Dow T 
side of the mountain he went, barefooted :ihoutamr 

flung it away. His moccasins were soon worn out aid l'" 
frozen feet left their bloody trail in the snow ' if t'" 
condition he pursued his weary, painful almost hnl 
journey, slowly away from the sce'ne of Jl^ dislj aI 
the fourth day was drawing to a close, he dragged M^^i' 
more dead than alive-frozen bleediu" f.nT i f , 
emaciated-to the door of a heS'cabrn a , "' 
saved. This was his last hunt in the RoX Lnnf ""' 
and he never returned to the scene of tt t'a "d" S 
bones of the unfortunate Cooper are still cter'ed by 
Winters snows, and bleached by Summer's suns up 

there in that lone place among the eliffg ^yj. 

down to sleep that night by the camp fire.' ^^° '"'^ 

After Mr. Gordon's recovery, he went to Santa P- 
remained there nineteen years, until ISil wl ,^'^"3 

family, he came by the southern route with tlilV'?''''' 
party to California, making a mission not fur f '"°'"' 
Angeles, his home until tlie summer of the fnll,^ '°'° ^* 
(1842). when his permanent location was made "'"n^'"' 
creek, in what is now Yolo county. He was t" ^'^^^ 
cated man, but possessed a fund of sterlintr Jl. ^^ ^^'^' 
ideaof thedoctiine of rewards and punisLent^'fi: "" 
m life that le common among men whose lives I,«™ i, 
spent on the frontier. ^™ ''een 

An incident occurred in this county, on an earlv dnv ti. . 
Illustrates not only hisopinioii of the magnitude of (I,/' ■ 
of theft, but that of a immorous clas^ipoa th 17' 
thafctimfi. TI.A;»fl.,.-»F; ;„„..-. . '"^""/"'s coast rtt 

that time. The influx of immigration had inelude/aTl 
portion of the criminal classes of the world and si. 7" 
had become so extensive and wholesale a bnsinesa tbnnl!^ 

citizens had inaugurated lynch law, and were in tho k li 
of hanging people sometimes that wore not gniltv witI,J 
any process of law. The Legislature of 1851 tLljiT ' 
check the increasing feeling of lawlessness in tbe Stn^ Z 
passing an act legalizing whipping and hanging „g ^ p J 
ishment for theft Mr. Gordon was at the time a J^o 
of the Peace, and in this county there was piobablv „oro 
stock stolen than in any other locality in the State H 
had become fully aroused to the necessity of doiiKrsome 
thing to check or stop it. when a case seemed to Jreparo 
Itself to his hand. A citizen of the county by the name of 
John C. Murphy (who was later elected Judge of Mono 
county; lived some four miles north of the present site 
of the town of Winters. He was passing with a loaded 
wagon througn the country, somewhere in the nelglibor 
hood of Cache creek, and in going through soma mud hia 
wagon stuck fast. He was in what miglit be termed a 
" fix;" but discovering a corral in which tLere were somo 
loose mules, he harnessed a couple of them, and hitched 
tbem to his "outfit." and freed it from its danger of 
becoming a fixture. Thislittle raauceuvre of the Judge woa 
observed by a son of Wm. Gordon, to whom the mulea be- 
longed, who, with excited e.xpeclancy, flew to Ihepaternnl 
presence with the exhileratiug news that some one was 
then engaged in the very prevalent practice of stealing tbt 
gentleman's stock. S. U. Chase, now living in Cqiay 
valley, was a deputy sheriff at that time, and chanced to 
be present. He was instantly dispatched to bring the 
criminal into Court, and Mr. Murphy was caught with fie 
appropriated mules before he had unhitched them, after 
getting his load out of the mud. He was taken forthwitli 
before Mr. Gordon, who, as Justice of the Peace, pro- 
ceeded to try his case without delay. The prisoner de- 
manded a jury trial, but the Court decided that, as tbe 
province of jurors was to decide questions of fact npoa 
which to render a decision of guilt; in the pending case 
there was nothing for a jury to do. The accused was caugbt 
m the act. and there only remained a necessity for tbo 
Court to decide what tlie penalty should be. " But," said 
the accused, "I think the Court is prejudiced and an in- 
terested party, and not a proper one to try tin's case. Ifl 
can't have a jury trial I demand a change of venue. At 
this stage of the proceedings. Archie McDonald bapiiened 
in. and being acquainted with all the parties took a lively 
interest in what was going on. " You waut to get ofl/'said 
Gordon, "and be tried by that Washington fellow, do 
" you. I reckon not much; why, man, he'd be a darned 
" sight harder on you than I would. I shan't be unrea- 
" able in the matter. It's my mules you stole, and I'll let 
" you off a heap sight easier than I would if they belonged 
" to some one else." McDonald, seeing that the matter ■ 
was becoming serious, tapped Mr. Gordon on the shoal- , 
der, and, as that gentleman turned to see who was getting | 
so familiar with the Court, saw his friend Mac, who I 
winked in a mysterious way and nodded towards the door. ' 
That wink and nod were raastorpiecesof art in themsehes, } 
aud they said to the winkee: "Important, sh-h-h-h— ! 
something new; just a second outside." And when the \ 
two men were beyond the reach of listeners, Mae turned J 
upon the Justice with a look that seemed to say. "well, old | 
" pard, my six-shooter backs whatever you conclude to do, 
" but let's have an understanding before it comes off." 
After taking the squire by the arm, Mac approached the 
subject of his misgivings with—" I say, Gordon, are you 
"going to let Murphy have a change of venue!" "Not by 

^ sight!" "Do you 'spose he really intended to 

steal those mules ?" queried Mac. " Steal 'em! of course 
he did. Didn't John see him catch 'em ? and didn't Chase 
fine 'em hitched to his wagon.^ What more can a feUoff 



Plate N^ 15. 


CC "U^ 3. CO fUB S . 


W.T.BALCOWAr.Ltru ^ 



waof" "Well, in tbat caw, Sqaire. what are yoa going 
to do about it?" "Do about it! Why --»nd the Sqmre 
looked in hi« peculiar slow, determined way around , 
until hiH ey« r««t«d on a peculiarly limbed oak tre« a little 
way out in the grove, and, pointin- with hia finger at it said. 
" have ChaBo hang him to that limb in about ten minutes. 
Mac. began to be alarmed. " Hang himr said he, " the , 

M d you will! Didn't yoa say you were going to let , 

.- off easily? W!»at kind of a way is that to treat a 
...white man? He's no Indian." The best work of I 
McDonaUrH life wa« put in by him within the next half , 
hour in laboring with Gordon, to convince that gentleman 
that hifl position as a Ja.stice. under the existing law com- 
bined with the prevalent want of respect (or the rights of 
perBOiiB to their properly, did not demand the conversion 
of Jud'-e Mnrphy into a human scarecrow by having him 
eahily "let off by suspension from one of the suggestive 
limbs thiit were so numerous and convenient. The effort 
of McDonald was eventually successful, and a change of 
venue was granted. The case was summarily dismissed 
I by the Washington Justice, as it became evident tbat Mr. 
■ Murpliy had not taken the stock with felonious intent, and 
' thut if he had been let alone fifteen minutes longer would 
have returned them to the corial whence he took them. Gor- 
don ovonturdly beoime convinced that such were the facts. 
We can assure the reader that the foregoing incident, 
thougU it seems now to be so, was not flavored with evi- 
aonco of intellectual imbecility or " cussodness on the 
part of the Justice. It was a time when little regard was 
paid to the teebnicalitios of the statutes by any ove except 
ftttorneys. who used them to clear criminals. Men traveled 
the shorlest ways to results in those days^ The law rec- 
ognized death as a penalty for stealing fifty dollars, or 
uToro The guilt of Mr. Murphy seemed established be- 
yond question. If there was a lack of literal legal author- 
ization, there seemed at least a circumstantial justification 
for hiB contemplated act. A man who was recently Gov- 
ernor of Nevada, and one of his secretaries, were parties 
to the hanging of five persons at one time in ban Joaquin 
county, in April. 1851. doing it without claiming to act 
under a..y law, except that of the necessity of e:.termmat- 
i ing catUe thieves; yet the Governor and 1«^ f^'^;^*^^?. '^^^ 
' considered able men and good citizens, and the fact, since 
ascertained, that a boy. one of the five hung was certainly 
innocent does not change their standing. The incident is 
evidence only of the state of society existing in C'difornia 
at the time, and not of the exceptional peeuhanty of he 
particular person or persons whose acts constituted that 

'"whenMr. Gordon first came to the valley, there were 
very few Indians in what is now Yolo county The Pkg'ie 
of 1833. and the peonage forced upon what were left, by 
General Vallejo. had practically swept them ^^l^ay. Bu 
L wild game had met with no such calamity and it 
oamed, aLst fearless of man, in droves and herds along 

Zee'wL time remember his first years in Yolo 
Tunty as the happiest of his life? Each season, traders 
tuhthek boats found their way. at regular periods, up 

^^JllL'S; w£ne ttlr:^ an ox ^ould bring but two. 
TaUow was old for ten cents a pound; and tliesa were the 

Tad bsTJto accumulate mouej, l>rfove the great chauge 
"T.fL'f.tfGr;ratfacfof laud, cue leagae „«e 

![ biding their fuvs by Jh m " °°S f ^„^^. 
The Preach .ord »* "=''.'^:",, L„^ ' Mr. Gordou's 


the advanced age of 75 years. 

gon. in 1842, and from the hitter place to CaUfomia. He ] 
narrowly escaped death on Ciche cre«k. soon after his : 
arrival.'in an encounter with a grizzly bear. Wm. Gordon ^ 
was one of the most succ-sstol bear-hnuters in Calilornm, I 
having killed nearly fifty in one year. He had a dog named , 
" Tinker" that was as famou* as his master in pursuit of 
this dangerous kind of game. During the Fall of 1843, , 
one of those California mouarchs had been prowling | 
around in the vicinity of Mr. Gordons place, and had 
elnded the old pioneer. It was therefore decided to have 
a coneral hunt in which all the men were to participate. 
In pursuance of this plan tliey started out-some hve or 
, six Btrong-one day, all mounted, and commenced beat- 
I iu- the brush along the cret.k for their game. Mr. Coombs 
, w^ riding a partially broken colt, and, contrary to the 
I udviceof hisas^ociatei, forced it into the thicket where 
1 the bear was concealed, and, bruin, disturbed in his lair, 
made straight for the venturesome horseman. The oolt 
bein" frightened, stood as it paraly/ed until too lalo, when 
it turned, but received a blow from the hear that knocked 
it down and with it the rider, who was seized before ho 
could rise, and the tlesh torn from the bone of his arm. | 
At this critical moment, when it seemed that nothing could 
save the unfortunate man's life, there came out of the 
bushes like a flash of light another form, that, cleaving 
the air with one sweeping bound, alighled squnioly upon 
the back of the enraged grizzly, thou leaping to the ground 
seized as a vice, the animal's haunch. Tbis uew com- 
bataut appearing upon the scene forced the bear to do- 
fend itself from the attack in the rear, and the scene that 
followed beggars description. Who has not seen a dog 
in a moment of canine levity undertake to catch its own 
taU? He who has can imagine the bear attempting to get 
hold of "Tinker." his assailant. The dog hung to the 
arizzly's posterior like grim death, shaking whenever he 
could get his feet upon the ground, growling with overflow- 
ing wrath, and in the rapidly-revolving com bat was appa- 
rently being transformed into an overgrown bears tad hat 
tho owner was furiously intent upon laying hold of it ho 
could ever turn round fast enough to catch up with it. 
One of the hunters spurred hishovse ou to the held of ac- 
tion between the combatants and the prostrate man, who 
snrin-in.^ to his feet, made a successful retreat out of 
harm^s way. A few well directed bulletspul an end to the 
bear and relieved " Tinker," the hero of the contest, from 

'^Sma^J.^Bhald^n removedfrom Oregon, in 1843. with 
his family, and for about one year was a res.den in the 
neighborLod of Gordon's. From there he moved to the 
Cosumnes river, and in about 18.^1 returned to Oregon^ 
-While on Cache creek his occupation was that of a 

^■"On'ihe 23d of October, 1843, Thomas M. Hai;dy pro- 
cured a grant of land, called the "Eio de Jesus Maria 
coulaining si. square leagues, or 26,637 acres, loca ed 
alonrCaohe creek, from Gordon's east line to the 
T^ river Wo have not been able to ascer- 
Sn S l-tX; the date of his arrival in the county, 
but U would seem that the date of his grant would indi- 
cate about the time. He was an Englishman, rough, un- 
sociable, and not liked by those who knew hin^. The 
rant was given him as a reward for services rendered in 
Se MlxTcan army, where he is said to have held the rank 
oVcooLl, which we doubt. He was un r.endly o the 
UnUed Sta es, and assisted the enemy m the war that re- 
fill d in the acquisition of California. His house was 
bu^Tt on the west bank of the Sacramento river opposi e 
thTmoutU of Feather river, where the village of Fremont 
;rafte^„ards located. ^^^^J^^-^T^^L 

that Horn a structure, consisting of 

IVtaUtg upright, supporting scantlings, that lodi- 

poles stanomg ui „ , /i'„ bouse, but it was never 

Tad a P^iadBtlc there; these beiag the oalj .iguB of hu- 

,ng craf to ban ^^^ " ^^^^^^ ^ the passen- 

!r'l\rsa-rhrha?.:nL ove?hoarda„dbeea droned 
gers., "" t„ fhafe of by Major b. Uooper, 

S: rd TheraVt"ti:t, ^ad b J.; that .eaf.e.aa 

J-^::'. Ba,ti.ore, - au ^.^aca.d tor ^ 
I^vrben;iS^oT:d°;err:^t^^ature active, eu- 

ergetic and feAtlcss-every impulse of the boy and Ihe 
man being for the excitement of n life >m the frontior— 
and throwing his pi-of.-ssioo to the winds, in his t-arly li e, 
he wandered awav to Santa Fe. whoro ho eventually 
b..camo a Mexican oitixon. In 1841. he cami- to Califor- 
nia, and then returned to Santa Fe for his family, bring- 
ing them with him to Los Angele*, iu IS-l'i. «nd to tins 
county the following year. Hi* first honso was buiU 
in 1813. on the Vodo monnd, of polos set npnght and 
bound together with rawhide thiuigs, tho eracks bouig 
filled with mud. Tlic root of tulo-^i. being supported 
by two upright timbers, .■onneclod at tho top by a ridgo- 
pole. Mrs. Knight, whose religion was catholic, 
always kept a little cross fnst.-n.'d t- one of thrne tluihcrs. 
In jiovemher. 184.^. the house caught five, and was in a 
very few minute.'* reduced to a aki>letoii of bare l«oh^s. but tho 
cro'ss fastened to the limber that had suppMitod tlu' ro.d, 
p.vs3oa through the fiery ordoal unscathed by tho flaiuc-s. 
Mrs Knight always believtMl that ltd presorvation wasduo 
toa siiecial interposition of l>rovideiire. This was the limt 
house burned in tho couiily. and tho conflagration was 
witnessed by S. U. Clnuse. Martin Brown and a man 
named Buchanan; Mr. Knight being out on a hunt 
at the time. The parties named, aftur Mr. Knights 
return, proceeded to assist him in preparing temporary 
quarters for tho family, which proved, in the nun-storm 
that commenced tho same .lay. to he a sorry nflair at best, 
its only especial virtue seemingly being a capaL-ity from 
its mud roof-it had no sides-to keep on the 
occupanU after it had cleared up out of doors. Iho 
erection of a log-house, to take its place, was a once 
commenced, and was the first structure ot kind milt 
in the county. The mode of hauling tho logs tor bu.h Inig 
it was by fastening them to the pommel of a muldlo 
with a riata, and drawing them with a saddle-horse. 
Mr Knight was a very sensitive man. quick to resent an 
offenac, and disposed to settle all matters of difference in 
frontier style. In visiting Sutter's Fort on one occasion, 
to adjust some question in regard to Ins Rn^"t. t>"^'« 'J'^- 
cuned a misunderstanding between him and Sutter, when 
Knight promptly drew a brace of pistols from hm belt 
and lay ng them on a table before the Captain invited 
h^' to choose one and step out into open ground, where 
they could settle the affair without further words. The 
inv tation was, of course, declined; in fact, there were but 
ew men even in those days ot recklessness that would haye 
cared to accept the invitation. After the war had closed . 
he las for some reason desirous of seeing General Val lejo, 
and calling at his house one day was invited into the pa - 
lor where the General bad recently placed a piano, fhe 
vlitor's attention was called to the instrument, as being 
mething rare in the country, and, u a jocnhuMvn,-, V - 
leio askedhim to sit downaudgive the a tune. The 
emark caused some merriment ou the part of those FS- 
ent that Knight imagined to be an insuuia .on of 
I°n si^riority and a reflection upon front.eismei. gener- 
Z L their want of polish. He instau ly demanded tha 
the General step out on the plaza to settle the matter with 
tne uenevi" i ...inch ever that Gentleman 

rf rb :; and t was :^-o:^rle difllcufty that he , 
Ukedbcst aid t was 1 f,i,„dliness of Vallejo's ! 

„as -'\-S^^^;«™l:,. F,o^ the first outbreak of 
nTBtr Fl^g W he was an active partisan for t e 
terrns; Z when gold was discovered be established a 

r Ith ^ Stanislaus river, that has borne his name over 
fen-yon UicSUnis a , . ^^^^_^^^^ ^^^^ 

'' „ ooss ssion of a grant ot ten leagues of land, lying 
""fl/ofre Hardy era' t, in this county, and a fortune 
°" L dn but hs children received, after he was gone, 
"'' t^r tnd or money. The whole affair has to thn. day 
Whidlen in hrshalowof an unfathomable mystery. J 


San Joaquin county, m 1849. ^e^^'^ ^ ^^ 

-Z^ ;?.t^^lt sf;S thro: bis bag of gold. 
Weavers ^»™I'' ^„cl it weighed tbirty-six poimdfl. 

dust on -a- anl '^ ^ ^^ ^^ jj^j, g. Cooper. 
At tne time of h.s death Uni ^^^^ 

'Z7Zk :S ht t^^o'me o.t- to the Ferry, and take 
school, and askeu mm deceased, that amount- 

iTabo^r^rS^OOa' nfdlr nlt; the end of it all 

fWt the heirs received nothing. The grant papers 

was that " « f '^Yf^^ ,,,„t of them the title to the land. 

ing. in this conaty. ^^^ 



"Neava Flaatlria," from Micheltorena, locateJ from Ibe 
present site of Washiogton, sontli along the Sacramento 
river. Tbroagh informality in papers, or a luck of title 
evidence in some way, the claim was rejected in the United 
States Coarts afterwards. Bnt we assume npoD no other 
evidence than that grant, the restdeuce of Schwartz lu this 
countj as early as 18i4, and give the following extract from 
the journal by Edwin Bryant, made in 18i6, that seems 
to be an excellent pen portrait of the man and his aur- 
roundings at that time: 

" October 2Dtb. * * * At stiD&et we put our little 
" craft in motion again, and at oue o'clock at night landed 
" near the cabin of a German emigrant named Schwartz, 
" six miles below the emlKircadero of New Helvetia. The 
" cabin is about twenty feet in length by twelve in breadth, 
" constructed of light, rude frame, shingled with tide. Af- 
" ter gaining admission, we found a fire blazing in the 
" center of the dwelling ou the earth-floor, and suspended 
" over us were as many salmon, taken from the Sacramento, 
" as could be placed in position to imbibe the preserva- 
" tive qualities of the smoke. 

" Our host, Mr. Schwartz, is one of those eccentric hn- 
" man phenomena rarely met with, who, wandering from 
" their own nation into foreign countries, forget their own 
" language without acquiring any other. He speaks a 
" tongue (language it cannot be called) peculiar to him- 
" self, and scarcely intelligible. It is a mixture, in about 
" equal parts, of German, English, French, Spanish and 
" raiicheria Indian — a compounded polyglot or lingual jdi — 
"each syllable of a word sometimes being derived from 
" adifferentlanguago. Stretching ourselves on the benches 
" surrounding the fire, so as to avoid the drippings of the 
" pendent salmon, we slept until morning. 

' ' October 26th. Mr. Schwartz provided ua with a break- 
" fast of fried salmon and some fresh milk. Coffee, sugar 
" and bread we brought with us, so that we enjoyed a 
" luxurious repast. 

"Near the house was a shed containing some forty or 
" fifty barrels of pickled salmon, but the fish from their 
" having been badly put up were spoiled. Mr. Schwartz 
" attempted to explain the particular cause of this, but I 
" could not understand him. The salmon are taken with 
" seines dragged across the channel o£ the river by Indians 
" in canoes. On the bank o£ the river the Indians were 
" eating their breakfast, which consisted of a large fresh 
" salmon roasted in the ashes or embers, and a kettle of 
" atole made of acorn-meal. The salmon was four or five 
" feat in length, and when taken out of the fire and cut 
" open pi'eseuted a most tempting appearance. The In- 
" diaus were all nearly naked, and most of them having 
" been wading in the water at daylight to set their seines, 
" were shivering with the cold whilst greedily devouring 
" their morning meal. 

*= yfe reached the emharcadero of New Helvetia about 
" eleven o'clock A. St., and finding there a wagon we placed 
" our baggage in it, and walked to the fort, about two 
*■ and a half miles." 

D. T. Bird first visited this county in company with 
a number of immigrants from Oregon, in June, 18i4. He 
had the previous year crossed the plains to that Territory 
with a large company, numbering between 250 and 300 
persons. Fremont's party was occasionally of the num- 
bers, but did not all the time confine their march to the 
route pursued by the immigrants. 

In this Oregon party of 1844, with whom D. T. Bird 
first came to California, was David Kelsey, his brother 
Andrew and the two sons of the former, named Benjamin 
and Samuel, a family, over all of whom, some evil geni 
seemed to have shaken a tragic wand. The former was 
taken ill with the small-pox, within a year after his arrival, 
in the country, and lay sick in a tule house belonging to 
Thos. Lindsay at the place where Stockton now stands. 
A few days later his wife and son were prostrated in the 
plague-smitten hut by the same terrible disease, with only 
one person to attend them all — their little eleven-year-old 
daughter America. The father died, but there was no one 
to bury him, and he laid there in his bunk, no longer call- 
ing for relief, but watching from his resting place with 
the iiuclosed staring eyes of death through the long day, 
and out from the shadows in the night the little tireless 
figure that kept vigil in the home alike of the living and 
of the dead. At last a couple of men chanced to pass 
that way, and they buried the silent watcher, with the ter- 
Tible eyes, out of sight. The mother became blind through 
the effects of the disease, and through the coming years 
of darkness carried in the memory the delirious weird 
scene of pestilence and death, as her vanishing view of 
the world. It was a hideous phantom, a scene of desola- 

tion so sad, so shrouded in terrible gloom, that its pres- 
ence shadowed all the after years of that mother's life; 
bnt in the endless night that had closed in oronnd her, 
there was always left that one form of a beautiful star, the 
star of hope, the form of America, her little child nurse. 

In after years, Joseph Buzzlo, who was one of the two 
men who buried litHe America's father, and was also one 
of the Oregon party of 1844, married a lialsoy, and a few 
years since was drowned in Half-Moou Bay, in San Mateo 

Andrew Kelsey was murdered in bis cabin, at Clear 
Lake, in this State, one night, by a band of Indians, in 
December, 1849. The village of Kelseyville is near the 
scene of the tragedy. 

Benjamin Kelsey, like the " Wandering Jew," has never 
found a place to stop and rest. With his little family of 
wife and child, Annie, he crossed the plains to California, 
in 1841; then wandering away, in 1843, to the forests of 
Oregon and back again, with the party of 1844, to the 
Eldorado of the coast. His wife, Nancy A., was the first 
white woman that ever saw this county. Once more the 
spirit of unrest whispered, "raoveou," and they started 
back over deserts and plains towards their old homo; and 
were attacked by the Comanche Indians, in Texas, where 
little Annie was murdered and scalped. They remained 
in the East but a short time, when again the voice of dis- 
content called them, and turniug they again directed their 
course across the continent towards the Golden State, 
where they eventually arrived, and if now living, are pro- 
bably in search of some place where they are not. 

Besides the Kelseys, Buzzle and Bird, there was in the 
Oregon party, of 1844, Granville Swift, who was killed by 
falling from a mule, in Napa county, in April, 1876; 
Henry Fowler and his brother William; also, Wm. H. 
Winter and William Hargrave, Iho four latter afterwards 
becoming residents of Napa county. In addition to these, 
there were of ex-Hudson Bay trappers, enough, all told, to 
make traveling safe along the Oregon bordersfrom Indian 
attacks. They left the Sacramento about ten miles above 
Knight's Lauding, and went across the country to Wm. 
Gordon's place, on Cache creek, arriving in June, where 
all those whose names have been given stayed for about 
one month. 

While they were stopping there, a fire from the Kelsey 
camp got among the surrounding wild oats, and a strong 
north wind prevailing at the time, sent it coursing over 
the plains towards Puto creek, where J. K.Wolfskill lived. 
He saw the smoke, and knowing its probable course, 
rushed awoy with his vaqneros to drive his stock out of 
the track of the advancing flame, and barely saved them 
from its ravages. Coyote and antelope found in its path 
were less fortunate, being caught by the fiery holocaust 
in spite of their frantic efforts to escape, 

D. T. Bird and Granville Swift, after leaving Gordon's, 
went to the Fitch ranch, on Eussian river, where they 
remained until that Fall, when the war broke out between 
Castro and Governor Micheltoreno, when they joined the 
Sutter expedition to help the governor suppress the Cali- 
fornian rebellion. 

It was daring the year 1844, that hogs were first im- 
ported into this county, Mr. Gordon giving, in exchange 
for two Berkshire sows with their families, a couple of 
very fine horses. It proved a profitable speculation, and 
he afterwards sold some of the increase for one hundred 
dollars each. 

The name of the oldest daughter of Mr. Gordon was 
Elizabeth, but custom changed it to Belle. In the Fall of 
1844, she was married to Nathan Coombs, the man whose 
life was saved by the dog "Tinker," during the previons 
Winter. As this was the first matrimonial alliance con- 
tracted within this county, its accompanyments has in the 
present, and will have in the future, an interest that it 
otherwise would not possess. Captain Sutter was the only 
person in the Great vaUey who was, at that time, autho- 
rized by law to perform the marriage ceremony. ' There- 
fore, this hymeneally disposed pair were nnder the 
necessity of visiting his fort, on the American river— 
twenty-seven miles away. They, accordingly, started on 
horseback one pleasant Fall day, aud, passing over the 
country where then there was not a single habitation 
arrived at their destination, and the " Gordian knot'" 
was tied by the captain. They were, probably, the first 
couple married in the Great valley; and after the ceremony 
they returned to the bride's house, riding fifty-four miles 
ou their wedding day, and reached Mr. Gordon's place 
after dark, tired and hungry, to find the household all in 
bed. They took possession of the cupboard and brought 
forth to the light of a tallow-dip a bountiful supply of 

bread, butter, and cold boiled beef, which was 
upon the table, and the two, happy as obIv tha "^^ 
married can be, sat down to the first weddine fpnat ^^ ^' 
in Yolo county. ^ "'''P'«<1 

Wm. Gordon raised abont seven acres of wheat nni a 
of corn this year, it being the' first grain grown in h 
county. This was the beginning, aud in 1875, tbirtv v 
later, the acreage of cereals cultivated within its |[ T 
reached 196,847, of which 162,842 acres wereotwheftr 

The same year a party of immigrants from Oregon aton 
ped for a time at Gordon's. Among tlieni wasJohn Ori 
by, who recently died in Missouri; Thomas Knicht nn 
wealthy citizen of Sau Francisco; John Scott, tho bearorof 
news to. Fremont of the hoisting of the Americrm flau 
Monterey by Commodore Sloat, and his brother Wra KMit- 
Wm. Todd, who painted the Boiir Flag, and for a lim ' 
time a resident of Yolo county; Wm, R. Houlotte and 
his wife, who was the first white woman that evor lived in 
Capay valley; Joseph Davts and John Sears. With (liiB 
party were the first wagons that entered the limits of Yolo 
Major S, Cooper followed one year later with [[la 
second lot. Of this party Roulette, the Scotls and Todil 
erected a cabin in Capay valley, upon the property now 
owned by Hon. J. M. Rhodes, situated about six railos np 
the creek from tho present village of Laiigville, where 
they remained until Sonoma was taken the following year 
by the Bear Flag party. Their business while in ibis 
section was hunting, and if they entertained designs of he- 
coming settlers, there were no indications of each inlen- 
tious made apparent by them. 

The grant known as the "Laguna de Santos Calle," of 
eleven square leagues of land lying between Puto creok 
and Willow slough, was issued by Governor Pico on Iha 
29th of December, 1845, to a Frenchman named Victor 
Prudon and Marcus Vaca, or Baca, a Spaniard, 

S. U. Chase was one of those who first saw Yolo conDl; 
ou the 9fch of July, of this year. Ho camo from Oregc* 
with the Col. Blymau party of thirty-nine persontj, allol 
whom camped for some time near Gordon's house, where 
Mr. Chase remained until the following May, anil then re- 
turned to Oregon, remaining in the forest Territory nntil 
1848, when he came again to California, The burning of 
Mr. Knight's house iu November of this year, and flio 
building of a log one, has aheady been mentioned. Events 
other than the above occurring in 1845, were such only 
as are incidental to the peaceful happy passage of time to 
those who were successfully enjoying their congenial pai- 
suits, and we will pass on with the reader to tho occur- 
rences of 

The first birth of a white child in the county occurred 
at Gordon's in January, 1S46, and the little pioneer waa 
named William after his grandfather by its progGnitow 
Nathan and Belle Coombs. 

In the Spring of this year James McDowell built a log 
house at the place known as Washington, aud moved Iiis 
family from Sutter's Fort to that place. He was bom in 
1803, and married Margaret Piles in 1840, and in 1S15 
he moved his family from Missouri to California, when he 
became the gunsmith at Sutter's Fort. During the year 
1846 he made three silver teaspoons, said to be the first 
manufactured in the Golden State; one of them now being 
in the possession of his daughter, Mi-s. M. A. Hunt, of 
Washington. He was a lieutenant and gunsmith of the 
California Battalion, but neither he or his heirs have ever 
received pay from our Government for his services while 
acting in those capacities. He fell a victim at the hand 
of an assassin, who shot him in the back on the 24tb of 
May, 1849, iu Sacramento city, from the effects of which 
he died two days later. 

In the fall of 1845 the family of Wm. Knight moved 
from Gordon's, where they had been living, down to where 
the town of Knight's Landing now stands, aud iu the en- 
suing February S. IT. Chase and Martin Brown plowed 
several acres of land for him that were sowed to wheat, 
and harrowed iu with a brush hauled by a saddle-horse 
over the ground, by attaching it to the pommel of a sad- 
dle with a riata. It was, therefore, iu 1846 that Wm- 
Knight first raised grain in California. 

On the 3d of May, 1846, Governor Pio Pico granted 
to the three Berryessas— Santiago, Nemecia and Frauciseo 
— nine square leagues of land on "Jesus Maria rner 
(Cache creek), that included all of Capay valley, a»'' 
reached out into the plains along tho creek as f'U' «^ ^^ 
west line of Gordon's grant. It was called the " C'lmada 
de Capay" Grant, or Grant of Capay Oaiiou. Thew wis 
also, ou May 4th, a grant of teu square Icaguos ^Y^f 
made, or claimed to have been made, to Wm. Knigli 



. ^ V I 1- t- n cr 

nir vol n CO.. CAL. 



the neclion of conntry lying-north of Gordoo's wd Hardy a , 
grants. After Mr. Knight's death his title papers coald I 
not be found, and neither the land commiifflioDere or the : 
courl« of the United States wonld confirm the title, and it j 
eonsequcBtly failed. : 

It van cQKtomary to make shTCS of the Indians in early 
dajB, aud when any one had work to do they woald orKan- 
ize a purty and make a raid upon Rome tribe, and captaro 
as many as they rc-qaired. Snch an expedition, headed by 
Dun Antonio Armijo, wa« fitted out in the lower country 
tho let of June, 18i0. The raid woa to be made upon the 
Grand Isknd natives; and as the party piissed through 
Yolo it was joined by the two ScotU and Wm. Todd, who 
wore stopping at the time with Koolette. in Capay valley. 
While Ihey were gone. Captain E^ekiel Mcrntt, on the 
VHh of June, passed Wm. Gordon's on his way to capture 
Sonoma, and left word with the Yolo pioneer to notify 
Buch friendly parties as camo to his pkce of the con- 
templated movement, to enable them, if they wore so dis- 
posed, to join his force. Merritt was but a short time 

guno when Armijo-B P"'? «f ^"''l^'-^ '^7';-;=? "AP^^fiT/ 
on their return from the slave hunt, and all but the leader, 
who was a Spaniard, were informed of the proposed cap- 
ture of Sonoma, and thoy set out. losing no time in over- 
taking the Merritt command. 

Four months later, in October. Major Stephen Cooper 
first entered Yolo county from the States in charge of fif- 
teen wagons, en route for Younfs. in Napa county. He 
found, on his arrival at Gordon's, a dressed st«er hang- 
iuc to a limb. He was informed that it was for his party, 
and it was many years before he learned that the donor 
s his pvesent'son-in-law, J. R. Wolfskill. The secret 
manner in which he presented the very acceptable article 
povlray. forcibly one of Mr. WoUskiU's peculiarities He 
louldgive generously, and witli an unexpressed feeling of 
;reasufe. but would be displeased-yes, -6^7^^ >- 
thought the vecipieut, or any one else, suspee ed him of 
either the act or feeling. The Major remained on Cache 
creek until abont Cbriatmas, and then moved on towards 

'' Wbtre '::; at Gordon's, on the last day of October, 
Lieutenant Edwin Bryant stopped one night there and we 
give the following e:.tract from his journal regarding the 

event; ... -^ 

.. About twelve o'clock on the 30th, accompanied by Mr. 
" Grayson, I left New Helvetia. We crossed the Sacra- 
..menlo at the eud>arcadero, swimming o"^' i--^^^^^' .^°^ 
.. passing ourselves over in a small canoe. The method 
.. shimming horses over so broad a stream as the Sac- 
.. ramento is as foUows: A light canoe or 'dugout 
.. manned by three persons, one at the bow, one at the 
" Ttern and one in the center; those at the bow and stern 
- ha e paddles, and propel and steer the craft. The ma 
.. in the center holds the horses one on each side, keeping 
.. tLu- lieads out of water. Wlien the horses are fi^t 
" fo ed into the deep water tUey struggle prodigiously, 
.-and sometimes upset the canoe; but when he canoe 
<Zl fairly undei way, they cease their resistance, bn 
.. s'utt loudly at every breath, to clear their mouths and 

" ^'^:^ tlittnes over a W plain, we overtook 
.. a comruy of emigi-ants bound for Napa valley, and cn- 
.. Lmped w^th them for the night, on Pata ereek. a tri- 
'- buTi^ o the Sacramento. Five of the seven or eigh 

:. ;nce of Mr. Gordon (25 miles,) atout three <-'= -' -;^"; 

..:ll;'gtadto Sa a shelter .ad . Sre. for we were 

"f^^tJVZ^^^ U^e 1st of Nove^her, tire s^ 
.. stoe out warm aud pleasant; the birds were singing, 

" with reluctance. r»„tnV,or 

„ - ^f ti,fl Va\\ of 1S46 occurred on October 

^S^^'anronTe tt.!^ and of Beeeraher, there 

ma a wry heavy rsin ihroughont the greater portion of 
the SUto. 


The first female child horn of white parents in this , 
conntr waa the daughter of James and Marg.iret McDow- 
ell, of Washington, on Februarj- 21»t, 1&47, and the name ; 
of Harriet was given this new comer. It wivs during this | 
year that Turner, the trapper, one of the two of J. S. , 
Smith's party, not killed on tho Colorado river in 182<, | 
accidentally shot himself in the knee, indicting a wound 
from the effects of which he died soon after in his cabin, 
in this county, near the bank of Willow slough, a few miles 
soath of Woodland. 

It was also during this year that the first house was built 
in Capav valley, by a party who intended to make the sec- 
tion his fnture home. The structure was of logs, and 
erected about one mile up the valley from the present site 
of LangA-ille. and was tho property of Francis, popularly 
known as " Paddy" Clark. He was one of the peculiar 
characlei-s of the country, strikingly Hibernian, and fond 
of whiskey. In 1841 he crossed the plains to Oregon, and 
came to California, in 1843, with Nathan Coombs and the 
Sumner family, and. until 1849. spent most of his time 
working for parties in Napa county, putting the proceeds 
of his labor into stock, that, under Gordons general su- 
pen-ision. was allowed to roam at will in the valley he 
had decided to occupy as a permanent settler. He did 
not know that a grant of it had been given to the Berry- 
essas. and that eventually he would be obliged to aban- 
don his home, but such was the case. After leaving Yolo 
county in 1852, he went to Bodega, where Patrick Mc- 
Christian, an old friend, said, "You are welcome; make 
' ■ my house your home as long jis you live.' He remained 
there for a time; but one morning, with a rifle on his 
shoulder, he started out for a short hunt, saying he would 
be back in a few hours, and has never since been seen or 

heard from. , i » „ 

Occasionally the men of those early times would, from 
.ome cause sufficiently magnetic and universal congregate 
at the point of central attraction from over a large extent 
of country, and when such was the case a hilarious big 
thno" was the result. One of these general gatherings 
was had at Gordon's, the cause being a recent supp y o 
whiskey obtained by that gentleman, not for sale, but for 
The pur'^ose of giving friendly cheer to^is hunter fri^ids^ 
The assemblage was quite numerous for the time and a 
corresponding exuberance of spirits that soon worked into 
a nearunaLeusdvuiikwas the result; Green McMa- 
hon and '^n old mountain hunter called "Red" being the 
only ones to remain sober. 

The usual pleasurable accompaniment to such gather- 
■ ^notion" wanting. Paddy Clark and Jack Neal 

'"Tbecam beinrrent Ld proceeded to settle their mat- 
: sof rrenceTnthe Limerick style They clinched; 
Clark was considerably the drunker of the two, and Nea 
SedToose upon his shins a few well-directed kicks, and 
Z backing up with head do«-n. sailed lo, taking the 
sLansqul^/in the stomach, which brought that worth^^ 
to Sass Paddy was bewildered; whiskey had helped to 
doTt but this new mode of warfare had capped ttie ch- 
mai and, raising to a sitting posture, he turned a kind of 
Tr^a^ed tlf-suspicious look upon hisopponent. and seem- 
"o become partially reassured as to some question of 
do°nbt regarding him that had got into his head, he said, 
f. Faht kind of'a divil's animal are yez, a^-e-way. o go 
butUn' like a shape and kick like a woman." It was evi- 
^Vfl,lf Clark was too drank for business, and the spec- 

lev more of his scattered wits, and put him m a better 

^iTtinn to carry on hostilities. TUe battle was renewed. 

Tdt he* eriround Neal bit off poor Paddy's nose 

sewing the nose on ^S^"' .^"^^^ .J^^tnessed what to 

trappers -^J-^7, J^mi treatment at their 

them seemed an outia^e '" j^ ^^ ^q^^^^ com- 

■^td'^Cha^r^d wi*::Srand a sense of responsl- 
S 'tf de^c^nf of the. to maintain «» J-- »^^ ^ 
,i„/e comhat that recogn-d he flsts ,n« ^ p ^^ ^^^^ 

tnife as the only »=''P°"'Vh^';\7'Jo the limb of a tree 
Neal shoald be hnng bj he »eck to t ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

r :S^dtn;ratC'rarU.e, mean, and Kea. had 

never looked death closer in the face. He know .t. and 
said McMahon. whorelatod to us tUo incident: I never 
Mw a dronken man before or siiu-o get sober so quick as 
Neal did.- The fact that ho was not exocule.1 was duo to 
the assistance render^'d by the two that were sober; red 
and McMahon. and the floaues. of the latter s horse, on 
which Uie condomneil man made his escape. \\ c have re- 
ferred to this incident for the purpose only of yiviug le 
reader something of tho habiU and chttraeteri«t.C-s of tho 
men who paved the way for what now is. and m the fHlui-o 
will bo; in this countrv- where Imsedy and comody have 
and always will, travel hand iu hand. 

The discovery of gold on tho lOlh of January of this 
year changed the quiet monotony of ordinary events, .uul 
nothing of importance tiau«piied within Yolo county dur- 
iu-. the time, except its H there wa« any 
one left within it. limits d.uii.g the Hummer it wa« 
Schwartz below or McDowell at Wushingtom ; Kaigh , 
Paddy Clark, and Gordon wore all in the muu-s thrmigU 
the summer; and we piiss Yolo's year of solitude to tho 
more stirring events of 

The most diligent search upou our part into things of 
consequence that transpired during tho year reveals a. tho 
first and most important, that of the founding of the town 



On tho 22d of March, 1819, JonasSpoct pitched hia tent 
opposite the mouth of Feather river, nn the Yolo side of 
the Sacramento. He had roachod this p.Mnl w. 1. a 
schooner-load of merchaudiso. and not being able to tran- 
sport his goods further towards the noithern mines be- 
cause of the low water, ho disembarked at this point. Ou 
the 25th of the same month, his goods being m place lie 
opened iu that tent tho first «^«^«;'"^ 'if] V*^'";/'"''''" 
this county. SiKty-two days later John McDowell, at I m 
place afterwards called Washington, died of his wounds 
Mr Spect was the discoverer of the northern mines, bu 
had not been sufficiently successful .is a miner to warnnit 
his retirement from the pursuit of wealtli, ami he lumlly 
came to the conclusion that there was a greater chance of 
success in founding a city than in -;l'"g '' S"'^/ J.-^J^ 
Such a conclusion had been arrived at by a combmat on 
fn Ms mind, of two propositions, one of them sound the 
othei hdse The fir-st was that tho .piantily of supplies 
d m n d by those visiting and working tho mines north 
o The American river, if concentrated at any one pond 
tZ make sufficient traffic there to create l^m nucleus o 
In rentual city. The second proposition tha^l 
wUh the first, causing him to locate whore he did ; was hat 
The mouth of Feather river was the head of nav.gat.on. 
Ind rnsequently tbe point where all crafts must d.sduu go 
lirTiit an/pas-.ers for the ™■-^;l- -':«,: 

s' f 1 ,„,. „ _„,i pveutuaUv a wheat-hcJtl but 

SoTeVe ^^oTSciitrrad coL there centered in 
. ^^revents important to the actors and interesting o 
Ihe^lle b^cause'they were enacted upon the threshold 
of Yolo as an organized county. _ 

On the 30lh of July. W. J. Frierson, w. h si3C com- 

! Living- in a whale boat, camped on the east side 

^Hh: SrnlLVo: :nd on the «th of Augu.t crossed over 

Z fhe Yolo side, where Spect was located. Join J. 

SeiaugTian had been engaged by Mr. Spect to survey a 
Mcuaugnau ^^^ ^ ^^ jj,^,^ 

three-league '^"^ S'^'^^-^^i^^ ^, ^.^ ^jies, the town to bo 

:an:dFr:mon' a ibTa;:rtof the grant. In.mcdiate.y 

in Mr PWerson's an-ival he joined the surveying party, 

"^Mnaiittle ess than three weks, the job that cost the 


J fhe time of conquest, and was st.ll operative by 
'"^ « of the treaty of peace made at the close of the late 
;':r EvidenU Hr. Spect knew oothuig of the Ha^y 
Tantat the time, that included the same ground V^o 
feam from Mr. Prierson, when he arrived on the op- 
learn iro inhabitants of Fremont 
^° . f of a anche^o ten or twelve Indians, in a tule- 

ESS^ =-;=»;=£ 

K Lovel, who, with his whiskey and wife, lived also in a 



tent. Thia was the som total of Fremont on the 30th of 

■^ TwoTvs later, on the 1st of Aogost the ^.«r °" J^^^^ 
occurred ihe first geaeral election io C«Mom.a^ two mo a 
tents were pitched in the little borg by ^o'"^/^^"'^^ 
Trora Oregon, that added, possibly. t-«ve person, to the 
popnUtion. Cooating men. women ami children, the n 
LbiUnts of thk embryo city numbered fifteen «-»-. P - 
Vided it is considered that citizen Lovel had a soul, wh ch 
would he a doubtful question were it not for the fact thu 
his nun-possession of one would have been a clear case of 
beating the Devil out of what unquestionably belonged to 

him. 1 

One of the Oregon parties was a minister of the gospel, 
named John E. Braly, who preached the first sermon ever 
listened to in this county, and became the ^^J ^^-J^J ? 
assessor. About this time Mr. Spect was offered $150,000, 
in gold, for his claim, by Wm. McD. Howard, a responsi- 
ble party, but he refused the offer. The town, after the 
arrival of the Oregon party, grew rapidly. Sixty days 
later, the population had iucreased sufficiently to warrant 
the election of a town council. Accordingly, on the 1st 
of October, an election was held, and sixty-eight votes 
were polled for an alcalde; and five councilmeu were 
chosen. (For particulars see chapter on elections.) 
Among the residents of this pioneer-town were Hon. C. i' . 
Keed, Judge H. H. Hartley, G. P. Hester, and I. N. Hoag; 
also C. H. Gray, afterwards sheriff of the county; and Mr. 
H B Wood now of "Woodland. who was a merchant there, 
and paid in October S600 for a lot, on which he built the 
first frame house in the county, for a store, m which Elder 
Braly preached immediately after its erection. 

Da the 13th of November the Territorial Constitution was 
adopted, and at this the second election, held in Fremont, 
there were 102 votes cast, the total county vote being 194. 
Jonas Spect was a candidate for Territorial Senator, and 
received all but 21 of the county votes. Geo. "W. Crane 
another resident of Fremont, also claimed a successful 
candidacy for the Lower House at this same election; but 
both of these gentlemen were unsuccessful in maintaining 
their seats in the first Legislature of California. The full 
particulars of this contest are given under the head of 
Elections, and we refer to that chapter. "When it is borne 
in mind that in 1849, there were but few men who 
had their families with them in the county, the number 
of votes cast at Fremont will have more signiacance 
•in determining the number of inhabitants there at that 
time. Every one voted without regard to his nation- 
ality or length of residence, the color of the skin being the 
only test of qualification, Negroes and Indians being barred 
out. As there were not to exceed five families m the 
place, it would seem a safe estimate to place the entire 
local and floating population of Fremont at one hun- 
dred and fifty on the 13th of November, 1849. About this 
time the Fall rains commenced, and Fremont was the 
" Mecca " of those coming out from the mines to spend the 
"Winter, and the -number of its inhihitants swelled in a 
few weeks to possibly 1,500. 

Yery soon after the arrival of the families from Oregon, 
in August, Mr. Spect built a frame house for school pur- 
pose3° and Miss Matilda MeCord, a young lady from 
Bloomiu'^ton, 111., became the teacher. A Sabbath school 
was also maintained by Rev. J. E. Braly, who held regular 
divine service, and was listened to by his auditors with as 
genuine respect as would be accorded a minister in Yolo 
county at the present date, although some of them were 
murderers, thieves and escaped convicts. 

A couple of incidents transpired in October that illus- 
trates the condition of society, not only at this little 
town but on the Pacific coast at that time. A Mexi- 
can on his way from Napa to the mines passed through the 
villa"e of Fremont with a pack train. One of his packed 
anim°al3 was unmanageable and finally so thoroughly 
aroused the anger of its owner that he drew a short sword 
that was hanging by his side and ran it through the mule's 
body, kiUing the poor beast on the spot. Some one chanc- 
in" to see the act, came into town and reported what had 
transpired, when several man mounted horses, overtook 
the Mexican, tied him up and gave him fifty lashes with a 
rawhide that he had used to whip his mule with. 

A few days later, about the time of the election, 
a company of U. S. Infantry passed through Fre- 
mont, in charge of a supply train towards Benicia, and 
camped uear the town for the night. About ten in the 
evening, one of the company's hangers-on, an ex-soldier, 
raised a disturbance at the tent of a sick man, when A. 
R. Lovel, the saloon-keeper, shot him down without a 
word, and he fell whore he had stood and expired in a 

• f«o After the affair the town had soon 
very few minutes. Alter lue mi ^^ ^^^^ Lnvfil's ap- 

very few minutes. ^'^' '" , ^^i.^^ Lovel's ap- 

congregated at the scene of the murder . ^^^^^ 

preciation of the affair foimd veut in t 

I This is a very solemn <'---^ ^^fjjt t 'v- --^^- 
take a drink." He was not t-'«^' f^^Jf^ ^ .^^^ly i^dig- 
ed; neither was he tied up and -^'PP^^jy^^^ ^^3^ .J^. 
.ant people, for on ^^-/---"Lr^iUed. In those 

vhere tLy could stop, and by the first of Fobruary 18.0 
there were not three hundred persons left m the town 
that had become a by-station. . , . e 

C F. Reed was the proprietor of the hotel, m front o 
which swung the sign of the « Green Dragon so-named 
by him in memory of that famous highwayman s resort in 
OW England, at the time when Claud Duval and Sixteen 
Stringed Jack made it lively for the tilted travelers in 
that country. Mr. Reed had a large sheet-iron lined wood 
has. to which was attached a lock, and 1 became the 
"Fremont Safety Deposit" of 1849. As high as forty 
thousand dollars in gold dust was not unf reqiiently placed 
there at a time, by the miners, on deposit, and no receipts 

were asked for or given. . 1, w t^,. «f 

Gambling was the principal pastime in the AVinter ot 
1849-50 in the town that sported the Green Dragon sign and 
throughout the State. So prevalent was the practice that 
men who before and since have been looked upon as mod- 
els of exemplary conduct staked their golden ounces on the 
chances of a game. A Spanish gentleman of the green 
cloth persuasion happened in his travels to pass through 
Fremont that "Winter, and, while stopping there, by his 
expert practice relieved several parties of their surplus 
funds in a friendly way. "just a social game, you know, 
with something up to make it interesting-" D. "W. Edson, 
now of Knight's Landing, was at that time living in Fre- 
mont, and concluded that he would give the Castillion a 
little game of his own, and, preparing himself, chanced 
around, made a side bet or two, casually forming the new- 
comer's acquaintance, and soon found himself inveigled by 
that party into a game of cards for money. The betting 
in those days was done with gold dust, there being no other 
circulating medium, and the amount of the bets was determ- 
ined by weight, an ouuce bemg equivalent to about six- 
teen dollars. A few bets were made in the beginning, and 
Edson was the winner, when seeming to become excited with 
success, he drew a large bag of dust from his pocket, and, 
bringing it down on the table with a bang, said to the 
Spaniard: "Here goes for the bottom of your pile or 
mine," and then pocketing the gold he had already won, 
commenced the new game by betting ounces from the 
bag without untying it. This was what the gambler had 
been working for. He had allowed Edson to win at the 
outset to draw him on, but now that the greenhorn was 
fairly hooked he commenced to play in earnest, and luck 
or manipulation of the cards made him a constant winner 
of the bags' contents, ounce by ounce, until the game had 
finally attracted general attention, and Edson's friends 
were beginning to sympathize with him in his immense 
losses. Finally the Spaniard seemed to think that his 
winnings were sufficient to cover what gold the bag con- 
tained, and called upon the loser to pay up. Edson, with 
the coolness of a man who had lost but his loose change, 
got up, turned to the Alcalde, and pointing at his bag on 
the table, said: " "Weigh 'er out, Weeks, and pay him; if 
there is any left — well, keep it yourself or treat the boys," 
and he then turned and walked out of the tent. Alcalde 
"Weeks proceeded to untie the string, and then, turning 
the bag upside down, poured its contents out upon the 
table before the spectators, and then there was a little 
tableau. It was dust unquestionably out of which ounces 
could be weighed, hut its color, was a "little off." In 
fact, Edson had been losing ounces from a sack of sand. 
The Don rushed out with belligerent intent into the street 
to find the man who had been playing this practical joke 
upon him; but concluded he did not want to find him 
when a miner suggested that the party he was in search of 
had plenty of " sand"* left. 

* Note— With miners tho word snnd was used in lien of the word cour- 
tige, and to say thiit a psraon baud plenty of "tuiua "woaequivulout tomiy- 
ing that he was a fighting man wbeaoccasiou demnnded it. 

The demise of the village of Fremont was poatponed fo 
ft tune by making of it the seat of Justice, whore Ihe coutt 
was first organized in February. 1850; but tho removal ot 
this, its last hope, to Washiugtou, worked a final dissolu- 
tion, and there is not now a single house to mark its (in. 
clent site. 

The flood of 1849-50 will be noted under its appropriate 
head. During the winter fourteen persons, among nlioni 
were W. J. Frieraon and A. Griffith, made tlieir boinl- 
quarters at Thomas Cochran's cabin, on Cuclio creek. 
John Morris— kno\vn as "Uncle John," a Keuluckian- 
came in November with his family from Missouri, and 
built a log-house on the south side of that creek, about 
one and a half miles up tho stream from Cocbrau's. In 
1851 he moved to the vicinity of Woodland, andowiieda 1 
part of what is now the town site. Thomas Aduras lived 
with his family ono-fourth of a mile below Oaulieville, en 
the north side of the creek, The marriage ot his tlnogliter 
Jane to J- M. Harbin, in January, 1850, was tho first mar- 
riage ceremony performed in the couuty. J. M. Hurbiii 
and Lieut. Archibald Jesse lived about one unci 0. U\l 
miles south-east of where Woodland now etaiiils, on Hie 
property now owned by Chas. Coil, and Harvey Portorfield, 
now of Napa, was their " majordomo." A. son-in-law o[ 
Wm. Knight, named Kendall, Saml. Smith, and aouie 
others, lived, in the fall and winter, at Baltimoro, noff 
Knight's Landing. Peter McGregor and Frederick Bnhel 
had taken up claims, on which they were living, south ot 
Washington, and several persons had located at the lutter 
place, amongwhomwere J. C. Davis, J. B. and KitCLilea, 
who were the owners of a rope ferry on tho rivet hotweon 
there and Sacramento, their rate for ferrying a man and 
two animals being six dollars. J. N. Peck becamo inter- 
ested in 'Washington, in December, with Presley Weloh 
and Col. J. H. Lewis, all of whom are now decensed. The 
family of McDowell were also there; and Hon. J. M. Kelloy, 
now of Woodland, had a log cabin, on what is now tbo 
Mike Bryte place. All along up the banks ot the river wore 
choppers, living uporf their 160 acre claims, from which 
they sold wood at §10 per cord to steamers. J. B. Chiles 
owned a corral at the place where Davisvillo is now lo- 
cated and there was some kind of a hahiUtion on Willow 
Slong'h, owned by a Spaniard. The foregoing is tho lotal 
of all we have been able to collect regarding the mhiihit- 
ants, and their belongings, in the fall and winter ot 1849; 
except the following vote for Territorial Senator. Itis 
an indicator, but not a safe guide by which to estimate lio 
population of the countv, when the election was held; for 
the reason that parties passing through the country at 
that time voted at a precinct wherever they happened to 

Election, November 13, 1849. 

Fremont - - -for Spect 101 Cooper ^1 102 


Paddy Clark's, " ' 

Puto Creek, " 

21 IM 


20 60 

Total County vote, 173 

On the 4th of January. Pablo de la Gnerra report^ 
ahill to the Senate, organizing the TeiTitoiymto count e^ 
In that bill, the boundaries were given t"/. '='"!" ^ ' 
was to be called Fremont, and the seat ot J-^ti to ue 
located therein, at a village of the same """'^/^ ;''' .^^ 
given the county. On the 18th of the month h lep-^J^ 
an amendment, changed the name from Fremont i 
and the bill finally passed and became a law, on 
of February. The name "Yolo" is a •^--P^'"" ^ds. 
Indian word " Yo-doy," which means t"l« " "T^yJ^^d: 
and was also the name of a tribe of ^«t'"J_^^^^"^^^^^^ „t 
quarters, in early days, were on the f "d"^ ^^^ 
Knight's Landing. Their last chief of note ^os ca 
"Motti." Jonas Spect. who was then at the cap tol «£ 

gested the name, not because it -S-^^^ 'V*^,;!!-^!^ 
he was not aware that such was the case-but to P J 
the name of the Indians had ^'^^^f'^f ^^^^ ,,11. 
before white men had taken possession of tl^^'^ '"^ ^^ 

efore white men liaa laten pussus^."- „vteu^on 

Under that act. the north line of Yolo was au est^^^^ 
west of the north line of Sutter c"""*-^' "", , ,^ On 
nearly one-half of what is now the couuty o£ t^ ^^^ 

east line was readjusted; and in 186S, the ipi «- ^^^^^^^ 

were taken in to the norlh-wost co>"« V'*"".' . joio tho 
All of these changes have i-esulted m gi> h 

Plate N? 16 






Plate N? 17 



: ^ 

form that it doit pregeate on the map Accompaoy lag this 


After the enactiaont that gare Yolo coooty & form aod 
tiamo, tlicre was u ac-cesHity for breatbiog the breath of 
life iuto it>t cori>or:it« bod^', whtcb was done bv the etec- 
tioD of itH olficLTA on the Urst of April in accordance with 
the law pUHsed Murcb 2(1. Uofortanntelj, no record ex- 
ints giving that vote or any other tukcu after this until 
1853. Although no record has been kept, some of the 
incidents of tbu cumpuiun have been obtitined from Hon. 
Geo, W. Tyler, now a Iteprescutntive iu the State Legis- 
lature from Alnraedft county, who was elected the first 
Sheriff of Yolo crjunty. He commenced the campaign as 
a eandidiito for Couuty Clerk. James H. Allen, who was 
later Adjuluut-Oeuei'al under Governor Huigbt, was run- 
ning ut the same time for Bherlff, and assumed to be u 
friend of Tyler's, but the latter gentleman learned of Al- 
len's introducing a Mr. Wilson to the voters as an oppo- 
nent to him for the clurkHhip. This aroused the latter's 
combativeneas und he calleJ on Mr. Allen, learned that he 
was correctly informed, and then mounting his horse start- 
ed over the couuty tolling the voters of Allen's treachery 
and announcing liimself at the same time as a candidiile for 
the position that Allen was seeking, instead of Clerk as he 
had at first intended. The result was that Allen got noth- 
ing, being defeated by Tyler, who carried the county by a 
majority of two votes. He quiilificd and served until in 
Otitober, when, us hn expressed it, "Finding there were 
more cattle tliioves than gold dust to pay for hunting 
them, I concluded to throw up my hand and try the 
mines, and left there with county warrants in my pockets 
for about Sl.UOO that have never been paid." He was 
elected iu 18G1 County Judge of Sun Joaquin couuty and 
helped organize the first RBpubliean club on the Pacific 

The following list of one hundred taxpayers were en- 
rolled upon the Assessor's return for 1850. The roll 
shows an assessment upon property, not including vil- 
lages, as follows: 

Gordon's Grant, two leagues $11,100 

Chiles and Biildrigde 1,600 

Heirs of Wm. Knight, throe leagues 16,660 

Miittliows and Bushman, five leagues 26,975 

Hiudy Grant, six leagues 33,330 

Oiulada de Oapay, niue leagues i9,^94: 

Total assessed real estate §139,659 

Improvements ou same n'o^o 

Personal property 159,862 

Total property assessed ia 1850 ?303,031 

State poll-tax was at that time five dollars and couuty 
poU-tiix two and a half dollars, so that a person liable to 
such had to pay seven and a half dollars poll-tax. 

The State tax assessed was $1,348 51 

State poll-tax 375 00 

Total State tax §1,723 51 

Couuty tax assessed was S674, 26^ 

County poll-tax 1°' 50 

Total county tax 5861 IGh 

Keoeipts of the County Treasdbeh up to Not. 23th. 

Received for Retail Licenses §327 OD 

Received for Merchants' Licenses rnnin 

Received for Ferry Licenses i^?, tH 

Received for Fines o™ 00 

Received for Taxes idl d6 

Total S1.794 42 

List of the TASTATEns of 1850. 

Austin, LeviB S 1? 75 

Austin & Co If^ii 

Armstrong, J. L. (*) S 2o 

Augustine, Albert i li 

Anderson, E. S . '50 

Allen, James. . . 
Baldridge, Wm 

22 50 
7 50 

Brown,Vm...; 10 50 

Brown.S. W 8 62 

Brown, Gabriel (*) ,? »= 

Brown, B.P Jl 25 

Braly,J.E 60 00 

Bird.D.T 97o 

Brvant, Wm ^5 00 

Brooks, Wm 

7 50 

Coou,M.T..; 23250 

Campbell & Wood ^ fO 

Campbell, Matthew J 50 

Callahan, J- J^ t^ 

Clark, Francis 52 oU 

Churchill. Capt 4 50 

Orow.J. G.&Go 30 00 

Collins, C. F. 

Chorchill ... 

Crane, Geo. Vf. 

Carter. John 

Chiles ^- Baldridce 

Chiles. J. B .. 

Cochran, "Thoa 

Chappel, Geo 

Dnval, trtjwis (*) 

Durrant, Geo 

Devoe & Howard 

Devoe, Benjamin 

Davis, J. C 

Edson. D. W. (•) 

En dy, Abel 

Frierson. W, J 

Fall, Anderson & Co 

Gordon, Wm 

Gall, Lafayette 

Hammond and others 

Hammond, Wm 


Hopkins, Edwd 

Homes, O. W 

Hester, C. P 

Howard, John 

Heath, Jas 

Hoppe, I. D 

Hartley, H. H 

Harbiu, J. Madison 

Haines, H. & R 

Jenkins, Willis {*) 

Johnson & Shannon 

Johnson, S. M 

Knight, W., estate of 

Lord, Nathl 

Latham, T. W 

Lewis, I. H. - 

Lippard, I- H. Sc Co 

Level, A. R 

McGill, Patrick (*) 

Mc Innis, A 

Miles, Orrin 

Malloway, Wm 

Moore, Jas 

Matheney, W 

Mcllwaiu, Eobt 

Matthews & Bashman (*) 

Marquam, P- A 

Morns, John 

Newhall, Samuel (*) 

O'Farrell, Jasper 

Pierce and others 

Pierce, Seabury 

Peck, J. N 

Reed, Chas. F 

Ricbardsou, J- and others 

Richardson, J 

Spect, Jonas 

Scott, Wm 

Stewart, Upton H 

Stewart, Abel 

Stewart, Charles 

Smith, Charles 

Spurk & Frieraon 

Spurk, William 

Stevens, G. D 

Tristin, Samuel 

Woods, Jobu T 

Woods, Sachel Col 

Walton, J. J 

Weeks & Newhall (*) 

Weeks, H. A 

Woodward & Brooks 

Woodward, Ferdinand 

Wombough. M. M 

Wheatley, Dunbar 

Grinnell, — 

a»iCotadg Tata. 

15 00 

7 50 
15 00 

9 75 
91 50 

•M 00 
11 1!5 

7 50 

7 50 

y 75 

3 75 

7 50 
13 12i 

7 50 

10 50 
7 50 

15 110 

107 49 

7 50 

G 00 

7 50 

9 75 
10 50 
13 50 

3 00 
7 50 

10 5lt 
62 50 

7 50 
195 00 

12 00 
22 50 

11 25 

10 50 
153 00 

45 00 

11 25 

9 75 
3 00 

15 00 

8 62J 

10 50 
1 50 

11 25 
11 G'ih 

10 87i 

11 25 
202 32 

11 25 

12 00 
7 50 

312 idi 
3 00 
7 50 

16 50 
15 00 

3 00 

7 50 

112 50 

11 25 

26 25 

3 00 

9 00 
20 25 
15 75 

10 50 
26 25 

11 25 
7 50 

12 75 

13 50 
1 50 

10 12i 

7 50 
10 50 

7 50 

7 50 

Total 52,585 27i 

Total delinquent §374 32 

• Did Dot pay. 

In the Spring of 1850, D. T. Bird formed a copartner- 
ship with Samuel Smith and a man named Gillett, for the 
purpose of cutting hay in the vicinity of Knight's Land- 
in" They cured, then bound it into bundles, and ship- 
ped it to Sacramento for market. Bird, not liking the 
business, drew out of the firm, purchased the Lone Tree 
station of S. V. Chase and John Strong, on the road 
between Sacramento and the Shasta mining country, and 
made a moderate fortune but lost it; and since 1864 has 
lived in Colusa county, a poor man. Lone Tree was the 
first station on the road north from Cache creek, the next 
at that time being Sycamore Slough, and then came Co- 
lusa Daring the year 1850, the residents in the connfy 
north of that creek, were F. S. Freeman (where Duncan 
Bros now live), Wm. Gordon, Paddy Clark, Thos. Coch- 
ran A Griffith, Thos. Adams, D. P- Diggs, along the 
creek- John Stewart and Wm. Clark, on the road from 

Knight's Landing to Lono Tree; McThiuey, with his wifo 
and daaglit<>r, iu a log*honiw, about live miles north-west 
of Cachoville ; and Samuel Smith and Keadoll, at Knight's 


Tho Fourth of July waseelebratod for the first time iu 
the county this year at tho residence of Wm. Wadsworth, 
about one quarter mile east of the Jamos Mooro orchard, 
on Cache Creek. The neighbors of Wm. WadsworUi had 
assembled to help him complete a small log honse, and it 
was finished abont noon of that day. when it was decided 
to celebrate. To do so necessitated the hoisting of an 
American ilag, and one was oxtemporined from an old 
blanket. A shirt made the stripes and green Ip-ives from 
tho surrounding trees the stairs, When completed tho polo 
to which it was fustonod was nailod to tho gablo of tho 
house, and for the tirst time our niitional orablem waved in 
the breeze over the county of Yolo. After " hanging tho 
banner on the outer walls," the participmits sat down to 
a pio-iiie dinner to foast upon [lickltul pork, codfish, a bot^ 
tlo of pickles, with pancakes and molasses. Tliosy who 
took part in the fii-st festivities were Mr. Wadswortli, D. 
P. Diggs, John Morris and I. J. Estolt, and probably Mr. 
Diggs was selected orator for the occasiou. 

The following, taken from bills of goods and luiubor 
purchased in 1850 by W. J. Friersou, will servo to give 
the reader some idea regarding tho prices of living at that 
time iu the county. 

Iu May there is a charge by tho steamer "Linvrenoo" 
of 88.00 for freight upon four iiuudrud pounds of mer- 
chandise from Saciamento to Fremont. 

Bill of Fall, Andeiison & Co. at Fhemost. 

Jiili/ IWi, 1850. 

■10 ihs. Potatoes @ 15 $ 6 00 

Isck. Flour 10 00 

1 pr. Shears 1 Ol) 

2 lbs. Lead 30 

August IM, 1950. 

10 lbs. Coffee @ 00 6 00 

27 lbs. Dried Apples @ 40 10 80 

1 set Knives and Forks 2 50 

G bottles Peppersauce (i 00 

1 Tea Kettle and Large Kettle 5 00 

1 Wooden Faucet 8 00 

Bill of F. T. Palsieii of FnBMONT. 

December SUt, 1850. 

31 lbs. Lard @ 21 $ SO 

4 lbs. Candles (3)75 3 00 

4 lbs. Butter @ 75 3 00 

2 lbs. SaliDi-atns @ 20 40 

12 papers Matches GO 

IjiairSpurs 16 00 

Bill of Geo. W. Somes & Co. and H. H. Haiitlev. 

Secembej- 30th, 1850. 

4 Doors @ $7 S28 00 

520 feet Boards @ 7 36 40 

450 feet J-in. Boards @ 7 27 50 

4 Window Sash for 7x9 glass @ S2.25 9 00 

97 feet 2-iuch Plank ^10 9 70 

100 feet Scantling @ 10 10 00 

1851, 1852 and 1853. 

It will have been observed that there were one hundred 
taxpayers in the county in 1850, whose names appeared up- 
on the roll. There were men bore of property, as well as 
those having none, whose names do not appear. The popu- 
lation was greater iu 1851, and it would he a vain attempt 
to try and enumerate or give the names of the settlers of 
this last or any succeeding year. 

It was duruag 1851 that the first political convention was 
held in the couuty, the place of assembling being Caehe- 
ville, at which time the county ticket was nominated. 
Humphrey Griffith made his maiden speech on that occa- 
sion. M. M. Wombough, Parish and Comwaller were also 
among the speakers. 

It was in the Spnng of this year thatWm. L. and James 
Ryon came to the county and opened a tavern at the lower 
crossing of Willow Slough, and Mr. A. D, Brown was 
with them at the time. In December, George W. Scott 
settled up near the foothills, purchasing his first real es- 
tate from Archie McDonald, paying S150 for the latter's 
right to it, which proved to be an imaginary one, McDon- 
ald afterwards remarking that he had given that green- 
horn $150 worth of education. Scott thinks, however, 
that he balanced the account in kind by selling McD. a 
yankee baggy a few years later. Mr. Scott can remem- 
ber, as residents, between Cache and Puto Creeks, in the 
western part of the county that Fall, only John and Rich- 
ard Bedel and Andy Work at Cottonwood, Dr. E. C. Lane 
and John D. Stephens, the lost two north of him. 



In the earlv Spring of 1851 a party of several youog 
men were sto'ppiDg at J. M. Hatbins, on the place now 
owned by Charles Coil, near ^'oodhmd. In taking a 
horseback ride over the conrtry one day. they chanced to 
reach the ford where Caoheville now stands and found the 
creek at that place very high. The seething waters seemed 
to bold for those fearless yoang riders, as they halted for 
a time on the margin of the stream, some strange, faci- 
nating charm in its rapid, rushing flight past them toward 
the low lands— a charm evoked by gazing upon the silent, 
resiaUess moving power of tho torrent that could swallow 
them ap in its embrace and would hide forever in its se- 
cret places whatever by chance or design should enter its 
liquid domain. 

There was one among them more reckless than the rest, 
a brother of their host named Joshua. He rode a fine 
large horse, that like its master was fearless and full of 
life. They had breasted maoy a stream together and 
passed safely, but none like this, and the unusual hazard 
of such an undertakiug presented but an additional incen- 
tive to make the attempt. With a light word and a amile 
Harbin shook loose the bridle reins, and with a gentle 
touch of the spur the hoi-se took to the stream as though 
it was his native element. It struggled nobly with the 
current and was carrying the rider safely to the opposite 
landing, when in the very madness of sport with death, 
the rider reached forward and dashed water with his hand 
into the face of the noble animal that was carrying him so 
surely out of the peril that menaced him. This so bewil- 
dered the horse that it lost headway and reached the op- 
posite shore below any chance to land because of the per- 
pendicular banks, and was caught in a whirlpool, when 
Harbin slipped from his position— probably to relieve his 
horse and thus give more buoyancy, intending to float and 
hang to the saddle; but missing his hold the mad waters 
closed over him and passed on with its terrible unconsci- 
ous power towards the ocean, unmindful of the mortal 
tragedy enacted in its embrace, unheeding the frozen look 
that had seized the little group of friends whose out- 
stretched hands and faces of horror were turned upon the 
place where their companion had gone out of their sight. 
For many days those young men searched along tho banks 
for the body of their lost friend, and then the father came, 
and in a little boat passed up and down, back and forth, 
silent and sorrowful, week after week, searching for the 
one that was lost until hope faded, and he went away and 
abandoned the search for the place where the waters had 
buried his son- Then came another, aged with grief, and 
through the Summer months wandered along the banks 
and over the dried up channel of the stream, held to the 
place by chords of love, searching when hope had gone, as 
only a mother would seek the lost grave of her child, but 
the cruel waters had secreted the form she loved where 
the eyes of affection could not find it, and she, too, in time 
went her way, and his resting-place was never found. 

In 1852, Kobert "Welch, who was killed in 1854 
by being caught in the horse power of a thresher, 
settled near where "Woodland now stands, on what is 
now known as the Eakle place, and found, on their 
arrival in the neighborhood as settlers. Matt. Harbin, 
John and James Morris, "Wm. (J-. Belcher and Walter 
Hulan. The same year E. L. Clark, Joel Wood, 
Vincent Alexander, Samuel Sweany and Vincent Barnes 
settled in Capay valley, near what has since been 
known as Capay or Langville. 

The census of the State taken that year disclosed the 
following facts regarding the population of this county : 

Population op 1852. 

Whites, males 1,085 

Whites, females 189 

Negroes, no females 11 

Mulatoes, no females 3 

Indians, males 109 

Indians, females 43 

Total population 1,440 

The census disclosed, in addition to the above, the fact 
that of this population 86 were foreigners, of whom 3 were 
females, and that there were 1,016 citizens of the United 
States, over twenty-one years of age, in the county, who 
had cast 750 votes at the previous election. Of the In- 
dians, it was uoted that 62 were under twenty-one years of 
age. The towns wore given as follows: Washington, with 
4 hotels, 2 stores, 3 laundries, and a post-office; Fremont, 
1 hotel, 1 store and post-office; Cache Creek, 3 hotels; Cot- 
tonwood, Men-itt, and Putah. 

The wealth, industries, and county progress is summed 
up as follows : 

Number of horses 
Number of mules. 



Name of Voter. 



David B. Hudspeth 



J. D. Atkinson 



Wm. E. Smith 



Carey Barney 



Geo. H. Smith 



Edward Henry 



F. M. Rockhold 



Wm. B. Lashbrook 



P. Sapington 



D. W. Edson 



A. C. Shouvin 



J. W. Owen 



Geo. Bullock 



Saml. R. Smith 



Geo. Hetzel 



John D. Blaokmore 



Daniel Rice 



Eiehard Charlton 



Wm. Wright 



J. C. Smith 



N. B. Sloan 



Michael Craley 



Nath. Tindell 



Horace Chandler 



Henry Cooch 



Aaron Harley 



B. M. Fumpfrey 



John B. St. Louis 



John M, Carroll 



I. W. Brownell 



John M. Spriggs 



C. A. King 



Wm. Kelm 



Wm. Mack 



Wm. Clark 



Wm. Humburt 



Stephen Young 



Matthew Clittou 

Number of cows g j^^g 

Number of beef cattle '^gs 

Number of work oxen ^^^^■J 

Number of hogs 1*855 

Number of sheep 2*244 

Number of hens ■ - ■ ■ 2*900 

Number of fish pickled 126076 

Bushels of barley ^ ^'^.j^ 

Bushels of oats 1*310 

Bushels of corn 1*497 

Bushels of wheat il'950 

Bushels of potatoes ... ^'q^q 

Turnips 28,'40O 

Cabbages ■ ■ - c 095 

Qaantity of other produce ".^* 

Acres of land in cultivation 'J.oiJ 

Capital employed in gardens ^Za'tm 

Capital employed in^oatmg. . ..... mauu 

Capital employed in quartz mining, S5 HUO 

Capital employed in placer mining, 5iU^ 

Capital employedforotherpurposes, '^-^^^ 

Wood value * u'o^a 

Hay, tons of ^•'^'^^ 

There seems to have been but one early-day poll list 
preserved, and that was kept by W. J. Frierson. In the 
county at the time there were four precincts; the entire 
vote east at that election, which occurred on September 
7th, 1853, being 908. The following names appear on the 
Knight's Landing list. 

OacJie Creek IhwmJdp, SmwhaU and Pei-kins Precinct, 
September llh, 1853. 

Name of Voter. 
Elijah Smuthera 
Philip Prather 
Wm. K. Mason 
Lycurgus Charlton 
Fleming P. Wilson 
J. C. Lemmon 
J. H. Roberts 
J. J. Mayfield 
Ephram Anderson 
John W. Snowball 
John Stewart 
Wm. T. Cos 
Thomas Loften 
Granville Canada 
G. M. Keene 
H. M. Matthews 
Caleb Knapp 
John J. Bell 
Joseph A. Kirk 
John J. Perkins 
Josiah M. Short 
William Wilson 
Noell Hubert 

E. G. Burger 
J. E. Rooker 
Wm. Meegan 
W. J. Frierson 
S. W. Foreman 
N. A. Harris 

F. J. King 
B. F. Burr 
H. M. Cassilis 
Geo. W. Huffman 
John P. McClintic 
J. Green 

Charles C. Robinson 
Caleb H. Johnson 

The following, taken from the State Tribune, found in 
the State Library, are the complete Yolo county election 
returns for that year. They are the earliest returns pre- 
served, and show that the people were about equally di- 
vided upon the issues of the day. 


Jno. Bigler (D.) 436 ] Wm. Waldo (W.) 472 


Samuel Purdy (D.) 463 | Henry Eno (W.) 465 

A. Wells (D.) 532 I Tod Robinson (W.)....364 


J. R. MeConuelUD.). . 407 ] D. K. Newell (W.) 461 


J. A. MeMeans (D.) ... .475 | Samuel Knight (W.) . . .488 


Samuel Bell (D.) 470 | G. T. Winters (W.) , . . .488 


Paul K. Hubbs (D.) . . . .469 | Sherman Day (W.) 445 


S. H. Mftrletto (D.) . . . .470 ] S. E. Woodworth ("ff.).448 


H. Lee (D.) 418 | Edw. MeGarry(W.)....4i9 


Humphrey Griffith (D.).510 | T. J. Russell (W,) 339 

H. H. Hartley (W.).,..391 [ Harrison Gwian (D.)., ,438 
A. W. Hawkins 4 | 


W. H. Basket (D.) 462 | T. K. Roberts (W.) ,..,372 


J. W. Gist(D.) 429 I W.Riggs ig 

T. W. Latham, (W.) ...409 | A. J. Hedlen 5 

J. B. Tilden (D.) 443 | J. W. Myriek (W.) 409 

Dr. Murphy (D.) 402 \ Chas. Reed l 

D. P.I)iggs(W.)■ 

457 I 


G. M. Keene (D.) 441 | D. Mathias (W.) 378 

Wm. Minis (D.) 435 | Chas. F. Reed (W.).,.. 430 


J. Van Arnam (D.) 439 | W. Hogden (W.) 420 


A. H. WillardfD.). ...476 

J. B. Tufts (W.) 468 

C. Ghisbolm (D.) 432 


S. N. Mering (W. ) 418 | AV. R. Chapman (D. 

A. H. Mack 3B9 

G. H. Peck(W.) 433 

M. G. Brown (D.) 411 



Sonoma Dirtrict Id lSi9IndQdM wliat» YoIoCooQty-Qwtral B.BU.jIMiftriU 
Election of DaUgatea to a Const itnWi.DBl Coa.antioEi-Soiioiw DdtgaW i" tM Co»w 
tlon-Copy of Betarni of Fir.t Blartlon Held In Yclo Cowtj- Jouj 8[«rt IkW 
to tha Finl SenaU and OosUJ by M. J. V.lIeio-G«. W. Orwi. ^ I«" BU n«. 
in tbo Halls of Oar Firit LegiiUtnre-Tha ToU of Yolo CoMty of Ajpril lH 1MB " 
given bj- Hon. J. Spect-Yolo Conoty In tha llth. 2bt and lOtbfeMtcrUl DWW- 
Tbe Offi«» EUctal in Yolo Coonty, tbe Namb.r of ToUa Tb^ BM.i.rf «.! ^.1. « 
Eflcb Bloolioa-A Tablo Sbowioe tb= Complaiion of tba Catinty froso ISIB «!B7». 

General Bennett Riley, in his proclamation of July 3d, 
1849, set forth that there should be elected on theeusuiug 
1st day of August, thirty-seven delegates who were W 
meet on the first day of the succeeding September. « 
Monterey, California. What is now Tolo county was in- 
cluded in the district denominated by the Genera m ms 
proclamation as Sonoma, and was bounded as follows. 
"8th. The district of Sonoma includes aU that couatr) 
" bounded by the sea, the bays of San Francisco aad bu- 
" sun, the Sacramento river andOregon;" and this large te - 
tory was entitled to four delegates. At this electio , 
occur on the 1st day of August, 1849 (the first f^^^^\^^ 
tion in California), Sonoma district was to f'^l'^'^'J 
the four delegates, a "Prefect and two Sub-Prefe ts J 
fill the vacancies in the offices of fii-st Alcalde, or J a 
of the First Instance and of Alcaldes. Tbere were nl <o 
be elected one Judge of the Superior Court ifl ti3e 
bined districts of Sonoma, Sacramento and han Joaq 
The voting places in Sonoma distiicls were bau ^^^^ 
Bodega, Sonoma and Benicin, and if any one 
county voted at that election they had S'' 
of what is now that county to exercise ba P" '1 S 
It must be borne in mind that at the ^^^^^J^^,, 
clamationwas issued, the population of Oatm^ ^^^ 
rapidly increasing, and because of this *«j ^^ j^aJ 
delegates were elected from the ^''"'""^'"'^'''X^Ii.n the 
been authorized by the General consequent^ -^^^^_ 
convention assembled it admitted au '^^l^''''*'""' ,,.,{„- | 
making a total of seventy-two. and Sonoma, "^''f_^j^,,j ,[ | 
creased representation, became eutitled to ,,^,^00 

four delegates, and the sis f^^^ ^^^^ ; 
having been elected became the represeuta ■ ^^^^^_ ; 
ma district in the first California^ _^ ^^^^^_ , 
tion: J. P. Walker, R. Semple. L- A\ . J^^^o;' qj tie 
lejo, Richard. A. Maupin and James Cliiu'u'- 

Plate H? 18. 



^ i 



seventy-two delegates who were entitled to seats bnt for^ 
ei"ht actaally served, the balance were prohablj honting 
tor Rold in the moantains. From Sonoma but three of 
the six presented themselves, namely: M. G. Vallejo, 42 
years of nge, a native of California; J. P. Walker, a fanner, 
a"ed fifly-tffo years, who, thirteen months previously, had 
been a resident of Missouri, and R. Semple, 42 yearn of 
age, fi^'e years in California, a printer by profession, form- 
erly from Missouri, who was chosen chairman of the con- 

The following is a copy of the returns of the first elec- 
tion ever held in what is now Yolo county. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Fremont, notice of which 
bud been given two weoka previous, J. E. Braly was 
culled to the chair, and Stephen White appointed seere- 
tiirv. The chairman having stated the object of the meet- 
ing. Dr. Henry A. Weeka moved, that J. E. Braly, Seabnry 
Purse and Stephen White be inspectors of the election to 
bo belli, and that we proceed to elect a sub-alcalde and 
lown-couucil, consisting of five citizens of the town of 
Fremont, which motion was uniinimoasly adopted. 

Having proceeded to open the polls from two to four 
o'clock, the result was as follows: 

Sub-Alcalde, Henry Asfor Weeks received 58 votes. 

rl " 

Geo. W. Crane 



Town Council, James G. Crow 



i< <' 

J. M. Abbott 



II " 

J. E. Braly 



11 " 

A. Mclnnis 



11 " 

Chas. F. Collins 



II " 

Geo, W. Crane 



11 " 

Jonas Spect 
Arthur R. Love! 






J. White 


.... 10 

II *' 

Heury A. Weeks 



11 1' 

K. Bracketfc 



ii " 

— Mclutyre 



II If 

B. G. F. Guimarias 


(1 <i 

G. P.Hardy 

■ I 


■ 1 II 

J. 0. Austin 



Stephen White, Secretary. 

J. E. Bralt, 1 Inspectors 
Seabobt PunsE, >■ of 
Stephen White, j Election. 

Fremont, October 1st, 1849. 

The second election occurred on the 13th of November, 
in the same year, when the Constitution was submitted 
to the people of the State for ratification or rejection. At 
the same time there were elected a governor, lieutenant- 
governor, two members of congress and members ot both 
houses of the Legislature. Sonoma district elected one 
senator and two assemblymen. 

The election returns, at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution, showed that Peter H. Burnett had been 
elected Governor; John MePougoll, Lieutenant-Governor; 
Geo. W. Wright and Edward Gilbert, members of Con- 
gress; and that the Constitution had been ratified by a 
vote of 12,064 for, and 811 against. 

At this election the vote tor senators in Sonoma district 
stood as follows: 

M. G. Vallejo }^l 

J. P. Walker 1°° 

Jonas Speot ^°^ 

S. Cooper *^ 

Scattering ■ ^" 

Total vote in the district 655 

The Legislature convened on the 15th of December at 
San Jose, and on the 19th ot December Jonas Spect was 
sworn, and became a member ot that senatorial body on 
the grounds that the returns had not been received from 
Lavkin's ranch, where he had received 23 or 29 votes, which 
would give him a majority ot 8 or 9 over General Vallejo. 
This was verified by the affidavit ot Mr. Spect and the cer- 
tificate ot J. S. Bradford, a member of the Lower House, 
and one Alva Farnswoith. The election returns m ques- 
tion were afterwards received, and showed that Mr. Spect 
had received but 2 instead of 2S or 29 votes; and t^^^ Sen- 
ate, on the 21tb of the same month (December), declared 
that General Vallejo was entitled to the seat occupied by 
Mr. Spect, who stepped down and out, after having been 
a member of our first State Senate for six days.' J- -B-- 
Brackett and J. S. Bradford represented the Sonoma dis- 
trict in the Assembly during the first session. Such are the 
circumstances and results of the first Senatorial contest, as 
deduced from the Senate Journals. But wishing to learn 
something more, particular in regard to the vole of what 

' Seo Journal ofl^gialnliKe, 1850, pp. 397-8. 

1 total 102 
20 " GO 
■* U 
" 18 




18 now Yolo county, we addressed Mr. Speet, who is now I 
imng in Colas*; and received n verr difTerent version of 
the whole transaction from him. as follows: 

Polls were opened, at the election of November 13th, 
" 184H, at the foUowing places, in what is now Yolo 
" county, the vote for senator being— 

'.'. Sr«"'*°t for Spect, 101 for S. Cooper. 

Hashington, *• 40 i' 

" Paddy Clark's, " " 

" On Cache Creek, " 14 ■• 

" Emigrant Camp, '* " 

" On Puio Creek, " 18 

" Yolo Co., for J. Spect, 173 for S. Cooper, 21 total 194 

" Sterling ranch, now Colusa, for J. Spect, 
" Napa City, " 

" Yolo County vote, " 

" Tot-il vote, 203 

" M. G. Vallejo received votes at Sonoma, Napa, and 

" Benicia, 199 

" Spect's majority 4 

" Soon after the meeting of the Legislature, returns 
" came from the Trinity mines, giving General Vallejo 
" 81 votes tor the senate; and Mr. J. S. Bradford for the 
" assembly, the same. This resulted in unseating Spect 
" in the Upper, and Geo. W, Crane in the Lower House. 
" The following Summer it was ascertained that no polls 
" had been opened at the Trinity mines, and that the 
" returns were manufactured at Benicia. Tlik was the 
"Jirsl case of ballol-box stuffing in Culi/orma." 

From Mr. Spect's letter, it appears that Geo. W. Crane 
was one ot the first two members of the State Assembly; 
and turning to the first page ot the Journals of that body, 
we find that December 15tb, 1819, the following entry was 
made: " The clerk proceeded to call the roll of the mem- 
" heis elected, and the following gentlemen answered to 
" their names." There were fifteen persons who answered, 
and among the number was Geo. W. Crane, of Sonoma 
district. There was not a quorum present, and the 
only thing that could be done was to adjourn; and Mr. 
Crane's vote on that proposition was the only one cast by 
him during the first session. On the 17th, the Assembly 
held its second meeting, and Mr. Crane's name does not 
appear, but the following entry does: "Mr. Brackett of- 
" fered a resolntion, contesting the seat ot Mr. Bradford, 
" and requesting that he bo not sworn-in, which was re- 
"jected by the House;" and thus Mr. J. S. Bradford 
possessed himself of the seat that, according to Hon. J. 
Spect, belonged, by right, to Geo. W. Crane. In the next 
session of the Legislature, Crane took his seat in the As- 
sembly, and was again ousted. 

The constitution provided, that a term in the Senate 
should be two. and in the Assembly one year; bnt that one 
half the senators elected should retire at the end of the 
first session. This was done to avoid ever having the mis- 
fortune of an assembled Senate of aU new and, possibly, 
inexperienced men. To decide who should hold over tl^y 
drew lots and General VaUejo drew a short term. He 
was succeeded by Martin E. Cook, who represented dur- 
iur. his first year the same territory as hm predecessor, 
but the Legislature, in 1850, having divided the State into 
counties, created out ot Sonoma district eight counties, as 
toUows- Yolo, Colusa. Sonoma, Solano, Napa, Mann, Men- 
docino and Trinity; and they were ^^^^^^J^.^ as the llth 
Senatorial district. By an act ot May 1st. 1851. Yolo and 
Colusa were withdrawn from No. 11, and made into a sep- 
arate district and numbered 21, An election was autbor- 
A t . ,1 .senator to represent it, and Mr. M. M. 
^wlbongt risen b/the electors. In 1853 May 
IsSi another apportionment took place, and the senatorial 
dLricts were so arranged as contain each as "^'^^ '^ P^^' 
S la population ot 6278, and the Assembly distnc^ 
2690-co-ting none bat whites. In th.s apportionment. 
S. Solano, and Napa counties were found to contain 
^ \ fl.« rJonisite population, aud were designated as 
Sett N^W Edward McGarry being elected to rep- 
fetnt U in th; Senate; each ot the counties having a 

-'^Ir^X'^^X^-^^^-, see the following list 
that Yolo county has helped to elect: 

Dnlt of Election. 

November 13, 184J . . . - ^ ^J^^^^ 

October 7, laoi - ■ - ■ ^ -Wombougb. (4 


Septombci 2, 1S57 . . HuniphroT GriSitb. ^6) 

S«ptfmbi«r 7,1859.., Honry Edgerlon. 

Sept<'inber 4. lJ*t>l O. B.' Powers. 

SopU-mber "i. JSCCl, .. J. T. Hall. 

Septerabi-t fi, IS^t^'t... L. R. Miaior. 

September ], 1809... Willinm Mini«. 

September 3, 1873... H. E. McCuue. 

September o, 1877. .. .John Lamltcrt. 

September 3, 1879... J. H. Hailan. 

(It Sli iIbj* a Ssoalor. 

(3) OuU Joiuu Sm(I Mid Ukea hu nal in Iha SvmIo DenmbM 37, 

(3> I>i«d in S«D Pnodaco in April, l»7. 

(4) I* tlie ptrlj «hin f«lI>-J lo Mlrly midt*; monpjr lutni(tn.\ lu him 
fot ilf litriy lo Gcnrral t>TiDanl. lie c1nirnr<l lh*l b« «ii* totiWiI liilii>> 
doMtl A "Joint rraolulinn iiutfacllii|[ viir Sviikton ntiil IEr|<icnrotnliTr* in 
C'oDgr«(a in nl&lion lo ■ ualiou>l raiUtBtl." IhU vas Ibn tint niotvairiil 
lonivU A lmDM>)DliuFnlit1 railroiut. 

(G) nir.1 in i^nn t'ronritco Drcriiibrr 31>t, 18G7. 
(6| Dird in San FruDclicu Muich J9d, ItiCX 

W\m E}t<l'>i. 

Nov. 13, 1849. 
Nov. 13, 1849. 
Nov.i:i, 1849. 
Oct. 7. 18.i0. 
Oct. 7, 1H60, 
Sopl. .3. 1851, 
Nov. 2. 1852. 
Sqit. 7. 1853. 
Sept. G, 1854. 
Sept. 5, 18.55. 
Nov. 4, 18.-.G, 
Supt. 2. 1857. 
Sept. 1. 1S5S. 
Sept. 7. 1859, 
Nov. (5, 18C0. 
Sept. 4, 18G1. 
Sept. 3, 18fi2. 
Sopt. 2, 18G:! 
Sept. G, 18G5. 
Sept. 4, 1867. 
Sept. 1, 1809, 
Sept. (5, 1871. 
Sept. 3, 1873. 
Sept. 1, 1875. 
Sept. 5, 1877. 
Sept, 3, 1879. 



.George W. Crane, (1) 

J. E. Hrackott 

.J. S. Bradford (l) 

. Georg.' W. Crane. (2) 72 

Hinun P. Ot=good (2) 148 

.John O. ParriHb .... 

,A. B. Caldw.ll. 

Humnbrov tJrilTilh (3) ., . 510 

.J. H. Updegratr i-l) C03 

-E. Bynum 577 

J. S. "Curtis Ct)o 

.William Minis 712 

. Harrison Owinu filtfi 

, llarriKon Gwinn 702 

.W. C. Wood GUI 

.1. N. Hoag m;i 

, Edward Piitten 8G3 

J. B. Hartanugh 841 

.CharloaF. Koud 817 

JohnM. Kelley 785 

.JobnM. Kelley 1224 

.F. S. Freeman 1122 

F. S. Freeman IIGI 

.Jason Watkins 1197 

.W. M. DeWitt l-iii 

.D.N, Hershoy 945 




(1) Sorvcd Olio dny niiil wuh iLuu HUpnrcfiled by J. 8. Hrndford. (Soo 
cxpUnnliuD by J. Sped.) 

(2) In 1850, October 7tb, tho Coiuilies of 'Viilo, Gulima and Trioltj 
Gonslilutcd one nsiieinbly district. Ci>Iumi County wM tiot llion orijnulzud, 
nnd beUl no election. Trinity County wns not or«riul<cd, bnt I'lccliona 
wuro bfld at vutioas points ivilliiu ibuir lioiit*, riuil ILdfu wim no onu to 
wliom ihtf vnrLons --oturns conbl bo seut tlint conid glvn ii Imul cortlflpiilo 
of eleelion to Ibe ancceaBfol cnmliibito, Tho rcmlU wns Ibnt 11. F. Brown 
tho County Clrrk of Yolo, on tho 2Hlb of Octobor, 18fi0, niive a cvrlilknlo 
to tbiB effect, tbiit "Georgo \V, Cruno bnd received the grcolCTl nun.liiir of 
VOlea. BO fur aa llio rctarn.i o( olcclion bad conio to lli^ kiiowli;d({L.." On 
the Blrcngth of tbls, Cruno was Hworn imil took bin Kent in tbo L^BiKlolDrp, 
bat soon other relurna cauie in and ihnt body Jenrniiil lUntwhon, " onotbcr 
county won henrd from," Ibe face of IbingB was otiaugod audprctoDled tbo 
following tibibit: Tbat 

Himm P. Osgood liml rocciToil ^H ^''*I"' 

George W. Gruno "' '* y^ 

Furdiunnii Woodwurd " -■ '•3 ■ " 

G. Fritnk Loniou " ■ "^ 

L. W, Ilrown " ' 

J, M.Hogg ■' I ;; 

Hcalltring " ■ • 

Mukiug a totd in Yolo nnd Trinity Connlieft ot 20C " 

The result was Ibul Fobraary 8lh, IMl, the anBombly by volo declared 
that Hirnm P. Osgood wua entitled to the HSal ocoripiod by Mr. Grano, tbo 
lullar (1) boTing Qllod tbo position for one montti and two days, (Sue Heo- 
oud Session of Legislature, page I07a-3 nnd i. 

(3) Deceotied. 

(4) Died at Knigbt'u Landing, May ath, 1860. 


By act of the Legislature, March IG, 1850, Yolo, Sut- 
ter aud Yuha Counties, became the Eighth Judicial Pis- 
trict; and, on the 30th of the same month, by that body 
William R. Turner was elected Judge of the same. He 
died August Gth, 1869. 

The Legislature rearranged the districts in the state on 
the 11th of March, 1851, creating eleven; Yolo. Placer 
and El Dorado counties becoming the Eleventh Judicial. 
Setb B. Furwell was elected Jndge of it by the Legisla- 
ture, and commissioned April 11th, 1851. He was re- 
elected by the people Sept 3d, 1851. and finally died at 
Carson City on the 11th day of December, 1862; a singu- 
lar combination of elevens. 

-John M. Howell was elected Judge of the Eleventh 
District November 2d, 1852, and resigued October 30tli, 
1853, and' B. F. Myers was appointed the same month to 
fill the vacancy; at the ensuing election of September Ist, 
he was cho.sen for a term of sis years, but before it 
expired the Legislature attached {on the 19th of April. 
1862) Yolo to Sacramento County or the Sixth District, 
where Judge J- H. McKune was presiding. October 2l8t, 
1863, the latter was re-elected in the Sixth District. 

]^Ur'J.^^Tl^• Hedied.tK«Ba.C..TMa.Feb 
11.1 tvro Ho irM succeeded by JoUge onu. 
ri-^D .ifb, S: election of t^^t geoU.ojao o 
tt. 20lh of 0.t..b.r. 1875. With th« «I»'-»>'-/'J f^^, 

co^cd to oxUt. iU jari^iction p» to the bape 
Jad«e amlor tbo n.^ order of thmgs. Jadge E- «- »^'.^ 
letted Sept.-mb.r W. 1879. M Superior -^^^^S;' ;^;"';, 
^ 75 rotc« out of « tot^l of '^7, tbe vote bemg divided 
between tbree candidttte*. 

Sept. G, 1!^03--W'"- 

SnEUIFF— Oontiunwl. VoU. Total V.,l(. 

Minis 8U 

w&B e 



in** Eiftiit. 



Ai-rill. 1850..P. A.Mjirquam 
S«pt. 3. 1851. .H. H. Hiirtley (1 







Whfn F.Utt'd. 






Nor. 2. 1»52,.H. H. Hartley 
Sept. 7. l85i..Hftrrisou Gwina ..- 

Sept. 2, 1857 . . Isiuic Davis 

Sopt. 4. 1861. .J- B. Smith (2) . . . - 
May 15, 18G2..I. N. Hong...... ... 

Sept. a. iaR2. . L. U. HopkiDS (3) ■ . • 

Aug. G, lSfi:i . . I. N- Houg 

Oct 21, 18«3 ..T. .\. HutloD (4) .... 
Oct. lynT. .M. A. AVoods (o) .... 
Kub. 2, 1870. . Jaraca JoUusou (G) . . 

Oct. 18, 1871.. J. A. Hutton 

Oct. 20, 1375. .E. R. BiLsh (7) 

"iTT W., .c I'.n,li,L«.™.. and did not «n Americnn d.izcn 
nali Uriof Ui. lerm ot office ci,.ir«l. Ho di.d M«rch 12. 18M. 

(2, Failed t» qn<iLfv, »«d I. S. Hoan wa. n^poiuled to fill tbe va 
,, j'dg« H...a . now cue of the editora of lb« fi'^'d" 

882 1532 

627 1140 
820 1479 

993 18GG 
770 1656 

Se.t. 4. 18117. .Wm. Mnns.... - 

Sp)t 1. lSt;9...1. P.Ballock(J) 

Sopt' G, 1871 . ..J. P. Cnllook 1175 

Sent. 3, 1873 . . 0,u-ey B,vrney 1009 

Sopt 1 lS75..0iuovBii"iL\v Ii29 

Sopt. '>. 1«^7 . . t'luo.v li.uney 1353 

sSpt. 3, 18711 . . l.\ M. Kiilun 939 

* Tiix Collector. 

(1) Chew. .V ColliiH rtppoliitod BoTdcu Deputy Sliurltt on tho ailh ot 
Aiiauat 185" Higiiiiin tUo ui.pniiiUufnl m Aciinjj SUoriffL ut thi« timo Oo|, 
lins «.w tlio County Covou.-r Uotdou SUurllT by virluo ot nn np- 
poiutmeul (roiii tho Court of Mossiou'.. 

(3) ItcMigiied. 

(3) .1 P.llHllookliail lieuuoliMJloilSbuiiir, bnt oniild not nmumoth* 
<lati03 uutii MurtU Wi Wm. Mlm« miKiicl nuj HiiUooli *« 
unpointed Bi-'ooinbi-r Otb, IflW, lo All tlio v.u'iiiipy niitil lie could .iMunio Iba 
dallos by viHuo of having bo«. ekdod lo tUt- offloo. 

pfttlCT- o - - - <j 

(3, Died July 18. 1803. and I. N. Hoag wa* appealed to All Ibo 

(i) Died April C. 1«77. 

(0) Died Dccemb^f 31bI, ISOO, 

(Ol .Vppointed to fill vioiiney , -. „Ji,BWQfi 

(7, Wiib oxpimlton of bl. Urm tbe office ceased lo ex.«l. and he «m 
olQclod Superior .Iiidgo of Ibe ooaoty. 

Volts Ib(al 

Sept.7, 185:)..D.P. I>'gg« 

Dec. 6, 1853..D. P. pii^gs 

Sept. 6, 1851.. P. J- Hopper...... 

Sen 20,1854 T. F. W. Price (3). - . 

Doe. 6, 1854.,D. P.Digg.s 

Sept. 5, 1855..J.S.COX 

Sept.2. 1857..J. A. McCauey.... 

Sept. 7. 1859. .J. A. McCrtidoy. . . - 

' Muitcd by tbe death of Judge Woods. 


IFAeii ElKlti. 

April 1, 1850. .Geo. W. Criiiie (I) VonninVed' 

Aut'.21. 1850,,P. 11. Moore Appoin eel. 

Se^t. 'l850..M.M.Wombougb Xlecte ' 

Sept. 3, 1851..G.M. Keeno(2) ,„„!?.S' 


Sept. 6, laiis . . A. J . fl.iiii. ou ^;=- ; ■ ?r?? 

Sept. 6. 1865 . . Robt. Terr.ll. 'itb Dist 161 

Sept. 4, 1867. .J. Ronscluer, 1st D,3t .... IJO 

Sept.4 1867..J. P. Bullock 2d D,st 213 

Sept.4 1867. -E.K. Swiun. 3d Dist^ 3^0 

SeS: i 1867. .Robt. Ten-ill. 4th Dist 206 

Sept. 1.1839.. J.J. Ammons Ij^J- 

Sept. 6, 1871..J.J.Aramons 11J« 

Sept. 1. 1875 . . R. H. Reamer (4) 1308 

Sept. 3, 1879 . , F. Scbliemati lUbd 


534 5.52 


Appoin tetl 

















Sept 5, 1855.. L.M. Meniig(l) 

Nov 21), 1856 . . N. Wyckott 

Sept. 2, 1857.. H. Giuldia 

Sept. 7, lSr>9.,H. GiuUis ■■■ 

Sept.4, 1861..H. Giddia 

Sept. 2. 136;i..H. (Wdia. 

Sdpt. 6, 1865.. M. .V. Woods 2) 

SL,pt. 4, 1S67..U.R. B'trbyi^) 

Sept. 1.1869. .R.R.D.ti-by 

Sept. 6. 1H71. .G. N. Froeiiiim J" 

Sopt- 3, 1873 . G. N. Froemiin . 1- J 

Sept. 1 1875 .H. 13. Pern ej-as M 

Sept. 5. 1«"-'^-^- l"'^"^^'^!^'^'*'^ 

Sopt. 3, 1879.. J. W. Gom 

"TTT I'renoiiH lo this timo tbo County AasoBwr wnu oi-offlolo Connlj 
Scbool Superintoiidout. 

12) Ileaigued Jftiiuary laib, 1808. 

3 Appoioled January IIHU. 18U3. to ttll Ibc Vrtumiay nntil Uo oOdW. 
on Ibe coming -Itb or Mar.b. aasume tbo dutlM, becauHO o( haying bteu 
oloclod lo tbat poaitiou. 

Vole. Total Viii. 




























Jail. 8. 1852 . . G. H. Carter ^^'C^d 

Nov. 2.1852..B.P.Ankeuy iii ^ 859 

Sept. 7. 1853 . . W. R. Chapman ill . ^•'^ 

Get. 17 1853 . . W. K. Cantwell M'^°'''^f'^k 

Sept. 6, 1854.. H. Meredith (3) 587 J ^- 

Ap': 11. 13!5-H. Griffith ^Appointed. 


Sept. 5. 1855.. F. Woodward f^ 

Sept. 2, 1857 . . Wm. H. McGrew 560 

Sept. 7. 1859. .1. \Y. Jacobs 569 

Sopt- 4, ISGl ..H.I. Hainblin 979 

Sept- 2, 1863. .H. G. Burnett 845 

Sept. 6, 1865.. H G.Burnett '3b 

Sept. 4, 1867 . .J. C. Ball J34 

Sept. 1,18119.. J. C. Ball 1217 

Se?t.G 1871..J. C.Ball 1132 

Sept. 3, 1873. .F. E. Baker 895 

Sept. 1,1875.. F.E.Baker... 1410 

Sept. 5, 1877 . . C. H. Garontte (4) 1310 

Sept. 3, 1879.. C.H. Garontte 1112 

"(Tr Kaaiguod Aagusl 21. 18ot). He was CoQuty Altorney. 
Dislrict Altorooy cleoled WiS Keeno. in 1851. 

(2) Wiis also Deputy County Clerk. Ho resigned aa Deputy Clerk, 
October C, 1851; at tbo same time bold tbe positiua of Public Ad- 
miuistrator. Proviona to Ibis ho bad bean County Treasurer; rejigned 
Ibal posiUou March 2t. 1851; bo teaigued as District Attorney June 30, 
1852. and G. H. Carter wm appointed to till the vacancy. 

(3) Beaigaed April 3. 185.]. 

(1) First nalivo ot Volo oonoty elected to on offioa within it. 

(1) His official bond w,.3 signed Jnno 3d. 1850; ho resigucd and 
Gaffith was oppoiuted. n tarq. 

(2) Removad from office by Board of Suporviaora, Dooeinbor 0, I8j3, 
and D P Dig-^, wbo bad just been olcctad to tbal offlco. wna nppointcd 
to an tbo vacancy nnlil he was entiUcd to take the position by virtue of 
having been elected to it. 

(3) Resigned. 

(4) B. H. Boamer wr.a elected Soptemher 3, 1873. Connty Auditor, 
receivi.ig 1155 voles oul ot 2105. He was Ibe only poraon ever elecled lo 
Ibot poailion in Ihe county. 




1850. . W. B. Brown (1) Appointed, 



The firat 

When. EUdfd. 

April 1, 1850 . .E. S. Anderson (1) ■ - 

Nov. 22. 1850 . . G. M. Koene (2) Appointed. 

Mar. 24, 1851 . . H. H. Hartley Appointed. 

Nov. 2, 1852..Ales. Chisholm(3) 

Sept. 7, 1853..J. B. Tilden (4) 

Feb. 7, 1854 ..W.N, Brooks Appointed. 




IFfiei Etreted. 

April 1, 1850..B. F.Brown (1) 

Oct. 6, 1851. .Humphrey Gnffith(l) 

Nov 2 1852 , . Humphrey Griffith 

Sept. 7, 18.53. .R. H. B.iskett 

Sept. 5. 1855. .A. McDonald. 601 

Sept. 2. 1857 ..J.N. Pendegast 533 

Sept. 7, 1859..J. T. Dalv ---- 648 

Sept. 4, 1861..Ed. R. Giddings 973 1711 

Sept. 2, 1863 . . L. C. Brownell ("i) 857 1604 

Apr. 17. 18(15. .Ed. R. Giddinga Appointed. 

Sept. 6, 1865.. Ed. E. Giddings 707 1-379 



Sept. 4, 1867. E. Bynnm 794 

Sept. 1. 1869.. E. B'vnam 1203 

Sept. 6, 1871. .D. Schindler 1093 

Sept. 3, 1873..D. Schindler 1141 

Sept. 1, 1S75..D.M. Burns 1189 

Sept. 5, 1ST7. D. M. Burus (3) 1315 

Sept. 3, 1879.. J. £. Smith 1072 


(.1) Itemovod from the State; and GritSlh, who had on the 3d of 
September just passed, been elecled lo the position, was nppoinlcd to 611 
t'ufl vaf^Qcy nulil lbs proper time cams for him to assume the dnlie^ by 
virtue uf the election. 

(-2) Died April S. 18C5. 

(3j Bedgnad July 3d, ISSB. to assume the duties of Secretary of 
Slate, and J. K. Smilb wcs oppoioted on tbe same duy lo fill tbe vacancy. 

Sept. 6', 1854.. W.N. Brooks 492 

Sept. 5, 1855.. W. N.Brooks 745 

Sept. 2, 1857. . W. N. Brooks 673 

Sept. 7, 1859 . . W. N. Brooks (5J 1097 

Sept. 4, 1961.. C.W. Reed 1013 

Sept. 2, 1863. .G. A. Fabricius 840 

Sept. 6, 1865.. Giles E. Sill 742 

Sept. 4, 18G7.. Giles E. Sill 806 

Sept. 1, 1869.. A. C. Kean 1212 

Sept. 6, 1871.. A. C. Kean 1146 

Sept. 3, 1873.. A. C. Kean 1272 

Sept. 1, 1875.. A. C. Keau 1191 

Sept. 5, 1877.. A. C. Keau 1420 

Sept. 3, 1879.. A. C. Kean 1154 

(1) Filed his bond Jane 1, 1850. 

(2) Was appointed in place of .Anderson, who bad resigned. Kccne, 
iu Inrn, resigned Marob 21, 1851, and Hartley wa.s appointed. 

(3) Serred from Jane 1, 1852, nnlil Octobur 1, IS53. He was prose- 
cuted as a dcfauittir; bnt undoabtedly was so without gain lo himself or 
intention to coinuiit » wrong- He was tbe victim of others, who raceived 
aud paid out tbe money in his name. 

(■1) Eesignod February G. 185t, and Brooks apviinted to vacancy. 
He reports that there are two Oouuly Trensnrere. 

(5) Rjbbed at Cacbeville April M, 1S61, of $3,833.63, Connty money; 
and bo stfind.i charged on tb^: books of tbe Board of Saporviaors with 
adeGcit of $7,012.11. 


irSen EUdtd. Vote. Total Vote. 

April 1, 1850.. Geo. W. Taylor Elected 

Oct. 18, 1850. . J. N. Borden (1) Appointed. 

Mar. 1851..E. A. Harris Appointed. 

Sept. 3, 1851 . . E. A. Harris JSleeted 

Nov. 2, lcj52.. E.A.Harris .. 

Sept. 7, 1853.. G.W. Gish (2) 429 'sgI 

April 1855. . Jas. A. Douglas Appointed. 

Sept. 5, 1855 . . Geo. Bell 3o(j mQ 

Nov. 20, 1856. . F. G. Russell Appointed. 






SeU. 3; 1873 . . L. Friel |";f ^177 

Sept. 1. 1875 . . M. A. Nurse l^f .J7 

Ma^r.13 1877..J.A.Biwn... .^^""^i 

Sept. 5, 1877 . . J. E. R. O'Furrel (3) Ifb .^ J 

Sept. 3; 1879.. L. P. Everett H^'' -^^" 

?T7R;aiBncd A-saat 2Clb, 1851, and Ibe Oonrt docHncd to appointU* 

BUCCesSOr. -. ,. m lor.i 

(2) Reed appoints J. W. Stout «<« his Deputy October 10, l*-!- 
{3) Resigned Jane !)th, 1879. and L. P. Everett waa appointed on tbe 
same day to fill tbo vacancy. 

S6pt.2, 1857..J. I. audevhill '^\ 

Sept. 7, 18.59.. William Miuis 6bS 

Sept. 4, 1861 . . A. Mathews ;^'';^ 

Sept. 2, 1863.. A. Mathews J^ 

Sept. 6, 1865. .A. Mathews. i''' 

Sept. 4. 1857..J. I. UiiaerhiU. « 

Sept. 1,18B9.. J.I. Underliill Jl'l 

Sept. 6 1871..J. I. Underhill Wj^ 


mien Etecltd. 




^ ^ Appoi 

May 1852 .' .' G.' U. Keeno '. Aif *""" 819 

Oct. 11, 1850 . . G. M. Keeue a ^o „ ud 

Dec. 1.1851..G.M.Keene M^^_ 




Sept. 7. 1853..G. M.Keene J*^ 

Sept. 6, 18-54. .Israel Sunderland *'" 

Sept. 5. 1855.. E. A. Harris ^J^' 

Sept. 2, 1857..AVra. H. Marders ^Af 

Sept. 1. 1358 . . Chas. F. Reed Aoi)oint«d. 

Feb. 2, 1858 . . W. N. Brooks Ap jm 

Apr. 6, 18.58..T. C-P.-ckman -JP' '-'' 

Nov. 6, 1860 .S. F. Rodolph ^f^' 

Sept. 3, 1862.. Wm. S, Emery °:'' 

Sept. 2, 1863. .E. C. Taylor °f;' 

Sept. 6, 1865 . . Geo. W. Pierce ' -'. 

Sept. 4, 1867.. Geo. W. Pierce "•: 

Sept. 1. 1869 . Giles E. Sill \\°t 

Sept. 6, 1871.. E. R. Bush W^t 

Sept. 3, 1873 . . J. S. Stevenson i mointed. 

Apr. 16, 1874. . A. G. Buggies 10OS 20!'6 

Sept. 1, 1875. .A. S. House :}""^, 5521 

Sept. 5, 1877 . S. L. Monday ^^"- 3.193 

Sept. 3, 1879. .A. W. Tncker ^"^ 

Sept. 2, 1857.. J. L. Cos. 
Sept. 7, 1859. .Jas. A. Douglas 
Sept.4, 1861.. C.H. Gray 
Sept. 2, 1863.. C. H. Gray 



Wktu EtKt'd 
April 1, 1850.. C.F. Collins (l)-.-- 
Sept. 3, 1851 . . John Van Arnam .... 

Nov. 2, 1852. .John Van Aniam 

1853 . . John Smith 

Sept. 7, 1853. .John Van Arnam. . . . 

Sept. 5, 1855,. E. C. Taylor 

Sept. 2, 1857.. A. J. Burnam C2) 

ro(r. T..!.f I !■<.('. 




Nov. 3. 1857 , . F. J. Taylor (3) ■ ■ ■ tnLiutod. ' 

Dec. 8, 1857..I. N. Hoflg '* : 


Plate «° 19 

£-. lf*)^^.<>i■i'»^L■ .^^. ^ 



Feb. 2, 1858. 
Sept. 1, law, 
Sei>t. 7, 1«59. 
Sept. 4, 18(11. 
Sept. 2, IHtSrj. 
Sept <i, IHfi-j. 
Sept. 4, lHtJ7 . 
Sept. 1, I8f;y. 
Sopt. G, 1871. 
Sept. 3, 1873. 
Sept. 1, 1H7.5. 
Sept. 5, 1877. 
Sept. 3, 1879. 

COBUyEII-<^tiDD«d. Veb. Total VaU. 

g- 9°'A'.* AppoiBte<I. 

S- Curtis 48;i 885 

g-Taylor 692 1338 

t. Ko.Iolpb l(»2fj 1710 

S. Spro;,'ue. 8.50 1599 

5-*^"^,l"* 739 H3G 

S. Miller 789 I4Q7 

T. LiHani ins 2t*97 

W. EdHon 1122 2187 

L. MoiKlay (4) 1144 21G.> 

Krellciiberg 1284 2175 

Krellftnberg 13G7 2506 

Krellouberg 1049 2524 

> Associates. 


(1) SerT«d for n Nhott lime n* acting SberifT. 
(•it Pslled to qaaiiry. 
(3) Wonld not accept tbonppointmeDt. 

(4f AjipoIutt-dOcl.Tth, l>)7;f. to fill thsTocancr, until ho could uunme 
tli9 dntics of lliu oillcc to wbicb lie hn<J ticen cleelcd. 


This Court was creatoJ hy au Act of April 13tl», 1850, 
and previous to tbe organizsition of tlie Board of Supervi- 
sors transacted all such county business as now conies be- 
fore that Board- The first court mot at Fremout on the 
0th day of Jane, 1850. P. A. Marquam, County Judge, 
presiding, with Ferdinand Woodward and Levy B. Austin 
as As.40ciates. 

Tho Court consisted of the County Judge, who presided, 
and two Associates, elected yearly by tho Justices of the 
County, from among their number. 

. The first election of which wa have any record occurred 
October 6th, 1850. The following are the Courts organized 
from year to year until tiie law was repealed: 


P. A. Marquam, Judge. 

Ford. AVoodward, 

Levy B. Austin, 


H. H. Hartley, Judge. 

G-F. Woodward, 1 Associates, 
G — Isaac Davis, V ■ i a 

6-Wm. Flanders, J H^VO^^^^^ 

H. H. Hartley, Judge. 

December 25— Isaac Davis, ) AssociaiflH 

25— P. Woodward, f Assocmtea. 

H. H. Hartley, Judge. 
November 5-Prosper Bennett, Uggociates. 
" 5 — Isaac Davis, J 

Harrison Gwinu, Judge. 
3G — Isaac Davis, 
16 — ^Prosper Bennett, 

2 — Jos. I. Underbill, 
2— J. W, Snowball, 

December 15 — Septer Patrick, 
15— Geo. W. Fisher, 
Isaac Davis, Judge. 
December 7 — C. W. Lewis, 

7-Jos. S. Campbell, 

4— W. G. Seely, 
4—1. N. Hoag, 
3— S. T. Cavpentor, 
" 3— P. Gibson, 

December 3—1. N. Hoag, 
" 3— E. Giddiugs, 


I. N. Hoag. Judge. 

October V— D. Schindler, 

" 7— John Hoagland, 


L. R. Hopkins, Judge. L N. Hoag, Judge. 

October 6 — John S. Tutt, \ Associates 

6— Jas. O'Neil, ( 

Lust session of this Conrt wfts hell December 10th. 1863; tho law was 
repertled April 20th, of that year, nnd took effect January 1st, 1864. 

First Board m£t March Hh,!^^^. ^ ,^, 



[■ Associates. 
\ Associates. 
[■ Associates. 

I- Aasociates. 





i Associates. 


..J. B. Greene 

..Wm. G. Brown ,. 

. . Isaac Laferty 

. .Chas. H. Coolcy . 
. . Gabriel F. Brown . 
..W. N. Brooks (1) 

Saxjid Board, fint m^in.7 Od. 4, 1853. 

Sept. 7 J. D. Tufts m '^ 

S«pt. 7.0. Ctiisbolm iw 

S«pt-7 G.H.Peck ."*; lit ■••• 

Sept. 7..A. H. WilUrd... ' l^ ■• 

b«pt.7 W.G.Brown ...V.'.'.V.V^] 411 '.'.'.\ 

ThmJ Hoard, 1854. 

c«pt. fa. .bamuel W-igner .. 516 

hept. G..HiijDe3 L. llobey... 5>i " ' 

Sept. G, J. 0. Hawluv, Cbftinnou "" 484 

Sept. (,.Wm. Flanders. ... 505 

Sept. G. J. W. SuowbaU ','.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 489 .'". 

Up to liSi5 ih«r» w«» no tSupenisur Dittricti. 

Sept. 5,.J.V. Hoas, 1st Dist 100 "12 

hept. o. .J. D. StephoQs. 'id Dist. . . . 124 '^60 

Sept. 5 .D. Lamb, 3d Dist 2114 4-10 

Nov. 4.. J. V. Hoag. Ist Dist ... ) 

S**^- f ■ 5- S- S'°f'''' '^^ ^'^' h No election. 

Nov. 4, .M. r. Ferguson, 3d Dist j 


Sept. 1.. Mike Bryte, Ist Dist IG9 209 

Sept. 1..G. E. Sill, 2d Dist 22:^ 2'».'J 

Sept. 1 . . M. P. Ferguson, 3d Dist 24<J 419 


Sept. 7 . . S. N. Norton. Ist Dist 195 

..G. E. Sni, 2dDi3t.» 

Sept. 7. .A. W. Morris, 3d Dist 2G9 


..S. N. Norton, 1st Dist.* 

Nov. G..G. E. Sill, 2a Dist 

. . A. W. Morris, 3d Dist.* 


Sept. 3. 


.Geo. W. Bell, Ist Dist 229 

.G.E.SiU, 2dDist.« 

. . A. W. Morris, 3d Dist.* 


. . Geo. W. Bell, Ist Dist.* 

Sept. 2.. Geo. W. Scotb, 2d Dist 234 

..A. W. Morris, Sd Dist.* 


..Geo. W.Bell, Ist Dist.* 

Geo. W. Scott, 2d Dist.* 

S. N. Meriug, 3d Dist, (2). .. 

Geo. W. Bell, 1st Dist , 

Geo. W. Scott, 2d Dist.* 

..S. N. Mering, 3d Dist.* 


..Geo. W. Bell, Ist Dist.* 

Sept. 5.. Geo. H. Swingle, 2d Dist 132 

..S. N. Mering, 3d Dist.* 


..Geo. W. Bell, 1st Dist.* 

. . Geo. H. Swingle. 2d Dist.* 

Ed. Roberts, 3d Dist 434 

Nov. 8 
Sept. G 



Sept. 4 
Nov. 3 


L. B. Ruggles, 1st Dist 372 

..Geo H. Swingle, 2d Dist.* 

..Ed. Eoberts, 3d Dist.* 


L. B. Ruqgles, 1st Dist.* 

Sept. 1 . . G. H. Swingle, 2d Dist 500 

..Ed. Roberts, 3d Dist.* 

Sept. 7. 
Sept. 6. 

Nov. 5'- 

Sept. 3 . 
Sept. 3. 
Sept. 3. 

Sept. 2. 

Sept. 1. 
Sept. 1. 


L. B. Ruggles, 1st Dist.* 

. Geo. H. Swingle, 2d Dist.* 

.Ed. Roberts, 3d Dist 240 


R. W- Megowan, 1st Dist 418 

Geo. H. Swingle, 2d Dist* 

.Ed. Eoberts, 3d Dist.* 


R. W. Megowan, 1st Dist.* 

.Geo. H. Swingle. 2d Dist 355 

.Ed. Roberts, 3d Dist.* 


R W. Megowan, 1st Dist.* 

Geo. H. Swingle, 2d Dist.* 

Ed. Roberts, 3d Dist. (3) 188 

J K. SmiOi, 4tb Dist 348 

. S. N. Mering, 5th Dist 221 

.E. W. Megowan, 1st Dist ISO 

Geo. H. Swingle, 2d Dist.* 

J. C. Smith, 3d Dist.* (3) 

J. E. Smith, 4th Dist.* 

S. N. Mering, 5th Dist.* 


.R. W- Megowan, 1st Dist.* - - - 

.Wm. Sims, 2d Dist 2;HJ 

J. C. Smith, 3d Dist.* ■■ 

J. H. Harlan, 4th Dist 426 

.S.N. Mering, 5th Dist.* 

















. R. W. M^goinu). 1st DisU*. . . 

..Wm. Sims, 2d Dist,» 

Not. 7.3. C. Smiih. :M Dist 345 

. . J. H. Harlan. 4tU Dist.' 

Not. 7..8.N. Mering. 5th ... 304 


Sept. 5. . R. P. HMler. lot Dist. 334 

..Wm. Sims. 2d Di-st.*... 
..J. C. Suiitb. ltd Disl." 

..J. H. Ilailau. 4tbl>mt.' 

. .8. N. Moriug, 5th Dial.*. 


..R. F. Hosttir tstPist.* 

Scpl. 4 . Wm. Sims. 2il Dist 19G 

..J. C. Smith. 3d Dist.* 

..U.H. NVwton,4lb Di«t 357 

. . S. N. Moring, 5th Dist.* 


..R. F. Hostor. IstDiKt.* 

. . Wm. Sims. 2nd Di«t.* 

Sept. 3. .J. C. Smith. Hd Dist 228 

..R. H. Nowton. 4th Dist.* 

..S. N. Moring, oth Dist 209 







( 1| Appointn] JiiDo T, lSo3, iic« Ciiolajr, tamoTMl from IheooQOlj. 

(2) Elrclctl at (pocial rlDClloo, lii'lit Mnri^b 3, INCt, to All fur linWca 
of Idnu; YBi-nut-y onuHuil by roal^onlioii nf A. W. MorriH. Votwi tecoivud 
il^. total v.iU 4j'J. 

(J) OoloherC. I8T.1. J.'C. Smith nppololwl to titko Iho iilneo of Hit. 
ItubetlH, clnc«n<ii<^. 

(•) rii-lii over. 

General £lections m Yolo Oountv froj[ 1849 to 1879. 

Stale Senate. 

Camttdale. l'*ir. Pitrlj/. Uro'd, 

Jonas Spoct 1849 173 

Stephen Cooper *' 21 , 


John Bigler 1851. .Democrat.. ..202. 

P.B.Ruadiug " ..Whig 182. 


Franklin Pierce 1852. .Democrat 350. 

Winfield Scott '* ..Whig 400. 


John Bigler 1853 . . Democrat. . . .434 

William Waldo " ..Whig 472. 


John Bigler 1855. .Democrat. . . .560. 

J. Neely Johnson .. . " ..American. ..603. 


James Buchanan . . .185G, .Democrat 653. 

Millard Fillmore.... " ..American. ..583. 
John C. Fremout " . .Republican. .130, 


John B. Wellor 1857. .Democrat.. -.521. 

G. W.Bowie " ..American. ..419. 

Edward Staiilj '* . .Republican. .173 


M. S.Latham 1859. .Democrat. . ..757. 

John Currey " . . A. L. Dem. .568. 

Lehind Stanford " . .llepublican. . GG, 

J. C. Breckinridge.. 18P0., Democrat... .606. 

S. A.Douglas " ..Democnit....497. 

John Bell " . .Con. Union. . 74. 

Abraham Lincoln... " . .Republican. .535. 

J. E. McConnell .. .1861. .Democrat. , ..694. 

John Conness " . .Union Dem. ,367. 

Leland Stanford .. . " . .Republican. .726. 

John G. Downey.. . .1863. .Democrat. 
F. F. Low " . . Union . . . 

Geo. B. McClellan. .1864. .Democrat. 
Abraham Lincoln... " . ,Eepublican..653. 


H. H. Haight 1867.. Democrat. ..796. 

Geo. C. Gorham " . .Repnblii;an..573. 

Caleb F. Fox " ..Ind. Eepub..l01. 

Horatio Seymour. . . 1868., Democrat. . .1061. 
U.S.Grant " ..Eepublican. 995. 


H.H. Haight 1871. .Democrat. .1126. 

Newton Booth. " . .Eepublican. 1064. 


Horace Greeley 1872 . . Democrat . . 711 . 

Charles O'Connor. . . " . .Democrat . , 12. 
U.S.Grant " ..Eepublicau. 842. 


ffr Total 
i.VjiI, Vule, 

• ■■■i 194 

46 ^ 1260 




.40,8 V 1391 
. 4.8] 


:^»;S 11712 

.31 3 J 

.20.6 U787 

.47.0) ,„„ 

.473,. 42. 01 
.58. Of 


.54 1) 
.39.0 U47O 
. 6 9) 





.8 [ 1565 



John K. Loltrpll 
John M- Ci^ghUn. 

Willism Irvio... 
Joha Bidwell . . . 
T. G. Phel(w 

gamoelJ. Tilden. 
R. B. Haje* ., 

Rigt'clioii - 

Hugh C. Glenn 
William F. Whit, 
(jcurgc i'. Pcrkii 

Tmr. Ftrt),. »«'«*. 

.1972. .DemocTtt . IIV-*. 

" . .Republiwu). 455. 

.1975..Democrftt . 1169. 
'• . InflejwndflDt 889. 
" Rfiiubliean . 136. 

187G. Demoorat ,,13iiO. 
.. " , .Bcpulilican 1233. 


.1879 862. 

M 1338. 

1879 X. Con. AD.IIM. 

W'orkingiii'n •'132. 
" Ropiiblican. 11)27. 

72 II 1629 

53. 3| 
. 6 2) 

52.4 I o^ 

52.4 ( 
.47.6 ( 



16.7 1-2523 

41 1 


Stock Raising and Stealing. 

lU AdnnUg- «■ » BailnM. la Ewljr D.ji ow Grain -Con. Comjuilwo U 1852- 
FilM In 1B35-H0W lli« Finl Sm.iiaa Slock Cuns Htrt-Pilct. In IWB-Tio Bnil- 
MM in IBSO-Th. D«tm«ion of Stock In 1B53-The Oountj bwimw O«.i.t«kod- 
The Efl»rt et th. Draolh ol 18M-Whj \l U not ProflUbli W Oro^ CaKl. H.rt Ko«- 
A TkkU 8tL!>»li« th» Infirtiw In th. Ll.mWck ot Ihs Ooflnty from 1852 oatC 1877 
BonN ud K«l»-Th6 Bulow in Eiriy Diy*. Prl*», *K.-ThB Sime « tho PK«nt 
lim.-DilalnB -BhMp aililnff-fitoe'i 8t«ll»g-ThlsT» Whipped wd H»aged. 

In tho eiirly settlement of the county there was a carpet 
coveriiiK the plains of Yolo uiid Ciilifornia tbiit mftde the 
Tacilic fonst pecnliarl.v attructivo to the man, who, from 
oxpoi-ieuco or iissociaiioii, bud eome to kuo\Y of the ad- 
vanUigo that lay in a climiite uad soil that produced dur- 
ing tlu) entire year, that which woold give snstenance to 
flocks iind herds of domestic animals without the uecessiiry 
espenso of providing in tho Summer for their winter's 
consomption. This combined with the fabulously high 
prices thiitwore sometimes paid for beef aud mutton in the 
mines caused the early settler to adopt estensivoly the 
atock-raising branch of the land-holder's industry. To 
become a tiller of tho soil, as thou supposed, necessitated 
great risk of loss of labor by drouth, or a large expense in 
making irrigating ditches, fencing against cattle, com- 
bined with numerous other disadvantages to be over- 
come, that, with an uncertain market as a reward, made 
that industry too unfavorable to warrant a trial by many. 
This was especially the case when brought into competition 
with the exteusivo herds whose owners could hunt the 
shady side of a house or tree during the day to keep out 
of tlie sun, -while their vaqiiero attended to the wealth (hat 
increased whether the owuerwjts sleeping or awake. Un- 
der these circumstances it was a natural and inevitable re- 
sult that the plains of Yolo should become one vast pas- 
ture for the herds of the grazer. 

I'irst there were hero Mexican cattle and Spanish bronco 
horses, that were gradually exterminated as the American 
brands could be procured in their stead. 

As early as 18.52, according to the census returns, there 
■were in Tolo county 1,80S horses, 314 mules, 1,S55 sheep, 
2 607 ho"3, and 9,62G head of horned cattle. The same 
Tear there were only 3,846 acres of land inclosed, on whicli 
■was '^o^vu 1,497 bushels of wheat, 126,076 bushels of bar- 
ley, and 5,075 bushels of oats; yet it was one of Califor- 
nia's best years for raising grain. 

At the time, when foreigners commenced to settle in Cal- 
ifornia, they found here grazing upon the plains adjacent 
to the "Missions the descendants of those black cattle driven 
from Mexico to San Diego in 1769 by the party under that 
pioneer of California, Father .Tunipero Serro, and we find in 
Forbes* California History, written in 18:i5, the following 
prices laid down as the ruling rates for stock here at that 

Onefatox '. 55 00 

One cow 5 (JO 

One mare 5 00 

Que saddle-horse 10 00 

One mule ■. 10 00 

One sheep 2 00 

"When the gold-seekers came over the plains, in 1849, 
with those immense trains hauled by oxen, with a few 

coirs to Rive milk oa the roaJ, thov intro^luced practically 
LrCauToroia the first American cattle A cw stra^hng 
Toi. bad found their way before, but number. 
were so limited that ihoy produced no visible result. 

When thme ox-trains reached the State in 1849 and for 
sevcml year^ later, the owners were in tho bab.t of selling 
them for whatever wa.s offered, because cattle, after the 
miner's, would only be a bothor to thorn whde seek- 
ing gold. The slock, on its arrival here, was alwa>;s 
Jrked down poor, weak, and often .Uuvat.d a ka . 
breathed into the lung., and taken mto the s omach .» the 
water drank along the route, that -.'^"'-''y^;'''^'^;"; V' 
it The great influx of immigratun. m lh49 created a 
Le marfet. and raised the price of beef cuttle Oxen 
wore e«peciallv valuable, and a good fat. heavy yoke would 
bring $500. The high price was caused by the corro.pon.l- 
in.dv high rate* for freight, 50 cents per ponnd being 
char-ed from Sacramento to Coloma. A man named .Um- 
strong, who had a saw-mill at Washington, wished to pNO 
L men a Christmas dinner, and thought to astonish them 
with some fried fresh pork, and procured the desirable 
relish; but was surprised to have a bill presented for the 
same at T-j cts. per pound. 

In 1850 hogs were about equal in value to gold nuggets. 
Wm. Gordon sold ten for 81,000. and tho same year 
Charles Coil paid $250 for two white ones weighing abou 
one huudred aud seventy-live pounds each, and considered 
it a fortunate investment. In the Spring of 18ol, the re- 
tail rates, as per bills in our possession, woro as follows: 
January 7th, 1855, S. Cooper sold to Spurk & Frierson, 
one ox @ $100. January 17th, 1851, A. Kendall to same, 
six cows (Si UO; ten yeariing calves @ §10. January 
20th \. Koudall to same, one milch cow, SIOO. In the 
same year Charies Coil bought of J. M. Harbin 1,600 
Spanish cattle at S18 per head, and 200 saddle-horses at 
§40 each. A well-brokon vaquero horse would bring at 
that time §150, aud the same lot of cattle, had they been 
fat, would have been worth from 530 to S35 per head for 
beef. During this year J. W. Chiles sold to a dairyman 
in San Francisco four fresh American milch cows for an 
average of S175 each, one of them being rated at S225. 
Mr. 0. had paid S30 a bead for them as they arrived from 
the plains. Mr, Childs also sold fat hogs to Sacramento 
butchers at thirty-live cents a pounds. 

In consequence of the high prices prevailing for American 
stock, Charles Coil visited the States in 1851, and returned 
in September, 1852, with 350 choice oowa. He sold them 
with their young calves during the following Spring (1853) 
at from S75 to S250 each. The grazers were in tho habit 
of meeting tho overland emigrants iu the mountains and 
buying their cattle before they had reached their destina- 
tion. W. T. Browning and John Morris, made a trip of 
this kind in August, 1852, and purchased a number at 
prices ranging from §40 to $50 ahead. 

In August, as per bills, the following sales were made. 
August 16th, 1852, D. T. Bird sold to W. J. Friersou 
seventeen hogs and thirty-nine pigs for S1I25, August 
17th, 1852, J. Boggs sold Frierson (title warranted) two 
American cows for $250. Get. 19th, 1852, S. Shellham- 
mer sold Frierson one black cow @ S135. Charles Coil 
sold 330 head of fat Spanish steers in one lot @ $72.50 
a head, that had cost him §11 each in September, 1851. 
Aud thus fortunes were made from the grasses growing in 
Xolo and the acorns that fell from her thousands of oaks 
covering the valley along Cache Creek. 

Very high prices were maintained until the drouth of 
1857, when there had been so great an increase in num- 
bers that feed ran short, and rates were reduced consider- 
ably. In 1860. the County Assessor's returns show that 
Tolo contained 23,480 cattle, 30,971, sheep, 3,940 horses, 
373 mules, and 13,852 hogs, the latter having decreased 
from 35,000 in 1855. With this 72,616 domestic animals 
unprovided for, except by nature with a supply of food, 
those terrible winds and storms of snow and rain, and re- 
sultant flood of 1861-2, came aud found the stock-raisers 
unprepared, and made them feel as though they had been 
accursed. On the 5th of January, of the last-named year, 
a storm from the north commenced that has had no par- 
allel in the memory of white men, and is only approached 
in the legions of the Indians, who say in a time long past, 
after a famine, in which all the old men and women of the 
tribe starved, that a rain came and washed a mountain 
down in the canon on Cache creek, that so effectually 
dammed up that stream that it went dry for days, until it 
had raised sufficiently tooverflow and wash away the ob- 
struction. This storm of 1862 was so fierce and combined 
with chill of cold, that it rained to death numbers of hogs 
belonging to Gable Brothers, in this county. It drowned 

them- not bv their getting iuto pools of tho water after it 
had reached' the earth, but by chiUnig aud suffocating 
them bof'M-o it reached the ground. Tho rain turned into 
^n,.w and at the place nientionod. sixtooii niLdies accuinu- 
iated'on a level, in addition to what mtdted while it was , 
eainiu- that depth. There woro fivo different snow- ] 
storms" in succession, keeping the ground covered for 
three weeks on the plains, and for seven weeks on tho 
north side of tho hills. Before these storms, 
the mountain rains had Idled the Sacramento river, swollon 
the creeks emptying into the tule lands, and roiuleroa 
cviu'.ing of tho numerous herds precarious. The last storm 
forced the cattle out of the lowlands, and sent Ihom wander- 
ing over tho country iu search of food. They were weak, it 
being that time between tho old nnd new grass, when stock 
is in bad condition, aud tho scenes that followed beggars 
description. Through tho day, they wandered over Uio 
country and along the roiuls, lowing for food. When 
night came, thoy would gather in buuclioa of twenty to a 
hundred in a place, and in the mornings tho slrongor oiiea 
would struggle off, while tho weaker portion, stuck fust iu 
the mud, would throw their heads towards their sides nnil 
die, frothing at the mouth. For over a month the shirva- 
tioi'i of the poor beasts continual, until the grass started, 
after the snow had melted. TUv Kn!>jht's Limlhiij News 
of February 15th, 1862, says: " One thing is favorable- 
" tho feed is growing rapidly; stock has about ceased 
" dying, aud begins to show signs of iucreasod vitality from 
" the genial rays of the sun and a moderate share of fcctl. 
" The change was needed, and is hailed with gladness by" 
" our stock-raiaors. Tho amount of stock which porishod 
" during tho past mouth in this county is iramouso. No 
" man can realize it unless ho vides around and witneHses 
" the number lying dead on our plains and open lanils. 
" Great numbers have been skinned, and eome men have 
" done a thriving business in this lino; but probably nut 
" one-half the total number will be fonnd, a great nunihur 
" having died iu the hills, a distance from any habitation." 
The same paper, referring to this subject in its issue of 
March 15th, 1862, just ouo month later, says: "Some 
" idea may be formed of tho immense loss of fitoclt In 
" Yolo, from tho number of hides which are being shipjied 
"from Kiiight'8 Lauding to Sau Francisco. This week 
" over two thousand have boon sent off, and this is au 
" average of what wo have been shipping for somo weeks, 
" and yet a small portion of tho whole are hauled iu from 
" the country, the weather and bad roads having kept 
" them back." 

Out of 3,000,000 head of oattlo in tho state, 800,000 
starved to death that year. Many parties in the county 
made a business of skinning the cattle found dead, and 
often they did not wait for death, but killed stock found 
mired. A butcher, named John E. Butler, skinned what lie 
found by horse-power. Ho would rip the hide down tlie 
inside of the leg with a knife, cut a circle just above tho 
hoof, then part the skin by a sweeping dash up the belly 
to tho mouth; then skin a part of tho head, hitch the fikiu 
to a chain, the ehaiu to a horse, and strip the hide as 
though ho was skinning a squirrel. This man made money 
in the business. It was facetiously remarked of C. J. 
Shaw, by a neighbor who was without the bowels of com- 
passion, that Shaw was making ten dollars a day skiniiing 
his own cuttle. 

The loss in the county was estimated at $200,000 by the 
Assessor on account of floods, aud it will be seen by tlie 
following table that between 1860 and 1862 there was an 
increase in all kinds of stock except cattle, in which there 
was a decrease of 10,020 head: 

Kind of Slock. 1600. 18G2. 

Horses 3,940 4,806 

Cattle 23,480 13.460 

Sheep 30.971 46,800 

Hogs 13,852 U,8flO 

The prices maintained for stock caused a rapid increase 
in their number, until the drought of 1863 demonstrated 
that there was more in the county than its grazing capacity 
warranted in even an average year of productiveness. 
Seasons when but little grass grew were not among tiie 
things unknown in California, and the stock-raisers hegau 
to seek a market to lessen the number of their flocks an 
herds. The natural result was, as all wished to sell and 
none to buy. that the price went down, but there was no 
panic. The year 1864 followed with its dry, hot siroccos 
to parch the earth aud wither the vegetation upon its face, 
until the great valley, scorched and arid, seemed to ha^^ 
never smiled with the face of a perennial beauty. ^^ i*^ '"^ , 
country in this condition, over which roamed 75,000 stai^- i 
ing animals, an outlook was presented to the owners that | 

Plats N« 20 






OE fu£_ a. CO. fua. s. f . 


'^- '^"^f'^^ ' L 7mA nor, y O LQ 

(.1 TN. \fj. r. aACLOV^^-' 





h*a had no paraUel in the hintory of California. The 
b^inean w« raine-l, «tock could not be 8oW n. thore »a« 
no one to bay. Foor dolUn. a head would h:*ve t^cn • , 
Liority of tl.« c«ttle in the Stat«, that a year before ; 
would hnvc- «,ld for *50 each, ami nine-tenths of the slock- , 
„i«er« in the conntry were bankrupt. Some of the own- | 
L in Yolo collected what cattle they handily could and 
Lrted for Nevada. Oregon. Lake county, anywhere to get . 
Zd and save a remnant. The renn t was that as W.nter I 
came on there wi-re very few cattle in Cal.fom.a, and the 
nrice rallied. Thone who had driven away returne.1 and 
Lid a« high «« fourteen cents per pound, live we.ght m 
SacrameuU,. The sumo animals that were dnven by Geo. 
W Scott of Yolo, through Sacramento en route for Ne- 
,I;U in t'ho Summer, when ho could not have oUa.ned 
^' ^r head for them, brought in December of the same 
vear fourteen conl« per pound, or over SlOO a head. From 
lilt lime until the present, stock-ra.smg has been a prof- 
itlble business in California, beef from fi.e to 


from Ick-raiHing to farming, and they beg.n to fence tic 
.!l ami tlm-i curtailed the range for large herds. The 
it 1 tut a better grade of stock had to be .ntro- 
lu d rmake its raising profitable; and as the land 
ias become more valuable for grain raising, a new sUite of 
hfna .e"ulted. It uo longer pays to grow ordinary breeds 
o CsUc animals in this county, as an --of and is 
1 Inm for cereals than for grazing, except when the 
7 n\rfiltd ° can be utilized. Mr. Charles Coil buys in 
n'S torn two to three hundred head of steers at from 
f m vears of age, going to Nevada. Oregon, or 
*''■'' 1 r hove landl afe cheap to make his purchase. 

him to m.ike the profits from. assessor's 

Pacific slope, by paying nine cents s pound for seed- 
wheat, which, sowed in the fall, produced a crop of smut 
that gave him ft financial bUck oye, that he recov- 
ered from bv selling fourteen spans of his liorws to the 
California St^e Company, at «T0O a span. Friend Merrill 
speaks canslically. to this day, of that first essay of his at 
farming, and think* damn out loud when reverUng to the 
financial p^.liev thus pursued, of paying three dollars a day 
for cutting with a cradle, and fourteen cents a bushel for 
thrashing ihe grain that proved to be two-thirds *mut, and 
afterwards sold at one cent a pound, leaving him about 
U IHX) behind on the o|.eratiou. The fourteen spans ol 
: horses sold by hin., in the fall uf 1854. wore of the lot from 
I the sUtes, driven over by him the previous year, borne 
I of them sold as high as S500 each. They were extra large 
' fine animals. Of the lot he purchased from """"B^yf • 
some sold as high as mO, but ranged generally from ?L^0 
to $400, going to the stage companies. In ItSo-, ■> ""^ "»- 
Tnlo county had the best horses in the State, and t\m 
comes near being the truth in later years, since Theodore 
Winters became a resident of this county. 

Prices held good until the drouth of mi: »">-» ^« 
preceding a fine young horse would I'nng S^m. 
That drouth drove the Spanish and poorer grades of ani- 
mals out of the country, and but few of them have ever 
returned. After 1804 the people of til«/"""\'>';™ 
their attention more to grain raising. This created a «e« 
market tor horses and prices remained good until re- 

"S'yoar before the great drouth, that is, in 18G3, Dr 
Merritt turned his attention to mule., and since that time 
he has raised some 8U0 of them, never having s^l'^o .J^" 
ceed four tor less than $100 each, from that price to *^00 

't!ml:h:r;c:oper brought, in 1852. the ^-t thorough- 
bred horse into the .ounty. The animal was from Mis- 
'; ui nd was known as ■* Tom Moore." The same year 
James Moore, now of this county, imported to Yolo wo 

M ° ^;Blo„t to "; n,.ier of b,ooM ho.e, ™ 
., L -F,.om 1654 unUU862, a race track (previouBly 

i';::t:r^;trr:ro'^^^^^^^^^^ -^ ^^'--^ 

Mr. Brvte imagining the busings -» ™f ^'-tr'^m*:; 
able ..-those raU. tlu^ught lo i^^judon ^^« , J« , 
rvfcson did not. and m ihe tall of l»->i ^ " , 

^ith the Caliton>ia St.^m Xavigatiun ^-ni-^v U^ -> b 
thoir river stealer* at forty cents in-r gallon. Those at * 
coulinucl for about .hn.> years, when the pnco ^^^ 
n^uced to thirty-five and then to^^.u y^- . ^ -*;- 
Navigation C-m-y sold on^- «;.^;\\. ,„,.,.,u.g Ui. 
company nmoimto<l lo 8<-,l1l'- ""'*"., ,,„« i„.„n an 
custnuiJrs at twenty cents per gall-m- ";,^: j';7ycT 
oitensivo los.^r bv Ho^mU, es(H>eudly that of Jm-uary. IM-. 
du^i g "h eh bui forh ..ut of one hundred and seven cows 
t::L.^, an. in all t.o hundred and ^-^y^^^^:^ 
horned atock wen> swept awny front Ins --■''■ ^''^^'^"^ 
buildinirs etc.. that left his farm a wreck. Ho has t.peni 
« 5 oio^n lovecs on his own place, and now has om- of 
1 «■ ml cLpleto. wen regulated, and -^.-nsivo dan,- 
arms in California, that may be summed up .s folhns. 
Cmo^^t extensive barns and •^"t-huildi.g. .n the con ^ 
one hundred and fifty cows, one hundred head of > mmg 
stock, thirty head of horses and m«lc«. and abont fifteen 

'Ti::' ^ -t;ri^.^O tm^e was o.tensWo dairying on 
tl.H nic Itaneh. bv Hutchinson, Creeno & Co. 
"' \f ,L":„l .1. i. Elliot.. .a,ov„ W.»l"nB.o|.. - -W 
oboe, ami milk, about thlrtj-llvo cow. '''f ' "J^'^r', 
.„„ „t llio nnciont .ito of Ficmonl,» abo . 0,0 Mm 
r i a,Kl t«c„ty.f,vo cows ,u..l n...k»« c hcc-o H»rf. ( - . 


o„o of ll,o»c who m»m,t«cl..vcs c W™c On '1'° "" ' ^ 

t^:s L t;:i:;iih mUk. The abov^we believe, com- 
prises the dairy business of Yolo county. 


, : . iflw- Takm from the AiSfSiora' Utporin. 

t f •,« SMi-fc m ifte Couny sine* 1832, '"«"' '"" 


Nntobet Horaoa 
Number Mulo5. 
Siimber Horned Oitlilo 

Smnbor SUeop-... 


rowwlB of DttUer. 
Poumla of Cbeeae 
PouudB of Wool 




22,0011 10.9G0 
80,113'j 65,000 
1G,123J ie,J2G 
«,331 30.300 

Houses and Moles. 

lation in Galifornia «iitil 18o3 -^"^^ - . j„„ to ten dol- 
years. mustangs ranged in price ^^^^^eT^l^^-^-. --« 
Ls. and .hen well ^^^^ ^ ^^t^e, agood Amev- 
.vorth eonsidevably more^ At tbe sam ^ _^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 

i«an horse would bring SJo ^."^^ ' ; regarding this 
we digress, and state that the "!*°\3;°f^.,'„%r. H. P- 
class ot stock was obtained P^^'^tli midland, who 
Mevritt. living about tour miles sov^h from ^^^^^,^^^^,^ ^^^ 
has been in that business ^--J^^^^ ,,,,ty, without a 
ot 1851, he first passed ^^^"""''if^fcio^ it ami "steer- 
cent of money ov a coat to h^s back °°^'"^;^^i^,„aise for 
i„s" four little pack-mnles ^-^f jf J,,,ed, fromi-n- 
the Shasta mines. In June. Ibo. ue P ^^^ ^ ^_^^^_ ^^j., 
migvants, American horses at J^om ■. ^^^.^ ^^^ ^^^ 

iug the best; some we« sold as l^J «^^ " ^ ,^^ various 
tuniing-poiut. and ^^^XrpSoatate.'the first indi- 

, stage companies caused the P"<=f^ *« ^^^^^,, of a man 

catU>u ot this being mamtested by he op_^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

uamed Monroe, who s'^'^^'. '" ^^ , ' v,„u„ht them back, 
and fifty horses, at §<o apiece aua o o eposes, 

two months later, at 51.0 a head for ^^a P^,^^, ^he 
In 1852. Dr. Merritt went o the states a 
following rear driving one hundred o. ^^^^^ ^^ 

to California, and located - JfJ^ J^, J „g on the 
initiated himself into the mysteries of ta^^^ 

t,e fastest horses. ntheState^^^ to the public in 1855. 
^vas laid out in 1851 ^°^ J ^ J^^^^ ,„d there was a 
when Barney gave a f f ^."J -'„;i, j^ the SUte to com- 
.veek's racing with '^^ ^fff^^^^i^^^^^^ trock for three 

pete. Some of them were mtra-^^^ j 

months previous, and ^^^^^^^ \ Toombs purchased of 
was on that «'=*=-'°^jfi',^Wed horses. During the 
Capt. Johnson his «t-\;^^^Xramento and the ground, 
races, two stages ran between Sa ^^^ ^^ 

and Mr. Barney ted ^^^^^^j^^^^ j,^ ^o rival in the 

and read the biography ot the man. 


The fi-t dairy in Yolo county w^owued by^J^^ ^^^ 

vis. and located '^?^°"'/ J^ ^eTn cows, was started in 
The second, consisting oi^^^^^^ Cnnniugham, on what 
1S50 by C. H. Cooley ^"^ ^^^^^^- ^^ °^^^,^^ ,,,ked 
is -w the Mike ^/^ « f^ten went to the mines, returned 
for Cooley & Co. n l^^"-;^^ ^^^^ p^n. The price of 

Tt, 1818 Wm. Gordon pnrchnsed some shoep that had 
been imported tmm the Cape of Cla«d Hopo. 'hey had 
tl HkJthat ot a beaver, were good on y tor .nnt.on 

aSock on Vuto dieek in 1853, aud W. G. Hunt started i» he 

John Richie, - H- ^-P;; -^;-\",^^^^^ Hnmi.hrey Cooper 
T'l:^ Yo froni la-OSS the plaiL during the 

^Mhat time but we have not thoir names. J. W. Uandy 
f Oat ;Xy invested first in this business ni 1855. and 

;:;' eh I the^ame year John D. Stephens started in 
atSJeacn- x c. Lane commenced in 1857. 


inthe jovld ^^"«^'"^^„, 52,000. Two years latur there 

° " ttf $1 MO r.^at 1305 tbo H,,ani.l. mci.o bc- 
"':tr»apcia;rl r..™cb, and now » few Oot.«ool arc 

"t':n "irl^'wiccn intcrctcd in tbo .beep 

T "I'T W. aoln, P eana C,.mcr, Jan,c» W. 
bS H. C Yc^; S. M. Enoa, W. B. Ga„np, and B. 

\'''"TlSr,l bat little aceonat wa, made of wool, a, it 

^"° „. tlaf lo "clas. commodity, and malton waa 

was a poor grade, low „ui-pose prices 

'"' °',T':'fon: tt^il^l d°:. - and llne'taa.'la in^.m- 

At present r«"'' «° „ commenced tbe bnai- 

Spanisbmennoaintheconn.,^^ 3M Head .Hat are thor- 

°"^Ld TMHrdollarawa, .be least paid for anj one 
::frWed"Lm. and bis Hoek will now a..ra.e by^two 



V- ^ir voio COUNTY FROM 1825 TO ISSO. 

. . ,, In... .re proUbly lOD.OOOHhcep in tUe coanU at ', 

ih- prwwot time. I 

Stoc* SxEAtWO. ] 

*^ « «f tl,*<u. or2*n r-itions bad three gn«in„ 
formed ^ » •^•^" q^j a.,_ is:,o, r««ulting from a pro.- 

bufovo it was Bloppfil. c,„„™rs 

, . I Xro tho vilUye of L.ngvillo now stat»l«. were 

fute in IS'-'. "^"'°/ _ , T-Kg citixoDS of this 

to „„„,t imu .,. '- "*- • '„>^ JX aonc to stop 

the exteu. IV „„.e,iea at»l took them clown to a 

Xr:rU iS; now ow.oa ^ J. B. Stephens, .he. 
rhevVl- given an impromptn triul. There were about thu-- 
tv so tl^Vse ana object was to niake he part.cs 

nff— at least without Killing ^"^'"- ■>-" j i ■ „ 

Let 1\ sentenced to be hanged; the performance 

■ rS toll, e ^ud that a shovt time wonhl he given h m 
fo, ^Section, while they wave h.og ng his companion, 
at ev which th.y wonhl seno him it. the same mannei. 

All this had its effect on the younger mau btaggers. 

He wa taken awar out of sight of .JameB, aad by a rope 

^.stened aronud his neck was run np to the limb of a tree. 

ttnlet dowu and infoimed that it he made a e ear con- 

siou he would be let off. bnt that his partner being the 

tmu" where the stolen stock was, in Napa valley, and 
patties immediately set out for the point des.gnated.wbere 
the Tonnd it. The pvisouers were then tamed loose, with 
be'unrrstanding tLt permaoeot altitude would be the 
xeward with which the settlers woald greet their reappear- 
ance ^ that part of the country. The the.ves went to Sal- 
n F«lk on the American river, where they had some 
. Snds trk^; in the mines, and by a pit.ul tale of 
■ ongs con^mitted upon them so worked upon the feeling 

I of the miuers. that an expedition was fitted out to .-isi 
1 To lucountv aud aveage the high-handed treatment of 
: bouost citizens by a mob. They passed throug^i Sacra- 
' Lnto. where some recruits joined them, and they then 
proceeded to Fremont, where writs were taken out and 
cUced in the hands of Sheriff Harris, who started with 
the miners-some thirty strong and well armed-to make 
the arrest of those who had biken pivt in the lynching 
TUov proceeded up Ciehe creek, where they found first, 
JohnI). Stephens, who was on his way to Sacramento, 
and "took him in," not because he was a stranger, how- 
ever They p:issed on up to where the Duncan Brothers 
now live to a little cibin, arriving just at night, where 
thev found voang F. S. rteeraaa at home, aud requested 
hini to become a member of their " Gideon's Band;' and 
the invitation beiug stTictly according to the rules of eti- 
quette, in writing, presented by the Sheriff, and pressing, 
be at length complied. Tbat night they camped at the 
cabin of the theives. Mr. Stephens says that night was to 

j „,„tbyl.,>ri.h u,.,l Tyler. -^^''';^J;\X:lL.^.«rol 
1 W»FO»-,oth«l.l..nt./en»otlb« .^''^ ■>' ^,.,, 

„ot airec. b„a »nt ••■-;°„J™; tti ,,i„,„.ea to ai.- 

plKM,s»oa Frogman. "» ™" ,,„ a of rolas.l 

,,„,. tl,a i,oM,t ami ... - of P^^^'^i^i^, ,„ ,„„. 

bri..Bi..g on u l..tcl.o.l l"" °; 'r^„„,, ^„e sol troe, but 

the people .loomed ,t bos to , Cn.olinean, 

11,0 iml. Accorf...elyTl.os.Cocb an, „ j^^ii^e of 

l,,o portly » P"P"" ° ;' " J„ „,„ ebirl ro- 

.souieu pvui'ii^'."' -. - -- 

■i:t:: Li ^:^:^oL, bee„ so„t arte., the ea^- 
{Sla baa .oooa t,.e« »1.« tl. tl.ev«^ eon 0.S, b^ 

located them. This virtually ended tho case, and the ne^t 
mornit tLi-o were no prosecuting witnesses, nil having 
:r their escape, and the case against ITreeman and 
Stephens was dismissed. „. r^ ^^ 

l„ October, 1853. a man was caught by A. W Gable 
A W andH. Porlerfield in the act of killing a calf, tho 
ni-operty of the latter. He had followed this business for 
loZiL, shipping the skinned carcasses to B----\« 
aud selling them for elk meat. He was aken to the resi- 
dence ot J W. Garoutte, on Cache Creek, where he was 
tried before Esq. Wm. Erwin. found guilty, sentenced to 
be whipped, and was tied up to a tree where he received 
fifty lashes. 

Another man was whipped for stealing a mule that was 
uofc stolen. It was all a mistake, except the whipping. 

In 1853 a couple of men occupied a log house in Capay 
Valley, on Salt Cieek-George Taber now lives on the 

place-wbose names were Lea Trambler and Hayden. 

lu the same neighborhood was a married sister of Tramb- 
levs named 'Wdlett, aud they all remained therefor Hev- 
eral years. In the same vicinity, E. L. Clark, now of 
Woodland, resided, from whom some hovses were stolen 
in 1856. He was untiring in his efforts to regain them, 
borrowing his acquaintances' animals and riding them 
down in "search of his lost property. One morning, he 
called upon his neighbor "Willett, to obtain from him a 
horse, contemplating starting once more to hunt for them, 
when, in talking the matter over with Mrs. -Willett, he was 
strongly advised by that woman to spend no more time or 
money; "for," says she, "Mr. Clark, you'll never find 
'em." There was something in the manner and tone of 
the woman that indicated absolute certainty, and aroused 
the suspicions of Mr. Clark; but without appearing to com- 
prehend the woman, ho as politely informed her that he 
would and should keep hunting until they were found. 
This served, as he had anticipated, to make her more eager 
to dissuade him from doing so, and in her anxiety to con- 
vince him that he was only devoting himself to a useless 
task and expense, so far forgot herself as to assume the tone 
of one who had especial reason for thinking so. This was 
enough, and Clark changed his tactics, by suddenly de- 
manding of her to state where his horses were. "For," 
said he, "you have shown that yon know, and if you don't 
t«ll me now who stole my stock, and all about it, I'll have 
all of you in strings before night, and get every last one 
of you hung." The woman, seeing, when too late, what 
trouble she had brought upon herself and relatives, began 
to cry, and her hu^'uand, hearing the unusual sound of 
weeping, came ont to see what was the matter. He was a 
very rough, brutal kind of a man, and demanded, with a 

1.- f -4 „f«„MiR.tokuowwhatnlUlic='row"wasaboiit, 
maU.pbcly o oaUiMo « down and shut up" by Mr. C. 
and was invited to ■ u b ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^,^^^^^^^ j^^^^^ 

which ho l-;---- f ^, "^ 1, aoinanded of her to go on 

«hat '^l^f^^^^^L^u^. as she had commcnc.l 

and tell the ^^Z,^^^^^^^^^^ ,o. revealing the faetthnth.r 

!'^T Tnimtlei a iHavdouand others in tho country 

brother f'^""^'"* "*'. ..^ j,,, torgotleu-woi« tho Cali- 
_whosoname«Mv. Oh k '■ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

forma '^--lou of^. g- . ^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^ . ^ ^^.^ ^^^^^^ , 

r; tLT rtlirifoeU to Oi-cgo d brought W. , 

?o Cup V vall.v the fruits of tho.r operations in that up- 
p' r comai-v. a business that had be.... succ.ssfu y pro... 
ell since 1853, and this was Uio gang that Wl : 
Mi Chuk-. horses, her brother and Haydon having Moloi, 
leni Upon tho' strength of Mrs. Willett's stntemonl. 
Clark, with nine other citizens of the county, arrested l,o 
wo men accused, and separated them bo that nmthev 
ight know ot what was being done to the o her, and pro- 
oecdod with all possible solomndy to hang i rambler to n 
tree near his house. The mpo was fasten..! anuiud his nvc .. 
and thou thrown over a limb, and tho inoii Ian hold .tl.c 
other end to raise their victim. He was then blindfohlc, 
and the oidevgiven to give way; but as I he rope tightened 
and he was jerked un to his tiptoes. Clark sung out to « ck 
up a minute to give him a chance o hx the rope h.Uer: 
"For '■ said he " we'll have to hold him up thoro an hour 
" tochoke him to death with the rope in that condition. HI 
■■Bx it in a miuule, so it'll break his neck. '1 hero, hats hot- 
ter " and ho gave the rope a twist and a shako, and palled it 
around and tightened up on it with his hand, so as to bring 
the knot horribly close and tight under tho ear, and li.n 
said to the men, "Tighten up a Ultlo. so as to hold tho 
.' knot right in its place; and when I su.q out give way 
" lively, and I reckon it will break his neck, riiero. that 
"will do. Steady now. Aro you all ready?' Tlio inai. 
could stund it no longer; he believed that lie stood on tho 
threshold of another world, and his couragegave way. Ho 
beaged for a little time in which to pray, and said ho was 
willing to tell all ho knew ot tho gang. Mr. Clark, w lio 
was after truth, aud wanted no conjured up yarns from the 
men, given with a hope ot getting oft", told him that lie could 
do as ho chose about confessing; that to do so wouhUo 
save bis life, as they proposed to hang him any way. bu 
he said he wished to tell all, and make his peace with God 
before he died, and was consequently let down, when he 
niaved, and then told all he knew concerning the whole 
eang. Mr. Clark asked him if he would go before a court 
and swear to what he had confessed, and he said he 

'""ihe party then went to his comrade, Hayden, and told 
him that Trambler was dead, and tliat now they proposed 
to hang him. and told him to make his prayers short, and 
tell whatever he had to say with as little delay as possible. 
He cursed them, and called them cowards, said he wonUl 
fight them all if they would give him a chance, and to go 
on with the hanging as soon as they pleased, as he bad no 
prayers or confessions to make. He stole the horses, ana 
was glad of it; would do it again if he had the chance, aud 
nothing could be gotten out of him as a confession, iie 
was eventually convicted on Trambler's testimony, ana 
afterwards escaped; but was at liberty only a short time be- 
fore he was caught, in Berryessa valley, with stolen horses, 
and shot. It is not known what became of Trambler, buc 
Willett moved to Oregon, and the band was broken up. 
This was the last lynching of thieves in Yolo, and we are 
informed that it was the last of any known organization or 
thieves in the county. 



The Spanish Mo3e ot Tflling tho EoH-TmI. OKd-Matmtr of ToMog O*"'*" J^J 
wion-Tl« Fl"t 0»to.r<J«r, In tt« Co.nty-Thoii Mrf. d Doing K oni Pri« 
GnU-Cmmndctlon from Oharle« E. Gr«.»a-Tho Fir.t ^"'^''^^''^'^ ^^^^ 
Coanty, snd »pho Owned nnd Worked it-Prodorti»sn«5 of lie »*' "l^^^,,. 
Thraben inbodncrf-Plow. Made bj Mr- Qmne'. Blickmilh-Tho Fint ^^ 
™orkioEGang.plow-WlyaT.ble ofSUtiatol. Introduced- Tt-8t.lirt^^^^^ 

ture f.o>n 1B52 to 1879-C.pncity of Land to P:odn» C<r«l»-Tolo OcntlJ 

ot Impw^al Ec„o-A™»g« YWd of Wbeat «.d ^"'"^-^""'"'■""''T.S hdod- 

by H. G^ldlB, «nd the E«oU-Cr.p T.Si.m froo. Other C^ ''*1°" g,.^B- 

fngBmnl, QiMshoppsrs and Bn.t-SUk C°"""";™ g^ 
Ei»inLand,Bniil3Frts=otVnl>i«-Wag«-A"«n.u.l-iollfroniIIOUW. ■ 

The state of agricultural advancement attained m Ca^>^ 
fornia at the time when foreign influence laid its 


BlilTTON&H^y, ^™^-^- 



Land npon tbo comitrj-, was a fuir representAtire o( the '; 
qta-'e of lulvaiiet-ineut in civiiizatioD ftttained bj- the Spnn- . 
ifih occupantfl, Forbes, id wrilinj; npoD the sabject, in 
183.5, describes the mode and condition of this chuis of 
indtutrr at tbnt time. A plotv was cat from a coovenient 
tree and eon'iisted of u crookod Btick, one end of which 
Horved us a handle with which to guide, the other oh n plow, 
that wus tippt'd, sometimes, with a smidl piece of iron to 
make its point last longer. A long pole sensed for a beam, 
to one end of which the primitive nod irritator was fast- 
ened, that Hon-ed oh the means by which it was attached 
to the yoke of the oxen that pulled it. 

The ox yoke, resting upon the neck, was fastened hy 
fhong^ to the animal'H horiiH, which forced the poor beaals 
to painfully HUhtaiu with the muscles of the neck tlie re- 
Histiince of whatever load they were compelled to pull. 
ThoHC Inada Kometimes became engiues of torture to the 
long-Huffering ox when forced with wagons or carts over 
the roads cut with ruts, and filled with stones that con- 
stantly jerked their heads about as though intent upon 
dislocating the neck. Tlioso wagons of antedilonan struc- 
ture, such as the ancient Kings of France used as vehicles 
of state, consisted of a tongue that was more weighty and 
snbatantial than elegant, mortised or fastened by rawhide 
thungs to a wood axletree that served to keep the wheels 
from pitching into each other, or of one starting off inde- 
pendently of the other across the country. The wheels 
were made by sawing a couple of slices from the end of a 
ronnd log. 

Mr. Forbes relates that on one occasion he attempted to 
convince one of the Californians that these yokes slionld 
be ao fastened by bows to the ox that the animal would be 
left free with its head, and sustain the resisting power of 
its load with the shoulders. Said Forbes: "Why do you 
make an ox draw by the head and a horse by the shoulders? 
The people of other than Spanish countries have ceased 
that practice long ago." The Spaniard replied that their 
ancestors had found that the strength of all aniniids was 
not located in tho same part of the body, and that the 
strength of an ox lay in its liorus, and, continued ho, 
"Can you suppose that Spain, that has always been known 
as the mother of sciences, can be mistaken on that point? " 
Thus wrapped up in their conviction of being Hie leaders 
in civilization, the people of otlier countries came here 
and found them, up to the time of the American conquest 
of the country, using the same kiud of plows, yoking their 
cattle in the same way as the father of agriculture, Buz- 
yges, the Atheuian, had recommended centuries before 
Christ had visited the earth. Their plows only shoved 
the dirt out of its way to the right and left, never 
turning the soil, consequently they plowed up and down 
on the same side of the field, and when they had finished 
that way, would cross-plow it, sometimes running corner- 
wise of the field. A brush, or flat piece of timber, that 
was hauled without allowing it to roll over the ground, 
served as a harrow to cover the grain when sowed. Har- 
vesting was done with sickles, and threshing was accom- 
plished by making a corral into which the grain was cast 
and a number of unbroken horses turned loose upou it 
aud driven around promiscuously until the kernel was sep- 
arated from the straw. The mode of separating the chaff 
and dust from the grain was by tossing it iu the air on a 
windy day. 

To the fact that we were so very much in advance of 
those people at that time, is due largely to the life and in- 
ventions of Jethro Wood, of New York, who patented the 
" Cast Iron Plow," in 1819, that revolutionized agriculture 
and worried the life out of the inventor, who never re- 
ceived enough from his improvement to pay the expense 
of a respectable fuueral. 

In Tolo county the first grain was raised, as already 
mentioned, by Wm. Gordon, in 18i5, followed by Wm. 
Knight, in 1846. In 1S50 vegetables were raised along 
the Sacramento river. Charles Depindry sowed barley 
uear Willow slough that was destroyed by stock, and Thos. 
Cochran, at Cacheville, also sowed some barley that he 
obtained from John Morris. He was also the owner of a 
rail enclosed field, probably the first in the county. 

In 1S51 J. W. Chiles and Dr. Irwin had ten acres of 
land enclosed with a ditch fence, on what is now known as 
the Comstock place, aud possibly four acres of it was 
sown to barley, the crop being threshed with a flad, and 
tossed in a blanket to separate the grain from the dust 
and chaff. The barley was sold for eight ceuts per pound. 
E. L. and W. W, Brown also raised a few acres of barley 
on Puto creek that year, and this is the sum total of all 
we can learn of any grain raised in Tolo county prior to 

lft.r2." In 18.51 there lived on the north side of Pnto crwk 
"m. Brown, east of him J. C. Davis, vhen DavisvUlo 
now IS. and Gobriel F. Brwwn. still farther emat, on the 
pUce now owned by P. S. Chiles. North of them their 
nearest neighbor was Malt. Harbin. The following ex- 
tract from a letter by Chas. E. Greene, in response to n 
request to furnish os with his recollections of varly agri- 
culture iu this coonty, needs no comment at our'band. 
He says: 

" I was interested a** one of the firm of Cozzena A Co. 
*' (afierwaids Hutchinson, Greene A Co.), who started a 
" farm on Putah creek in the latter p.irt of the year 1851, 
" early enoagh to put in 800 acres of barley daring the 
" Winter of 1851-2, the seed costing from seven to thir- 
" teen cents per pound. 

" It was not far from the first of November, 1851, that 
" we commenced budding our farm house, at a distance 
"of about one and a quarter miles above the residence 
" of William Brown. 

"Our crop of 1852 was large, giving as a heavy yield, 
" but we were much troubled in getting it harvested, as 
" no machinery was in the country to be had. A few ini- 
" plement, such as scythes, horse rakes and pitchforks, 
" had been imported in the year 1850 for gathering hay, 
" and we were compelled to use those in iiarvcsting onr 
" crop. We had ordered reapers and threshing machines 
" from the Atlantic StJites, but they wore not expected 
" iu time; consequently, early in the season we contracted 
" with Bowstead, Woods <t Co., Sacramento foundrymen, 
" to build for us an eight-horse power and separator to 
" be ready for the present harvest. A Mr. Root, an old 
" threshing machine maker, wisliing one also for himself, 
" engaged to make the patternsfor the bnildors. According 
" to my recollections, Bowstead, Woods it Co. only made 
" these two machines, and they were probably the first 
" manufactured iu the State. We used the one made for 
" ourselves, though very imperfect and expensive to run; 
" paying for it the sum of §1400 in gold dust, the principal 
" circulating medium at that time. 

" Mr. Boot, after having threshed for other parties in 
" small lots, in the northern part of the county, came to 
" the ranch with bia machine to help us finish, as we 
" feared the Winter rains would set in. We finally fin- 
" ished in time to have it hauled and stored in Sacramento, 
" where the great fire of November, 1832, burned the 
" entire crop — thus making almost a total loss for the 
" season." 

It will have been seen from Mr. Greene's letter that 1852 
was practically the commencement of agriculture in the 
county. That year J. W. Chiles raised eighty acres of 
barley. F. S. Freeman, iu company with H. Works and 
Norton, raised 100 acres near the M'est line of the Gor- 
don grant. It was cut with cradles, bound and threshed 
in the old Spanish way, separated by a fanning mill con- 
structed from a box, and finally sold in Sacramento for 
five cents a pound. Mr. Gordon raised barley. The Por- 
terfields had a crop in Oat Valley that they sold and de- 
livered that fall at the Ohio House to a stage company. 
John Morris sowed ten acres of wheat that year where 
Woodland now is, and it grew so rank that he turned hogs 
and cattle in the field and did not harvest it. Carey Bar- 
ney raised eighty acres of barley, and Daniel Earl 125 
acres, near .Cacheville. The fact that an endless chain 
thresher was at work along Cache creek that year ia evi- 
dence of the growth of considerable grain ; but if there was 
any other than tlie ten acres of wheat that John Morris 
failed to cut raised in the county, we Iiave not heard of it. 
E. Norris paid thirty cents per bushel for threshing, aud he 
says that Wade Moaeby ran the "Go Devil Machine." The- 
odore Weyand claims that the first threshing in the county 
was done for liim in July, by Jerry Morris, on the place now 
- owned bv John Wolfram. Barney and Langenonr owned 
an endless ebain thresher, then called a "Go Devil," in 
1852 The next year, when at work for John Pruit, two 
miles east of Cacheville, the cylinder flew out of the ma- 
cbine, sailed over the top of a tree, striking the ground a 
hundred yards away, but hurt no one. Thus we have 
mentioned the different owners of three machines, but we 
are inclined to think there was but one owned orrun by all 
these parties during that summer. Barney and Laugeuonr 
sold the machine after threshing their own crop and they 
the ones who brought it into the county. Carey Bar- 
.urchased at Sacramento two cradle blade scythes, 


ney p 

. Qi... ^ritin" the above ^e are wrfitly inrorn.ed Ibnt C. F a^cA 

.^tJr briber in th. county, aod Ihr.shed in 1851 for Upd^BToff 

owned the ^^^^ ^'"'^J" 1^ L.d ding, who h«d rai^ «>Tenty <.cr^ of b.r- 

few acres of tarlaj near Knight's Landing. 

paying sixteoo dollars apiece for tliem, aud made them 
into ft coupio of complete cradle.*, one of which ho \vi\s 
offonxl $125 for and refused. He aud his i>artner out their 
own eighty, ami Earl's ouo hundn^d and Iweuty-five acres 
of grain irith tltem. and after the work was done sold one 
for JIOO. They received fivi» dollars an aorv for cutting. 
The year of 1853 was, of conrse, a year of advanwnient 
ID grain raising, and wo iolrodaco an additional extract 
from Mr. Greene's letter: 

" All of our maohinory— four Ihrosbiiig maidiimw, five 
" reapers and two mowing tuiiohines — arrived in tiiuo for 
" the crop of 1853. Two of the throbbing miiohine.s were 
" made in Boohesler. N. Y.. by Hall, and woiv eight-horse 
" power; the other two wore made in Buffalo, N. Y., by 
" Emery, aud wero of two hoi"!*o-power. endless uliaiii 
" pattern. The reapers wore of two difforont patterns. 
" Two McCormick's aud thrt'O HuiKy'.'). The mowiug 
" machiues were made bylvetchvim, aud tliesp were liorso 
" killers, yet they saved men, but gave plenty of work to 
" machinists, and on the whole were unprutitable to use. 
" Having mure niachinery thau wo needed, wo sold duo 
" two-horse power Emery for Sl,-t00 to a uoighbor and 
" rented on shares one of the oight-horso power, and the 
" other Emery two-horsepower. Messrs, Chilson A Utnier 
" taking the two horse, and John McKeo the Hall's eight- 
" horse power. Cliilson A Etnior ran in the neighbor- 
" hood, aud McKuo took his tnachiuo to Sacramouto 
" county ami ran it oa the Amorioan river. Tlio two- 
" horse power earned anot profitof 51,100, and the uiyht- 
" horse power ?2,700. Tlioroforo our machines were ro- 
" turned after tho threshing season was over, with halt of 
" the above amounts, both parties having obtjiined a roa- 
" sonablo aud satisfactory i)rotit. 

" Tho reapers did oonsidi-rablo jobbiug outside besides 
" harvesting our own, on which wo reooivod a good profit. 
" Grain raising had become quite oxleusivo iu 1853, both 
" in Yolo and Sacramento counties. 

" In the Winter of 1853-4, wo employed Mr. JasOn 
" Hitchcock, an Eastern plow-makor, to manufacture fifty 
" steel plows, mostly for farm use— some wore sold in the 
" neighborhood." 

This was the beginning, and in 185!) another immense 
stride was taken in tho mode of threshing. Joseph Eii- 
right, of San Jose, oUored to thresh the grain belonging 
to F. S. Freeman, in Yolo county, for nothing, provided 
Freeman would furnish the necessary help, and the offer 
was accepted. Enriglit was compelled to do this, as every- 
one was afraid of his machine. He had introduced a steam 
engine to run in place of horse power, and they were 
afraid of fire. On tho day of trial the whole country turned 
out, and were astonished to see 800 sacks filled in a day, 
and no conflagi-ation. After this ho had plenty of work. 
Mr. S. T. Welch raised about one hundred acres of barley, 
about half way between Woodland and Willow slough. 
The ground had been plowed by ox teams during tho pre- 
ceding winter, and the grain harrowed in with a brush aud 
wooden tooth drag. It was cut with scythes and cradloa, 
and yielded fifty-two and a half bushels to the acre. Tho 
next year the volunteer crop produced an average of forty 
bushels per acre, and the third year thirty bushels per aero 
were harvested frora some of tho same land, making threo 
harvests, and 122^ bushels per acre as the total yield from 
one sowing. Mr. Welch, iu connection with Wm. Belcher 
and Wm. Boardman, were owners of a threshing machine, 
in 1853, that was run in this county during the season, and 
purchased in the fall by Mr. Welch. B. H. Hoag, now 
of Davisville, also threshed that year, commencing on tho 
Fourth of July, for W. G. Hunt, and afterwards for Judge 
Gwinn, Clanton, and others at {he affirms) twenty cents 
per bushel. Carey Barney purchased, for SOOO, a McCor- 
mick reaper, that did service iu the vicinity of Caclie creek 
dnring that season. It was iu this year that the first pea- 
nuts were grown iu the county. Dr. J. S- Curtis being the 
party who inaugurated the enterprise. Ho also raised n 
small quantity of sugar cane and cotton. It will be readily 
understood that to attempt to give the names of the grain- 
raisers during this or any succeeding year would be inju- 
dicioas, because of the great nnmber so employed. 

The following, from Mr. Greene's letter, is his experi- 
ence in the production of probably the first considerable 
quantity of wheat raised in the county: 

"In the year 1854 we raised the first crop of wheat; 
" the average yield on 500 acres was 45 bushels to tho 
1' acre — ten acres of this, measured in a fitvorablc place, 
"yielded 665 bushels per acre. This crop was sold to 
" Pollv & Co., Sacramento millers, for three cents per 
" pound. Mr. Garfield, foreman of the Pioneer Mills, 
" owned now by H. G. Smith & Co., Sacramento, was 



hm boon some excoptiomiUy extmoniiuary yi 

ana b«riev. fifty bosUels to the acre for small lots «ot I e^ 

an u.usual uccirrence. In 18C9. A. J. St'-'\ »'V"« "^?^ 

Woodland, was awarded the first P'"''"""";/' f'^/;^, ^ 
Loro fioUl of grain in the bt«te. ihe 

Fair for tlio best forty-no: 

;reTd"wa«"n2,-, bnshois per acre of club wheat. To get a« 
Lhoritivoly' correct average of yield in this county would 

Thi. W.S ' In early times New York would produce from twenty to 
.. cme of tlw firm of Polly A Co. .t th»t time. Thu. w»s ^^^';;*^, J,^^,,^ y^^^ „^^ i„ ^.m is tr«m five to «even. 

" tb« fint yair oor pl»c* paid «ay profit. This'cr^-flt redaction is due to tho fjmdual exhaustion o 
"Oar f«nn«a*, from the firtl. known as the Big K»nch. ims grtnut __.,:...,„ n... i,«v,i enmbmed 

" GrwQ i»iHiog wM the principal badness. Yet qnite a 
" quantity of Spaouih ctUo were bought and herded 
" back on vacant lands by as." 

First Sooc^wtJL Wobxisg Oa«o-Plow Made ra Tolo 


Charles E. Greoae. who, as part owner, had charge of 
the " Big Ranch" at tho time, writes us as follows: 

" When wo first wttled-in the Fall of 1851— wo started 
" a bUckamith shop, and as we advanced in farming it 
'■ became quite an important feature of the ranch. We 
•' kept much of tho time two forgas going— always one. 
" Generallva wagon maker and always a carpent*?r besides 
" the blacksmith. All the plows, harrows and many of the 
■' wagons, were manufactured on the place. Tlio first 
■' gaug-plowfi, known to me, wore used here. Man)liall, 
" a blacksmith of Siicramento, made and donated a three- 
" gang-plow to the Big Ranch in the Fall of 1851. From 
" this start we remodeled and manufactured six or seven 
" three-plow gangs during the wintor, making such im- 
" provemeuts aa necessary to make them a success. In 
" 60 doing, much time and expense was attached— our 
" blacksmith followed tho plow mauy days to bo able to 
" mako such changes as would appear nocesaary. I have 
" no hesitation in saying that on tho Big Itanch the first 
" successful gang-plowiug in tho State was done, with 
" plows made there from the raw material." 

After 1854, the comparative increase in production of 
tho various crops can be shown best by tho following 
table of statistics. As an inr^tanco take the columns of 
barley and wheat for comparison, and it is seen that in 
18G6, for tho first time, tliere wero more acres of wheiit 
than barley, tho former gradually distancing the latter 
up to tho present time. It is to be regcettod that from 
186U to 181)5 no account of those matters were taken, and it 
includes the time of destruction by both tho great flood 
and drought. Tho only items during that time we were 
able to obtain wore of 1S63 aud 18G5. In the former 
year the Assessor reports IIO.OOU acres of land inclosed, 
and 50,976 acres under cultivation, and in tho latter 1,835 
acres cultivated that produced 82,576 bushels of corn. 

bo impossible. At the best it would be a guess ba o 
upon various circumstances, in the oonsu era ion of wh ch 
the quantity and date of rainfall, and mode of "'^'^ >"^ «^« 
land would become an important factor. The fact camio 
be aisgulsed that the land is being gradually l-olieved ot 
its grain growing qualities. Taking the years ns they come 
wet or drv. it will be safe to say that on summer fallowed 
land twenty bushels of wheat and twenty-five of barley to 
the acre will not bo over tho average of tlio proseu capa- 
city of land used to produce cereals in Yolo county. In 
this connection it would seem that something m regard to 
the hisloi-y of the first introduction of summer fallowing 
into this part of tho country would not be amiss. 

Summer Fallow. 

Henry Gaddis, in a communication to the State AgrJ- 
cnltural Society, dated July 5th, 18G4, records thathe has 
since 1859 been experimenting with summer fallowed lands. 
This establishes the fact that he was the party to introduce 
that practice in farming the lands of Yolo county. He 
states that forty bushels per aero was the result of that 
mode of treatment, while other land near it only pro- 
duced fifteen per acre. In 18G3, his summer fallowed land 
produced thirty bushels to the acre, while ground tieated 
in the ordinary way yielded six or less. We learn from 
other sources that he raised a fair crop of barley in 1864, 
when there was nothing produced where there was no 
summer fallowing done. It has come at this day to be so 
well understood that tliis is tho proper way to raise grain 
in California that we leave this subject with only the ac- 
count of its introduction. 


Shotoing Ok Orowlh of Prodwiion and Inenaae of Valuta in tt« Ooaidy tinee 1852; taktn. from the Asstssora' Reports and Sirit Ceimis of AgjieuUural 



1851. 1 1855. 

1853. 1857. 










Acres of liuii] inclosed.. . 
Acres of laud cullivatod.. 


. ... fiO.OOO 


8.00U 13.000 


10,01)0 211,000 


23,135 38.'Ji)U 

13,300 13.119 

22f;.O0O Noiuiuiil 

14.200 21,H-i 

350,000 Nommiil 

100 253 

2.200 NosiiDul 













1. 146. 579 

































































































































































































' iai,BSl pOQUds nisei in Ibo Slito In ISCS. 

OAP.wrri' OF L.\NT) to Prodcce Cebb.als. 

JnlinsCiBsar depositedin the Temple of Ceres, at Rome, 
3l>2 kernels of wheat as the largest yield from one seed 
ever produced in that empire. At the Mission of San 
Jose there was obtained, as the result of one seed 
planted, 365 kernels, three more than the Roman deposit 
in the temple. It seems to have been reserved, how- 
ever, for Yolo county to excel both Rome and the Mis- 
sions in an instance of unprecedented prolific fruitfulness. 
In 1S6'2, John D. Laogenonr presented at the office of the 
Knight's Landing Neics "a bunch of wheat, the product of 
one grain, which contained ouB hundred and five (105) Jieads 
of wheal, and the combined weight of the grain from the 
one seed is eleven ounces. It is of the variety known as 
club wheat." 

In the United States in 1374, the average yield per acre 
ot wheal was 12^=5 bushels; in England, 331; and in Den- 
mark, 27i. 

Crop Failtibes fhom Other Causes than Drought. 

Among the things against which the Yolo county farmer 
has had to combat-in addition to the drought and low 
prices-in his efforts to make the soU profitable in its pro- 
ductions, may be mentioned, first: 

That made its first appearance in 1857. was banished in 
1808. It was discovered that soaking the seed in 
bluestone water served as an effective preventive since 
when the wheat fields have not been trouble with t 
Ne.t in the list that came to woin^ the husbanlrwi 


cl^^T' ^\T """"^ ""^ ^'"^ °^ **^«™. "^"t not as when 
God had sent them to curse the land of Pharoah Vrthe 
northwestern part of the countv, Mr. Gable rentfo il 
as passing in the air from the northw^ s^ nmtrs 

as to obstrnot the light to tho extent of malting it resemblo 
that of a partial eclipse of tho suu. After that year, until 
1850, there were more or loss of thein every year, aud 
their advent wius looked for witli anxiety by tho farmer. 
In tho named year they loft no gruon tiling bohiuil 
tliom, and destroyed ovon the orchards by eating tho hnrk 
from the trees where thoy passed, but they wore not over 
the whole county. Since 1859 their appearance haahoou 
confined to long intervals and limited localities, hatching 
in tho foothills or vicinity and traveling oast to the luloa. 
In 1861, they worked materinl injury to the ginpo vines iu 
the country. W. J. Chirko reports them in tho norllicrn 
part of the county in 18li0, Thomas Hall at his place in 
18G8, Jay Green at his phico in May, 1878. Tlioj Hoom 
to have had their day, liowevov, and tho farmer no longer 
reckons thorn among tho chances against his sueccsa in busi. 
noBs. In 1858, tho ivtrc-wnrm miido its ftppoaraiico and 
destroyed a quantity of the giowing crops, but it Imu 
worked no damage since. 

When recollections of smut, tho gra.sshoppor aud wire 
worm had all passed into the soil-tiller's niomory of tlilnpn 
that had made up tho total of Ivia jiast misfortuiica, Umro 
came to take their place another enemy to a snre roluru 
for his toils, called 


In 1855, Jesso Clark, in this county, sowed two kiudB ot 
wheat— Club and Australia. Tho first spoiled by mat; 
the lattor escaped, being early to ripen, and Ihiit which 
tho rust spoiled was of rank growth and later to nmtnro. 
Ill 1855, wheat was raised for tho first time along tho 
river oh the Comatock place. There wore about ten acrcfl, 
that produced seveuty-fivo bushels to tho acie, and hoIiI 
for 3 Acents per pound. This encouraging result caused an 
increased acreage to be sown each year, until 186G, wlion 
there were about 2,000 raised, that yielded an average 
of about sixty boBhola to tho aero. Since that timo 
they havo been unable to maturo a crop because ot 
rust and havo abandoned any further attompts iu that 
way, turning their attention to tho growing of etock 
fruit and dairying. Thomas Hall reports rust ns ourly uh 
18G5, but tho general loss in the county on act-oimt ot it 
occurred in 1878 and 1879. 

From tho best information at our command legHrcliiig 
the cause of this grain scourge, it seema to he hrlolly 
this; If rain comes when the kornel of the grain is ncnrly 
matured it causes an extra quantity of flnid to enter 
the stem through the roots, and then the sun's heiit 
expands it. Iu this way the covering or akin ot tho 
stalk is burst and the sap escapes through the orevieos thus 
made, and consequently fails to roach and fully develop 
the kernel that shrinks for want of the nourishment flmt 
is wasting through the seams. Where tho sup escapes 
it deposits a substance or causes a fungus giowth to de- 
velop that resembles iron-rust. Consequently a rain, if it 
comes off warm, will rust wheat two-thirds matured, and 
do no injury to that which is fully developed. Because 
of this fact the farmer has come to look upon the dry 
north winds in April as a blessing, as they check tbo 
growth of straw and make the grain mature earlier and 
get out of the way, as was the case in 1875-G and 7, hetore 
a rain comes to rust it. Those hot northere are not un- 
alloyed blessings, however, as it was due to^ them that 
tho silk worms were nearly all destroyed in this conufy in 

Silk Cultdbe. 
When one comes to consider that the importation of silk 
into the United States amounts to about eighty miOionB of 
dollars per year, it ceases to be a surprise that the people 
of the Pacific coast should have been seized with « ""J"" 
to join in the ranks of the little American army of "Mul- 
ticaulis speculators." 

The production of sUk is confined by climatic inflaenccs 
to a limited portion of the earth's surface. A localitj 
where the air is dry and charged with electricity, not dis- 
turbed by detonation of thunder or flashes of lightuiiig, is 
the one best calculated for its success. It was believea 
that such a climate was peculiar in an eminent degree 
California, aud that this fact would make of this coas 
uurserj- for the culture of this fabric to supply not only tu^ 
raw material but the eggs for Italy, France, Piussin, au 
all the silk-growing provinces of the world. -^ ^^^-^ 
1856, a French banker of San Francisco, named ueu J 
Hentsch, imported eggs of the silk-worm, and i^e 

T. . , r, T 1 ■ — '•■■•" ii.«-"- frees ai 

Prevost, of San Jose, havm^ 

25.0U0 mulberry trees 

but after three 


that early day, attempted to grow theui; 
attempts succeeded only in the lost, in i"«'"""^^7v'" I 
the worms. Mr. Prevost. in a letter to the Crt'-/' ^^ 
Farmer, dated August 7th, 1860, says: "My slUiT^ 

Plate N9 21 



J' hecan to work last Sunday, and now a large namber of 
'' Scocoons can be seen.- These were the first raised 

°\ years after tho dale of the initiatory steps in the 
I ■ „L here the continuous efforts of Mr. Prevost began 
'"nrodace re«nlt9. In 187G tho State legislature, re- 
(line to the feeling that seemed to have gotten abroad 
^'"ti" SUte. enacted a law that offered a preraiora for the 
'" u-asioii of the euterpriae. The Uiw authorized the pay- 
"^ t by the State of two hundred and fifty dollars to each 
"""^ that had grown five thousand mulberry trees two 
'".^i^'oM at the end of four years after tho law was ea- 
^ I'-d and for tho prodnotion of each thonsand cocoons 
X- owner was entitled to receive three hundred dollars. 
'tIig iueentivo produced double results. It gave impe- 
,,,s to tho silk-growiug project, and created a feeling of 
.listrust among the people as to tho propriety of giving a 
I ,uuty tor its OQCOuragemeul; one of the prommeut State 
officials giving it as opinion that it would bankrupt Cal- 
■foroia An attempt was miule to repeal the law; but the 
friooLls of the enterprise organized as tho " Pioneer Silk 
,. ^^^(,,.g- flud Kanufactuiers' Association of California," 
Jid memorialized the Legislature, protesting agaiust itsre- 

. peal, settin 

Italy with an agent, bat the eggs hatched on the way, and 
there were no returns. The nextyear, 1871, the property ' 
of the company was leastd to an Italian who thoroaghlv 
understood the business, and orerj'thing seemed moving ; 
smoothly when there came in .Tnne ten con^cutive days ' 
that the thermometer stood 1 10^ in the shade. They cov- ; 
ered tho cocooneries with leaves and did overythiog in 
their power to protect the silk worms from the intense | 
heat. The worms had just passed their fourth moulting, 
and had commenced to spin their cocoons at the time. 
They stood it for a few days, then commenced to die, and 
before the weather moderated the most of (he 2,000,UOO 
worms were dead. 

This was the final climax in the silk business in the 
county and the State. The company held a meeting and 
decided to abandon tho enterprise, dig up iheir half-million 
trees and covert their grounils into a vast orchard. This 
was done, and now the j)roperly, situntcd on Pnto Creek, 
near Davisville, anJ owned by tho Oak Shade Fruit Com- 
pany, is said to be tlie largest orchard in the State, and is 
under the supervision of Mr. James B. Saul. To-day 
there is not a silk- worm or egg iu the coauty, and the in- 
dustry is among tho memories of things that were. 

, stivuu- forth their reasons for believing that it was 
llio acme ol political economy to foster this particular 
branch of industry. (See Agricultural Reports of 18bb- 

^'That memorial was (in able and luminous document that 
converted tho department of laws, and finally produced, in 
18(53 a new and more favorable Act by that body, more 
favomble only because it gave less opportunities for fraud 
„ obtaining the premiums. Under tho new law it was 
i.ossildo for tho silk-grower to obtain seventeen hundred 
,i,id fifty dollars in premiums upon the product of one acre 

for one year. t i.,„ t tsr 

The following table is from a report by Judge I. N 
Hoag to the State Agricultural Society, showing the result 
of hil own ex}!erieuc0 in silk culture; 


486 ounces and 13J pennyweights of eggs, sold^^ ^^^ ^^ 

Eggsi^SiSforselland-sohitootherpartiek; liSD? 50 

Perforated cocoons sold 

$3,919 50 

. Si72 00 

.S3,4i7 50 

}:„mt. LoailUy. Acta. Trtr». 

Cal. Silk Culture A'n(l). Davisville 500,000 

I. N. Hoa- m Above Washington . 50. .200,000 

k.d.BaiTowi3) ;■ :: -^o-xs 

James Haworth Below " ... 10.000 

Dr. C. Ruddocik Willow Slough. 

James Edgar Cottonwood 

"uTEKoled twn cooooneriefi. one 30il00 faot; the other. 30«UO feot. In 

lUo »prii>e of 1803, pM.ilnocd 1,000.000 cocoons; aomo of Ihoni being reeled 
ejliibit.'.! fiuo Mik. 1» Uic apring of 1870. prodiioed -2.000,000 cocooub. 

(2) Wiis lUu firtt to iutrodnco Iho bu^tiiioaB into Ibu ooiiuly. plnutiiig Ion 
ncr.s ot mttlbercy tre.« in 1807. Ho .voa.nnlly ereclod tbr.o cacooocriM. 

13) ProQU per acre, sevea bomlrtd nuA sUty dollnre from bis llrat IteU- 

Grape Coltohe. 

Expenditures : 
Labor and other expenses 

Net profits 

The year of 1869 was very uutavorable; the spring was 
backward, the temperature changeable, the electric cur- 
rents uneven and violently disturbed, as indicated by 
thunder aod lightning, all of which was deleterious to tho 
favorable gi'owth of the leaves of the mulberry tree, on 
which the silkworm feeds. Because of the above conditions 
there entered into its composition too large a V^'ofo^^^^^ 
of acid. This would not have proved a general d.saste , 
had not the changeable weather, among which wore eaiy 
warm days, started the eggs; and to prevent t^^'^' ^^^^i;'/ 
halehing, they were placed in ke-cJtcsls ami -'""^'^-J f .^- 
cess that would have rotted the eggs of a hen; and tho le- 
sult was that but few hatched when wanted, ^fj^^'^yj 
those that did died in the third moulting, and the suivi- 
vois in Iho fourth. 

It is au old proverb that it " never rains but it pours 
;ind iu this case the saying was peculiarly applicable tor 
to add to the general calamity the Legislature repea ed 
the Act, February 18th. 1870, authorizing premiums foi tbe 
culture ot mulberry trees and the raising of cocoons, thus 
dealing the final blow to the enterprise m the State. 

The part taken by Tolo county in the business was one 
ot importance. Judge I. N. Hoag ^-^JX^'Tj^.t 
1 Culture Association, organized by C. ^V^^^«^ ' "^^ y^f^ 
. iiigton, were the principal operators. The /°>;'"«^ J"^" 
i nishing a valuable treatise on the subject to the pres 
' and State Agricultural Society. (See their reports of 
' lSCS-9, p. 239.) , . „ 

In the Spring of 1870. the California SJlk Cu Uure Asso- 
ciation commenced feeding worms. Their tre 
, three vears old, thev had 100,000 of that «f '/"f P" 
out that Spring 500,000 cuttings. The product ot tua^ 
season was fair, they sold fifteen hundred ^°' '^^^ '\° ^^ 
of eggs, and could have sold many more, but tne i 
chaser, on account of the blockading of iaus oy 
Prussians, could not get his drafts cashed, and ne 
tious were broken off, and their stock was sh.ppeo 

To give anything like a complele history of fruit, shrub- 
bery, or vine growing, would require a volume in itself; 

and we do not purpose going further in the premises than ^^ ^ _ _ _ 

to advert to tho culture of grapes in the county, and leave ^.^ .^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^ ^ q. Uumsey, S. P. 

the reader to deduce a history upon those subjects from ^y .^^^^ j_ y. Dillon, G. G. Brig^i.. the "C 

the table appended. , .i « . . «.t " " " " - ^ " " ^'-^ " l"H«r Lreutle, 

Uncle John Morris is said to have been the first to se 
.rape-vines in the soil ot Tolo county. In the spring o 
iS he had about two acres. In two yea is the amount 
tas doubled, and eventually increased to fifteen acres. 
Llei the ownership of H. WyckofF and G. A. 

C F..n 1 000 cutting, at te„ c.„l. each, set »o,Be o 
l:ton7U L now tl,e Geo. Favlow ,,l»co, aad gave tl,o 

I„ IbJo "'"V™,. ' . ™„„,.. Tlioj imiat Lave been 

-:sr'St:^f3rt;:eL,;.— can. 

3,en b. roferenee to tlie "'''J"^; '^^'^^ ^^„„ ,et vine,, 
I„ 1857 Ataaban, Barnes and Ja Ob JjcUffs 

Mr. 0«burn and the Kincbohw Bros, slarlwl in »ho busi- 
ness, tho throe vinevAnU now being owned by the lalter. 
Vp to thi-» time tho Mission was tho only variety of 
grapes iu the canntv. and iho market for them, i-^^mmcne- 
iug in about 1857, wa.s at S;icn»raoiUo. Tho yra.<shoppets 
injured the vines vf ry much in 18:>S. but tho mdy eff a of 
the drouth of ISU was to ripen the grapes a lillle earlier. ! 

Tho,l at the .\dt.b.. Uaiioh. in Capay valley, was 
commencoi in 1S5S. bv Jolui Gillig. and the owner «-as ' 
awarded tht- premium in l«C.l f.*r having tho finest vine- 
, yard in tho State. In 1862 ho had 35.000 vines. In 1865 
Henry Str.>ld);ick took chnrRo of Iho vinoynnl and wino 
making, coutiuuin? it until IS70, wli.-u the place wa« rented 
to an Italian named Cadausi.'iso, who ha« iho pn-mises in 
ohir^o at tho pr<aent timo. A cou»idoniblo>( both wino 
and lirandv has boon made there. 

In 1859" tho County AKsiw^or report-* two difltilleries 
built in tho county and this must have bcnu tho .■ommonoe- 
ment of wiuo making in Yolo. In 13B0. or 1861, foreign 
grape cuttings began to make their appoaranco hero 
and among the first to import thorn wo-s II. Wanderli 
who had about 3.000 sent to him from Europe, tho 
o:4pre« eh^iigefl on them being «3.'i0. It was in 18lU that 
tho Orleans vineyard wiva startod, near tho fool hills, now 
owned by J. H. Carroll. ..f Saevaroonlo, W. Gosonllo, 
0.iri Stiobel and Peter Kuuk being the inon who inaugu- 
rated tho enterprise by suiting 3,000 vinos that year. The 
same season 1). Si^hiudler sot ten arvc.s at his place near 
Cachoville and comnioaeod tho mannfacliire of wine, ninoo 
when no grapes have been ahippod to Sticramonto for a 



1875 Acres, 927. Gols. Wine, 215.7.S6 OaU, Hrandy, ;i,351 

1876 " ol9 " i;)S.150. " .1,'ifiO 
1877' " <!75. " ii2»,7li5. " 5,6fil) 
1878. " 1,005. " *2l5,;)li6 " 4,055 

Iu 1876 the business had become so unprofitablo that 
many pulled up their vines; but sim-o the introduc- 
tion of California wino into foreign connlriea, the business 
is mjre prolitablo, and its auroago has boon raatorially in- 
creased. . ,1 
At the present time there is engaged in growing the rai- 
-- -■ " " ". Pond. N. 

Wyckoff J. Y. IJillon, U. It. urigii-i, um ■ Oak Sliado 
Fruit Co.," and R. B. Blowers, tbe latter gentleman stand- 
ing at the' head ot the list as a California raisin manufac- 
turer. ^ „ 

Rise i.v Land and its Piiesent Valtje. 

Land, up to tho time when grain raising became a steady 
bnsinesl.becauso of foreign sliipmont, was oonsi.lorodof lit- 
tle value, except for gmiiing purposes, iin.l the prices ranged 
from Govorumeut rates up to ten dollars pef acre for choice 

sections. , , . 

Iu 1857 the diouth caused many people to abandon tlieir 

places, with whatever improvements they had, oonsidering 

them worthless. Tl.efollowiug extract, from the Ncfim Jir., 

vovkr, published October 30tli, 1S63, indicates something 

of the views cntcrUined by the people in regard to tho 

value of land at that time for grain-growing purposes, llie 

editor affirms that California cannot compete with other 

firain countries of the worid; and. speaking of the farmers, 

the editor states that: "They have, within two ve years, 

.. seen the price of the best sample of their staple produo- 

" tion fall like the mercury in the thermonioUu' iii cold 

" weather from 5 to 3 cents; from three to two and a half, 

" from two and a half to one and a half, and from tho lat- 

on the farm 




















Gallons of BrnottJ 



" Ut fignre to ono twenty. • * • It U eTidout at a 
" ^laocc that tho misiag of grsiQ in this Stale for exporta- 
•' tioa mmt to • gr««t extunt be alKindooed." 

Geo. W. Scott, 10 1863, traded four yoang horses for 
240 acre* of taod, tho owner being anxioafi to get oat of 
what Mietocd to bim a God-foDiiukon coaDtrr. The AAme 
eoald not now be parchas«d for probably Jl '».(W0. In tho 
following year tbu i^rreat droath came, nnd Innd was nearly 
Talaele«a, a^ everybody wittlied to sell. F. S. Freeman 
porchaaed the eiyhly acre-s whi-re It. B. Blowers nowHvos, 
near Woo^lland. The owner wa;* owing him $(iW). nnd he 
gnvo him 92(M), more nod timk tlie land, paying ranch more 
than he considered it worth to M-cnre thu debt, and tliis 
waa one of the raost valuable piofon of land in tho county. 

lu tliia couoectiou the follnving table, exiiibiting the 
average, as welt a^ tlio lowest and highest prices piiid in 
San Francisco for wlieat each year from IStU to 1879, both 
years incln!<iT«, is an important factor to be considered 
among tbe caase>s that havo given valoo to agricultural 




Illjhni Pritx. IjMC'tt Pri'r. 

..$4 37i $1 25 . 

. . 5 ilO 1 (iO . 

. . 2 25 1 25 

.. 2 G4 1 37?. . 

.. 3 10 1 271 

n m 

. 3 33 i 
. i H2 
. 2 02 
, 2 25 

2 52J 1 05 I 731 

2 30 1 'i7.', 1 8li 

3 15 2 Oil 2 50i 

2 52 1 2o 1 8(j 

2 37J 1 (JO 2 00^ 

2 30 1 30 1 73 

2 40 1 50 1 79 

2 25 1 45 1 76 

3 00 1 971 2 2Sri 

2 35 1 62i 1 83t 

2 25 ... 1 60' 1 761 

In 1866 real eatato comraonoed to ndvauce in localities 
wliero gmiii could bfi shipped by river to San Francisco, 
and by tbe time llio railroad liad been graded to Wood- 
laud, in 181)9, land was worth fifty dollars au aero, and 
now ranges from seventy-fivo to one hundred. In the sec- 
tiou of country further west, that is now tributary to the 
Vaca Valley Raih-oiid, laud increased from S2.50 per acre to 
$20 in the year 180H, the rise being due to the sncces.sful 
shipment of grain to foreign nmrket.s, that gave assurance of 
some stability to thu market, with no danger of overstock- 
ing it. Land remained at those figures in the western part 
of tho county until it became an established fact that the 
Vaca Valley Railroad would run through that part of the 
county, and thus give them an easy and rapid mode of 
transit in freight and travel, when the lands adjacent to 
tho lino took another sudden rise to between forty and fifty 
dollars per acre, where it now stands. Farming lauds are 
now worth from twenty-five to one hundred dollars per 
acre in Yolo county, the price dependingnpon quality and 

Farji Waoes. 

We take tho rates paid by Hutchinson Greene k Co. on 
tho Big ranch as the ruling rates of the time. Probably 
smaller farmers paid higher wages. In 1851 and '52 they 
were seventy-five dollars per mouth; in 1853 they dropped 
and from fifty to sixty was paid, theu fell to forty, followed 
by a still farther decline to thirty dollars per month, paid 
in 1859. From tho spring of 1853 until, and iucludin", 
18(>0, men working by the month at the above wa^cs, lost 
time and paid for their board when not working. After 
1860 they lost such time as they were not at work, but 
weie not charged for board when forced to bo idle. Now 
wages may be stated as being S300 per year, or from one 
and a half to four dollai-.? per day in harvest, accordin" to 
what the man employed is doing. It is an extra man that 
gets $300 per year and a mechanical job that four dollars 
per day is paid for. 



"The Grange Movement." 

Th« 0>n»! TUt FroSaai lis Ifsc^lty fc ti- FirnBj lo Otgwiis-OrgMlialloi Jo Tdo 
CeooTj-Wbit It AeooiplbLM-rH Fiilare of Morjin Soai-Hunsi of Tolo Coutj 
Fumfis Thit W(« LoLns-Sntt*=Bfnl Soil hy Chu. E, Qmai-J^tita by J*m., 
Ht^ llm iDiiola ti».?pbil of ti. limj -mil is bit of lis" Oilet in tiB Cmntf . 
It seems to be the inevitable resnlt of [he workings of 
that propensity called selfishness; that when, in the Asso- 
ciation of maukind, an equilibrium is obtained in the ad- 

jostment of the conOicting interests of different branches 
of society; that the eqaipoiso should be invariably de- 
stroyed by tho cucroachmont of some one of those namer- 
oos branches apon another. 

A sameness in nature God abhors; for n mortal to look 
without change ooiitinnoualy upon ono object, wonld make 
of him an idiot, or rcHiitt in insanity. In the past, before 
" the morning stars sang together," theGreat .Vvchitect of 
the Universe, planned a great grand system of varied crea- 
tions as T.itjt as s{>aeo, as endless aa eternity; and niau- 
Icind was not made an exception in tho general plan. Ho 
iii n living demonstration of tho existence of tho rule that 
in nature no two things are known that are exactly the 
sanie. To no adjust these differences aa to work tho great* 
ost benefit to the largest possible number in each class of 
the human family is the pndilcm to be solved by society. 
Ono man is tbe possessor uf talent that leads him into tho 
department of art; another finds that his greatest 
pleasure is derived from searching into tho mywtovios 
of creation, and he becomes a scholar. , A third is 
only ititerestud when viewing or studying out some com- 
bination of machinery, and ho becomes a moehanio. A 
fourth is so constituted that for him only growing nature 
presents an alluring charm, and his attention is turned to 
the tillage of the soil. Thus the peculiar mental or phy- 
sical development in the individual creates an inoliuation 
that loads tho various members of society into difieront 
classes or pursuits in life, such as artisans, mechanics, 
merchants, farmers, etc., each class striving to noquiro 
more than its duo proportion of the goueial results of tho 
combined labor of ail. Eftch in its turn overreaches nnd 
oppresses tlio others, until forced back again from the 
sowing of the wind to reap tho whirlwind. Thus the bal- 
ance is kept shifting as one or the other gains a prepon- 
derating advantage, 

The Grange organization was tho outgrowtli of a 
long-timed increasing and unjust demand upon the 
agricultural classes of the country by the balance of soci- 
ety. It had come to bo recognized as a fact that when (he 
farmer wished to exchange the results of his labor for 
that of any other industry, bo found the necessity of giv- 
ing two for one; that is, two hours' work in raising grain 
was equal to but one hour's labor in any other industrial 
pursuit. This was an unjust discvimiuation against tlio 
producer that bad a cause. This became so oppressive 
that the .imericau farmer began looking around to dis- 
cover why so much on his part produced so little, and 
found that all other forms of industry bad organizations for 
mutual protection and united eifort; he alone being without 
it, became the easy victim of tbe absorbing powers of 
wealth, as exhibited by monopolies, rings, corporations, 
middlemen and corners. He discovered that there were 
men with capital who took from him his products of the 
soil, and transporting them to tbe consumers supplied 
them. He found when he wished to buy that the same 
parties supplied him from tho mechanical products, and in 
both cases he was paying a large per cent, to these par- 
ties who stood between him and those who consumed 
what he raised, and produced what he wished to bnv 
He called those parties middlemen; to get rid of them was 
his first effort, and to accomplish that result he became 
his own middleman. 

To move tho immense crops required extensive means 
of transportation that cost vast sums of money This 
concentrated capital was. in our Legislature, a power be- 
hind tho throne, stronger than the throne itself, that caus- 
ed the grantmg of unjust advantages to tbe transportation 
companies. To counteract this, an influence must be 
brought to bear upon the legislative, the judicial and the departments of tho State, and none could be 
more eflectnal than the combined votes of the farmers 

Coalitions were effected among dealers to maintain for 
goods certain high rates. To break those prices the 
armer became his own merchant. Capital combin^l to 
lower the price of grain, when the m^'ority S f n 
were forced to sell. To overcome thuT ^ / ^'^"•^'■^ 
and capital of the farmer Zirpee^ule""'' "'''' 
such sale, and thus brake the ring "''''^'^^J' "^ 

To accomplish all of these resnlt« n,, „. - . . 
farmers ™s effected, from Z AHa".' T « °"t.°'."'° 
from tbe Gulf of Mexico to the Br L, PoL ""' 

tbey died their association the "Grange "rr'" '""' 
plished mneh; in some localities all H,» 1 °' . • °°°°'"- 
onl, a part, and sometimes no hi. " 1 1 thf a ' "' °"'"' 

Grange No. 13," it being tho thirteenth association of tlip 
kind in the State. Win. Jl. Jackson was the first Mnslor, 
ind was succeeded by J. A. Hultou. N. WyckofF, R, y' 
Blowers, and E. J. Clanton. They started with Iwentv 

Blowers, anil l^- J. ». lauum. J.uuy ^lanwn wiui Iwentj- 
olmrtor niombova and iiuM-easod the number until at oiio 
time they bad ono hundred and nine. Thoy are now 
about to Hurroudor their charter. In the samo year tho 
following Granges were organized in this oouutyL 


Yolo GnuiR" 

DiiviHvilli' limnfif • 
CnoUi' Trrok OniiiRn 
\Vl•^l (iinUoii llmiiHi' 
(f,i|in)- V.iUny Oraiign. 
lliioki'Vn(iniii({" .... 
Fiiirricvr Viilley Omugo, 




Antflojio OrftOKO ) 08 

Moy 19, WTA 
Scjil. aa. IH7;t 
Si'pl. 35, 187;i 
Oct 3, IHTil 
■I. IM7a 
G. laTU 

7. 1B73 

8, 1873 



Woocllnnil .... 
nrtvisvillo .... 

t'llll(lliwi)lni.. . 
fllnlH-VllIo ... 


l(iiok(iyo . , 
UkiiIuu Vnllcy, 

Hy tho organization of the Woodland Lodge tho luovo- 
raout was inaugurated iu tho county, and in Hoptomhcr 
and October of tho samo yoor the Order renehed iti4 nin- 
turity. Thol'e were probably favonddo rosulta within timt 
year, such as competition to sociiro their trade by nior- 
chants, in bidding down on the price o? goods, mauhiiiory, 
otc, but it was in 187-1 whim tho lusting footurinta woio 

On tho 25th day of May, 1874, about a year aflcr llio 
organization of tho Woodland Grange, a number of meiti> 
hers of that body associated and incorporated, with u 
capital of S 12,000 subscribod, to bnild wavoliousos, niid 
assumed tho narao of "Yolo Grangers' Wurobouso Asso- 
ciation." J. A. Hutton was President, N. Wyckoff, Viua- 
Prosidout, J. M. llhodGS, Socrotaiy, and D. Schindlor. 
Treasurer. A wavoliouao 100x200 feot was eroclod, ivltli 
a storage capacity of six thousand tons, and waa ready 
foi- and received the first grain iu August of that yonr, 
reducing tho prico of storage from SI 25 to §1 per ton for 
the season. Afterwards their rates were reduced to 7C 
cents, and remain at those figures at tbe present timo in 
the county. Tho building coat 57,000, and was Hold nt 
anotiou in 1878 for S3,005. 

In Juno, 1874, a committee of six from Yolo and fivo 
from Solano, visited San Francisco with a view of obtain- 
ing a reduction in freights on the railroad. Mr, Crookor 
invited negotiations, as the Grangers had perfected a com- 
bined move to ship all their produce by way of tho Siiera- 
meuto river. The result was a reduction of fifty cents 
per ton. This reduction alone benefited tbo furraors of 
Yolo county that year S37,4:7'2, and the reduced rnto bns 
remained permanent. Tbe price of sacks fell from eighteen 
to twelve and a half cents the samo year, because of tlo 
Grangers manipulatious. A warehouse was put up at Davis- 
ville in 1874, by an association of farmers, with a atornga 
capacity of of 2500 tons, at a cost of $4,800, inchidiitg lot 
and scales, and is still owned by them, it having paid one 
and a fourth per cent, per month on tbe original invest- 
ment. At Langvillo the Grangers erected a two-atory 
building for hall and store purjioses, at a cost of S5,00l), 
and everything seemed moving into the columns of tlio 
Grange line. 

This was the time in the history of tho order when its 
members needed to remember the Biblical admonition, 
that recognized tho necessity of a wisdom like thiit of n 
serpent. They had become a co-operative united body, 
that sent out into the world products of the soil, cnlliiig 
for vast sums of money in return; and this unity of action, 
carrying with it, as it did, tho equivalent of immense capi- 
tal, as represented in tho united crops of tho farmer, be- 
came a mighty loadstone that attracted from varions qiinr- 
ters, tho financial vultures that prey upon tbe vitals of con- 
centrated wealth. 

In 1874 a general movement was made in this State to 
get rid of what was termed " middlemen" in the hnadiiiig 
of grain. The farmers thought by combining their crops, 
to warrant the chartering of ve-ssels, and thus obtjiin Ion* 
transportation in shipping their own products abroad, ei- 
pectin^ by doing so to obtain high prices without Iiaving 
to submit to tho loss that heretofore had been drawn as a 
business margin, that found its way into the pockets of 
those who had been the shippers. 

This was the devil's opportunity— a good one— and it 
was seized, 

A. firm, doing business in New York, and known nsMor- 
gan's Sons, had a large number of vessels atloat, and ap- 
parently unlimited capital and London credit. They sent 
one of tbe firm, A. F.Wolcott, to establish business on this 
coast. He interviewed the farmers, and said to them: 

Plate N? 22 

"i-'t^'tj'E £ CO. F-ua s. 

S.WQOTTE^' ^ CO.G0"^P^' STAt r 


.. rentlepien, yon, whose bands have become horny from j 
il lillaee of' the soil, ate entitled to all the proceeds 
" / the sale of wliat you produce, except the triaing [ 
I mint necessary to pay a snudl pro6t to the transv-orta- 
,. Tn company, that take what you produce to those who 
" it ' You have been robbed by the middlemen. ; 

",T^p"e!ient to yon an opportunity to get rid of them: | 
.-Id vour grain abroad in oar vessels. We will make j 
.- !^t nc'cessarj- advances until it is sold ; and you can thus. 
.. * ith our vessels, and our money to aid you, become ship- 
.- ners as well as producers." 

\. ^.^ a 1,00k with a tempting bait; they nibbled, they 
1 -i then swalluwed it .dl, hook. line, bob and sinker; and 
, ■ fa siokor in fact; for in October of 1874 the trans- 
l tion company suspended. The failure of Morgan's 
TL came like a tliunderboU in a clear sky, and their vic- 
of misplaced confidence were to be found scattered 
T^ „i.....t the whole agricultural portion of the State of 

th amount was due to the farmers^ Among the many 
Uors were the following citizens of Yolo county: 

C1U..E. Greene Pavisville *4.1&5 37 

G.W. Fierce _^ 

\\. U. Wristen '' 

,T, C. Careysbell 

F. E. Kussell 

Wm. Shuhan " 

D. Durst -Woodland 

K.B.Butler ^' 

Pierce & Goodenongh . " 

S. A. Howard " 

A. 8. Ayers " 

W. J. Clarke 
D. Schindoer 
A. Q. Powell 
Wm. Hayes 

3,430 04 
6,483 84 
7,488 44 
1,093 66 
2,079 63 
225 86 
947 65 
357 67 
715 43 
1,795 11 
1,894 26 
710 58 
695 66 
407 39 

Wm. liayes . , ,, x v Rtm 94 

W. S. Flournoy 

G. Mast 

James Root, . . . 
George Hatcher 
T. F. LaugODOuv 
G. M. Damevon. 
John Briier 

3,050 71 
701 35 

3,381 88 
200 47 

1,267 24 
408 83 
203 78 

D.B.Hurlbut Madison 2,388 bj 

Thoa. Hall " 

This failure was a death blow to the grange in this 
county. Memberswereas^essedfivedollarsa P'*^*^^ *° ^";- 

t.un the loss and failed to respond to the ^^7-f ■ ^^^^^ 
.ovkedadoublecalamity.asitshatteredconfad nee ntheu 

own organization; and as mankind seems created to pa s 
from 01^ extreme to the other, they flew from the shuggle 
for control to the opposite of ^o^t'-olUngno aucUest 
to-day uudev the benefits already obtained, without any 
combiiied effort to maintain or increase them. 

The grain in the possession of Morgan's Sons had bee" 
delivered by bills of lading to Daniel f-y^^'^l'^'^J^Z 
Cisco, and money had been drawn, and ^^^^^Wf'";^'^ 
Riain all passed from Morgan's Sons to Daniel Mejeu 

When the news came- that the transportation company 
had failed, Ohas. E- Greene, of this county, m con,pany 
with some other gentlemen who were losers, vis.ted J^^^ 
Francisco, calling upon A. T. Wolcott. who ^^l^^^^^^l 
Morgan's Sons, and found that an unfriendly [f'^^J^'^^l 
spra'^gupbeti-een Wolcott and Mr. Meyer, the man to 
whom thi assignment had been made, because -^ ^« '^^ 
te.-s failing to comply with some private --^'^^-^'f ^^^f^ 
that had existed at the time the assignment had beui 
made, Meyer refusing to cash the former s check. 
suit ;as that Wolcottgave Mr. Greene and his hiend^-^ 
formatiou that finally resulted in their procuring tUem 
ey for their gi-ain. _ ^f 

A suit was commenced in October, 1874, in *'>^ ''^ ^ 
Chas. E. Greene that included the demands ^^ ^^;.^^^ 
other parties, and after the case had gone to ine j^^ ^^_ 
Court of California, a final decision in his lav 
taiued in 1873 for 531,635 77. and interest ^ro-" ^ctober,^ 
1874. making a total of S37.375 56. The ^^^^^^ ^^qq_ 
tuining this decision was in attorney's fees alone . 

The whole matter pertaining to the I'^ig^t'o" y^=' J_ 
request, taken in charge by Mr. ^loene from «ie^^_^^^ 
meucement, and conducted to a snccessiui ti^g^ 

the money drawn and paid over to the P'^^P"/ t 

Kvhim, to the entire satisfaction of all <=o"^^^°;' ^" ^^1- 
the defendants. While the suit was peii'""^ ^^.^. 

aace of the creditors in the SUte ^"^^''"^^^t ^^se. 
tions, as they generally considered this to be 

that would determine all their rights to rMovtr. Tber* 
were points of difTercuce between the case of Green «nd 
those that are ret to be trii-d ihat leaves tJic tim-stion stiU 
unRcttk-d as to tlie righU of all to tecoivf their pay f r. m 
Mr. Meyer, and it is nut the promise of IhLs work to dis- 
CQfts the gist of (he \ariou8 pending litigations. 

We append a lt.lter written by one of the parties whose 
claim was included in the Chaa.E. Greene suit. The writer ' 
did not live to leani the final result, but his fainily be- 
came heirs to the benefit after his death. The communi- 
catioa seems to shadow forth the spirit of the time: 

" C.^LU-OBSU, Jan. 1st, 187&, ) 
" GuASD Island, Colusa Codsty, J 

" Ma. Cqas. E. Gueese— Dear Sir:— Not having heard 
" anything from our wheat shipping law-suit since wo purt- 
" ed atDavisville, I have concluded to bother yon witliu 
" few lines of innuiry It is, perhaps, too soon, but I shall 
"not say much. Cau you tell me whether anything has 
" been done yet, and what you think of our chances to 
" win? It is going to be hard with me to lose my wheat. 
" I have six hundred sacks on another vessel that we knew 
"notliiugofwheuwo were at San Francisco, making, in all, 
" about 3,500 sacks. It is must mortifyng to mo to think 
" thati have perhaps bean slain in the house of my friends, 
" but I am not discouraged. The Grange movement is a 
" great and good cause. If our leaders have made a 
" great blunder let us learu them better or set them aside 
" and put in better, 

" C. E. Corben wishes mo to impire if it is necessary 
'* for us to have some sort of receipts from you. He 
" thinks something was said about it, but ho has forgot- 
" ten what. Elease write to me soon and give mo all the 
" good news you cau. Direct to Grand Island Colusa Oo. 
" Yours respectfully, 


In March, 1875, the "Buckeye Granger's Ware|^o««« 
Association," incorporated with a capital stock of S2o.000. 
They eventually built two warehouses at Winters with a 
' stora-e capacity of 7,000 tons. They own three acres o 
ndThavr shipped, up to July, 1879, of different kinds of 
Ta n 11,800 tons, and seem to be doing a ilonnshing 
business. In 1876. the Yolo Grange Warehouse Assoc.a- 

, . in fhe house of its friends, but the nucleus is 

Mi'i'lh c n^tyrn" ^^ some future time may make a 
.IvLt organization, when arousedfrom its slumbers 
inorepeifect organ live jackasses that are kicking away 
^Llelrebereftal^lhe^re thumping the carcass of a 
dead Hon. 

The Winds, Rains and Seasons. 

I( Blilhiow sal down «t>on the face of the earth, and tho 
winds wore hnnhed; wal.r would no louper como down 
from the clouds to refresh the ivarohcd bo*om of our 
nlauet There would bo no cloudH, and dewdal.on hko 
tliat of a dead world w-udd .nfold thi« sphore, an abHolut,- 
andoverwhelmninguH tl»> darkness that pervaded «paco. 
ere tho voice of a DU,ty. whimpering among llm '^^'f''^. 
said: "T^-t there bo light." When one cont.n.phdostlu^ 
mastering inflneuce oxortod by U»- "".'•'""'; ,';^'";;"", 
of nature, it creates within him a desue to fathom th 
cause producing .»ch a vast and beuefieud r..s«ll. lio 
who would unveil the my«lery of tho va,n must tinsl seek 
the cause that turns loose the wimU upon tho favt . that 
irresistible primitive power iu the uuivorso cidlod heat. 
That portion of the earth's surface lying dne.tly muier 
tho vertical ravs of the sun receives tho greatest heal; and 
it follows that" the zone of tho highct le.nperaluro cir- 
cling our sphere is not always cuntined to one '"J"^ ' ^ ^ 
n^oves with tho great luminary in "%">n'"v;-»t tr c^ 
three thousand miles twice every year from tin. P. M '^'^ 
Cancer to that of Capricorn, thus givmg us o- wii.U. «. d 
summer and consequent wet and dry '^^•";'""'. ^^^'^";; 
that lio« under that belt leceives itn pn.portion . wai »t ■ 
Heat expands the particles without '.■"^'""^.'"f /"^ 'X; 
and in their osp.mded state they are immediately c.o.d 
from their places by others containing equal weight an 
ess bulk. The least resistance to their escape lies m 
sZe way from the surface of the earth, and tho lesn t ih. 
E 10 air will always ascend when not conhuod 
This process of air expansion is always going on with 
creates vigor where the heat i» intonse followed by 
U Id spUcomeut of tho expanded clenientand its upward 
Hint towards the sun, forced by the cooler win « 
that come along the earth a ccaseleKS wave from te north 
audso'th TLeeurrentsmeetandsti.igglennti orcod 

: 1 in turn by the following volume up and n,. -t. oy 
escane from tho elevating power by lulIiMg I ko 11 lav 
back «I- themselves, moving upon an incline.l plane 
towards tl^ north and south to repeat again the action 
iJums continue traveling a ceaseless round as ages fade 

^1fr;S;will observe closely the fo'^-ing diogi^n 
oiv ng a sectional view of that portion of the I'ac.hc coast 
k! g'between the equator and the north pole, 1 wd n- 
hie him to grasp the entire suhjcct with less difficulty. 
So inja represents the three wind .ones as hoy ex- 
S n mid-inte at the time when the sun's vertical rays 

.SSKSSME.T .0...^^^^>^^^:^^Z:Z 

Slifin 00 

1B1,BT3 0" 

i.iii,wo 00 



1837 ... 

ism! ■■- 

1839 -■- 

l^J' ■«6.«8'm] "kV.^ 1.053.176 DO 



16051 ;&::*»'>'> 

18111' ■— 

, 1671 2.06S.<" "» 

< 13,1 00 

40c .715 

LlM/aS 00 

07S,61B 00 

l.lia.733 00 








S.COl.llS 00 
3,«67,55I 00 
S,7J1.757 00 
7.S763' 00 
6,352,570 0" 

r ■an.29i 00 



3S1.188;a.303.2« tW 
1.013.098 1,T1J.W3 00 

lj)01.!731,l:il.3" » 
lffiO.2)81.«0 077 PO 
l''>C7,l70,l,£8-'.5i5 00 
IM-l 275 1,(67,163 00 
1.35].0GS;13«-1'» f* 

FMH.TOa 00|* 75 
._j.8l!»00,l IS 
i;ni,Ora OOli 15 
1,177.015 ODJi 10 
1.090,570 00|1 15 
•>,S0:i.610 00|1 25 

Il W 

■.251,001 00,1 00 
2'2:J,3S9 to 1 SO 
2,(11,623 00,1 50 
3( .250,78 00 1 SO 
2,114,071 00:1 (2 
2,303,110 OOl' 07 
2 1S9,59I 0U,2 *1 
n'2.T0,81( 00;3 30 

"Aa^-ej; 00 ;i 75 
a,':97.Bi9 00 2 so 

a'sM.SiSO'*- *9 

3,(66.(72 00 '.l** 
1,161,730 00,'-1 27 
4 7S3,61S 28 2 lOM 

V.lM.l^l OO'i 21 

B 68jl 8,739.(65 00 1 SO 
33 Sill 6,370,112 00 I 55 

';1m 10.2'-''.<"* "" " 

-;S^..,».975 4« 

e: ,606 10,177.(27 00 58 

]S.'.*02 01 

i;.aKi S7 

W,8-1 *>- 
37,570 12 

31.100 62 
Sfl.Orj 57 
30,870 75 

38.101 SO 
61,192 tS 

•73,167 01 

69,730 C2 

B2.(£9 W 

C1,«0 13, 

85.(18 551 .— 
101,25127 .... 
IM.KO 3S| .." 
('j7.3W38| .... 

,a IK 17.5i7,1«^ 9 ta 
118.J7B raKl,7i810 13 
HO"10Sl|5l6.62l| 3 f** 
l«a>l'B,5W,07i12 16 
160SO:l3S|5l(.261^12 05 

1S3,«* lOHT.lH" " 

have reached their furthermost point south. The direc- 
Uooofthe wind's movements are indicated by a"ows. Ihe 
tionoiLu America, Central America, Mex- 

coun^nes - .^">"*' '^^^^ J^ Washington Territory (W.) 
S Bri! Uh^l^tTc^- ^vhich thelind Soocs revolve 
and ^"-^^'^ i^^^g and extent. The region is 

''r'' .d in Sou'LTmerica, on both sides of the equator 
'f the north and south euiTcnts meet, and force each 
tZr o s"nd St .1 or ascend, thus causing the calms or 

1 tinds as one or the other gains a temporary ad- 
vaned winds a3 one ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^ 

vantage, mis rc^iuu .__,„joe3 and is abont 7'^ or 

-'°'^^rP"rleTxLdfng1^BonUl■and 2'^ north of the 
4S3 miles, wide e^*'^"'* "f ^^^^^^ 

ttes.oi»fadioateaby A A ,^ ^^^^^^^ ^^.^^ 

w twrc° r nU o "r „,aet a„,l force eacl. o.ber .o 
where two ""'■".Ull ,h„s crealmg o calm, with no lam. 
TarrS wl -etirae, be'.g 5^ a«d at other ttae. 




t«„U7 orex which it U p^^.^g .^et* »<> ^-- 1 

« 1 fore ns the diagram, .vo will follow one of the 

It i« soon iu the rc^i-n of tru,..c»Ualu3S ov.r 


tho Boulh. 

waters holow. , . ,,,. „» 

tW. air c„vr.ut sinc„ it gliJed over . ,o P'-^ «»"- ^ 
tl,o upl.iT regions wove »,,i"0»«l'°'l' llio cold ''"b"" ' 

it hiul become much hoiivier Hint a mkc uui^ 
o ingitni.; bnt tho strong is tor...! to -'- -^""3 
wcThecJ.; of its ,.antity. The.e avu aW . H, - 
pendiculnr miles of >^h- the Sl"J^- "" J 
I mlwos of resistance i. forced to give way by the thoa- 
Baml miles of trade wiod. that nro pushu-g it on 

But letus return to the north moving current at the ii> 
per ^flce that because of the cohl has become a part^ 
Uie eenoral body, striviug to get back again to tho eaith s 
surfa e As it moves on it meets, in the region marked 
G w th constant loss from contact with the under mov 
1 hot trade .iuds with which it mingles; and. as 
temperature is increased, joins to go back agam to t e 
sonfh.- The great victory, however, is f-^^fj^^ 
strufi-le to reach the earth between lat.ludes 13^ and 2U 
north over a portion of Central America and Mexico, 
orthe a 1 Len ocean. At that point it meeU the retnm 
: -nds froiu the north, and at least oue-ha f ^^l^ 
ceeds in reaching tho surface below ™-''«^ ^ 'ind eiU ex 
retarns to the south or lU way along the eaith, 
fo miTs the temperate zone winds. The surplus balance 
not ahl. to reach the earth, continues as an upper curren 
tolrdthe north pole, constantly losing rta - ---^ 
what remains, reaching the extreme "-'.•;-/-«^;;;™ " 
lar wind from tho opposite and every side of 1'° eaitli 
that forces it to halt in its direction, and turn back. It 
does this by going down and under and ^^l-'e/Y^fon S 
of tho continent towards the south, havmg started on its 

"Seie possibly will be no better place than hore to call 
attention to another and principal iuflaence t^.'^t »^«'l'^ to 
Lm the wind zone and give the varied dncction o the r 
movements. The rotary motion of our planet is towards 
the east, and everything upon its surface moves m that 
direction. Its Telocity is over one thousand miles per 
hour at the equator and nothing at the poles; upon U.e 
same principle that a tire moves faster than the huh of a 
wheel in its revolution around its axle. It follows that 
the upper air, having obtained the earth s motion m he 
tropiiSas a more rapid east«-..rd velocity than has the 
earth itself at its north and south limits. Because of this 
difference iu the eastward motion of the earth and air, the 
Utter descends upon the former in the polar regions as a 
wind from the north-west, and is gradually retarded by 
conUict until the velocitv becomes the same as the surface 
over which it is passing; but as the current moves south 
it reaches points where the increased eastward motion of 
the earth causes the wind to fall behind, and its course is 
thus "radually changed to the south-west, a direction it 
maint^ns as long as it moves toward the south. The re- 
verse of this rule is appHc^ible to the winds coming from 
the direction of the equator. The loss of its easterly mo- 
tion as it travels northerly is not equal to that of the earth; 
therefore distance to the east is gained iu its progress ; and 
its direction being to the north-east, it is designated as a 
southwest wind. The rule may he considered established 

rut ?1 .t.»r..,i^., ,„.^<«A-'/- '*- •"■ 

nrfiona by local caiwrt. . ^„_^„, 

■ Let J return .» Wlo- « '"'VT'""? ™a 
lUatL nm',er „bso,v,aio„ before llns '''8'-''™;^ " J^ 

b come di,iW ^ i. --■■«'•" >'""l°;::'X?.rpc»l 


started, impoverished of .t« moisture, to roturti w 

tl,e war begins, rie uortn wnm. 

„olioa or ■»""«"' „"^;^:^-:°,,:„„veoB .nd ab.n,lou tbo 
wind to mount up lowaios mo . 

^ , Jptratin.' far into tho volume of the cold, tho 
::Zsh g f V i::gucs along .ho surface into the warmer 
ai but in the end they mingle together and orm a mid- 
lie current that reaches the earth iu the latitude of Cen- 
S A ri a. void of moisture, and materially modibed in 
temperature Tlius have we followed from its place of 
ItXg the current of air and through centuries it has 
been and will be repeating the movement. 

Having started with tho heat giving its inBuence upon 
the air, and followed the air. showing its various ^om i ions 
changes and motions, with the cause, there is st.ll left the 
^ubi^ct to which all that has been said i« but a prelude 
The heat. cold, and the earth's motion operating as the 
motive power upon tho air, uses that element as au agent 
by which a result is produced, the result being to water 
with generous rain tho bosom of our earth; and rain, pro- 
duced from a combination of those causes, is the subject 
we will DOW investigate. 

It is the contact of the warm surface air with overlying 
cold currents, as each struggles to force its way through 
the other, that causes the one containing damp vapors to 
turn it loose to descend in the form of rain. Air. in its 
heated state, is in a condition to take up from tho surface 
of the ground tho rivulet, tlie stream, lake, and ocean their 
damp vapors as it passes over our planet, and, bearing 
them away in its embrace. yield thorn finally up again upon 
the mountain, the valley, and the parched plain, to make 
tho face of growing nature smile and the heart of animate 
creation glad. These are all general rules, equally applic- 
able to any other part of tho northern hemisphere as to 
the Pacific coast; but it is necessary to bear in mind always 
that a local variance in their effect can be produced by a 
local cause. To become familiar with the result produced 
by the operation of these laws in any given place necessi- 
tates a knowledge of the local influence, if any exists, that 
interferes with their continuous action. If the wind does 
not always come from the north-east or south-west, it is 
because a local obstruction has forced it ont of its natural 
path, and the obstruction may be either mountains, hot 
low lands, ocean currents, or all.eombined. 

The wind rising under the hot rays of the sun in the 
tropics — because of its great heat — bears aloft exces- 
sive quantities of moisture that the colder regions above 
leiect with electric energ}-; creating almost constant and 
deluging rains over 250 or 400 miles of territory north 
and south in that region where the tornado breaks in up- 
on them and scatters terror amid the calm. As the air 
current passes north and descends again to the earth in the 
ocean west of Central America and Mexico, it has passed 
from a cold upper down to a warm lower climate. The 
heat instead of forcing it to turn loose its moisture in- 
creases its capacity, not only to retain what it has, but to 
absorb even more as it passes over the bosom erf the 
deep; consequently no rainfalls there, and that latitude, 
for about 480 miles in width, marked C, is an absolute 

. .. ■ -^^,,t .done the Pftcifio in its move- 
Following this "-"-^ ; ^' t ., t,,,,g i,. . rrch supply 
menttothonortb^a.t«h r^^^^ reaching the mountains 
o damp ^■'H-'-;^,;X„, ,i.ero it comes in couUct with 
c hamca ^-^-^t " 7^;=';; t ., oontiunanoe of its course, 
tho first obstruC.o to ^ ^^^^ ^_^_ 

There IS '^ ^^ \ . . ,, ,„.Hiing northeast froni.l.o 
cific regions of >"'"' ■^" , .■^. o.oan, As the soulli. 
Uthmu. of P.uam« o ^^^^^^ ,^, ,., ,,,„,. ,, ,.., 
went wind reaches t - - .^^ ,^„,.,, ,., ,„„,, , 

OM of C'^ Ufo- a. U - -u e ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^j^, ^^.^^^ 
thochaunel;thus0.t.u» 8 , ^ 

the rocky rango ^>"^^V^'^' ^^^ Desert, over tlic 
eoursu. It P""-^. --^Jj Mol av S escends into the Suv 
barron sterile l>'' ^"^^ J^ ^^^^^^ northwest over ll.o 

'T'Vt"^^^' -i'l i>-^'"« ^"'^ ^-""'^ - ^ 

valley of tlio piai,nnii«i ._ ^__', .,..,„,, ;„:,_„„_.._ v„ 

rainless one. 

,„..e.o from the southeast, is flually halted lu Us caroorhy 
the roluru polar winds. 

As this moist, rain-ladou air passed over tho faos of ho 


tlierr alo»S tho way. a Uutto or tr. ling mountam tln„«t 
tlhead up out of the .urroundiug plan.. Tin, wind v.^li- 
■ .m its sides would force the overlying air up iiilo tliG 
r/gi^s of "itt. when the water would descend upon tho 

oveand down, rainless, into the plain beyoml Bntwh i> 
the norll' and south winds meet, the str, e h.gms; tlio 
vn«l.i„r' in among the colder, tho colder ponotriit- 
^;:^Z^n the bo:om of the warmer, creates the suadoi. 
Jfa ges of temperature, and consequent ranis tl. id Ins 
srifo diBtributes over California, Oregon, '^\ ash.ngtoii 
'J^^ ritory and the countries north of them, lucliuhng a 
ve'ion of over seventeen Imudved miles in leneth. 

It is this warm air current from the sonth bat g.«9 
Cal forniaand tho PaciEc slope it^ -odera e winlers w nk. 
Uie Asiatic gnlf stream, sometimes called Japanco cur- 
rent ominffrom tho tropics to us. through a por lon of 
he Alaska^-ogions, gives the oven, cool temperature m 
summer to thelmmediato vicinity of the coast, and parl.c- 
ularly that of San Francisco. 

In the Bummortime, the atmosphere m "'^™ '^/^ 
the Sau Joaquin and Sacramento become <"'l«"«-^'y ''"^ ^ 
ed and then rushes in, throufjh the Suisini Bay, from tho 
Ja'panese current, by way of the Golden Gate, and ovo 
low points in tho Coast Range-a cool sea b-czo " - ' 
out ?ho heated incumbent. The incoming current dm . 
and one portion passes south over San Joaqn.n cjty. 
giving that section a cool north summer wind; aad t u 
other division moves north over Yolo county, amu g tl 
cheek of tho husbandman with that seeming absuuli y 
t cool south summer breeze, that gives way, the nest o 
possibly the same day. to a polar «"-°«'^°-f'-?; ''t ' 
oppressive-coming down from tho north with its m li 
ing power, enhanced by every mile that it glides ove 1 
s«n-pa>-l^ed valley. It would almost -f ''^^j;^;™ 
that the climate zones had been changed, and the tropics 
transferred to the poles. 
The quantity of rain-fall at any given point in the Mac- 
, ramento valley, during the continuance o a storcD. de- 
pends, with rare exceptions, upon the J-ecUo Jr m 
which the wind comes, and its proximity to a mount^un. 
A current of air always deposits most water UP«" tj^ ^ 
vation that resists its passage, therefore tl>e«^"« '='■"'" fs 
of the mountain range flanking the western border of t .s 
county receives the least water from either a nor h. i>ou 
or westerly direction; but a storm coming from tLeaoui 
east, northeast, or east, yields to that slope a r^^^^ ^^'^^ 
quantity than it would to the lower level, opposite hue a 
Tolo county bordering on the Sacramenlo river, x 
moisture-laden air comes over San Joaquin county lio 
the Gulf of Mexico and approaches tho coast ^m^^ " 
the southeast; consequently the Orieans vineyard rece^^^ 
during the rainy season, a greater l^-^'-tity ^^ f'^"; 
the vineyard of R. B. Blowers, near WooiHand, becaus 
of the nearer proximity of the former i° ^he ro'nt °^ ^^ 
sistauce, to the passage of the wind. Let tbe polar w. _^ 
obtain the advantage and hug the surface of t^'e '^''' " 
comes from the northeast and force the moist som 
current to mount into higher regions that it -""yP^;^^ ^^ 
way. and the result is the same; wc ^ve a northea Wm ^ 
that, rushing up the side of the mountain, F^^''" ' .^,, 
southern competitor accumulated obstractions a ^^^^ ^^ 
elevations, therefore more rain in that lo'='"^''\' , j^^ 
additional phenomena of a storm coming '^PP^'^'^/iu 
the northeast, that came in fact from the &au 




Plate H? 23 

Plate N? 24 

R E S 1 D E N CE & FARM 


ITH. ,V T iiALLOVJ^'\r% ^.^^ 

HISTORY OF YOLO ^O^^N^vTrom ,825 TO 

Iq ToIo conotj, in 1849, the first rain of the season fell 
in Sfiptembor, another came on the night of October 8ih, 
»ntl one day later this last storm reached Napa yoUey." 
Uncle John Morris remembers the time and events dis- 
tinctly, as it was thoroaghly tatooed into him. He, with 
bis fBtoily, was temporarily stopping in that valley at a 
log bouse, and the rain drove the fleas in sacb bewildering 
Dorobers into it that they were forced to move out and 
occupy ft tent. A jjoor dog that had followed his master 
over the pkins, sharing his privations, hardships and dan- 
gerfl, was sleeping by the hearth-stone, dreaming of his 
poppyish days and unconscious of the approaching calam- 
ities, when, as the locust swooped down upon the Egyp- 
(jaufl, so came the invading army and swarmed upon him 
arousing the poor canine to a belief that most of the little 
dogs of California were laying hold of him. Knshing dis- 
tracted from the cabin he shook the mud of Napa from 
his feet, and the place that had known him he haa never 
Been since. Oo the 4th of November the rains began in 
earnest, and the rainfall of that season was thirty-sis 
inches. In Yolo county, in 1852, the rain commenced on 
the night of November 3d, and Dr. Logan estimated the 
riiinfflll in Sacramento to be 17.98 inches for the season. 
Tliere was a storm of three days' duration that commenced 
on .\pril 10th, 1853, that overflowed Cache Creek and the 
surrounding country. It was the heaviest rainfall ever 
known to occur in the county so late in the season. The 
following extracts from various journals comprise the sum 
iotJiI of all we have been able to collect regarding the 
rainfall in Yolo county from the beginning of 1851 to the 
clofio of 1879, and the reader will find many other matters 
and occurrences of interest noted by the authors. 

EsTiiACTs fhom Jodbnals Kept dy Chas. E. Greene, 
W- J. Claiike, Jay Queen, add S. B. Holton, from 
185i TO 1879, inclusive. 


Living eight miles south of "Woonland. 

Junuary — 1st to 5th. Plowing and sowing. 
5th. Northwest gale. 

Northwest gale, going down. 
Wind changes. Cloudy. Sprinkles. 
Bought four and a half tons of hay, at S15 per ton. 
Bainy night. Ground too wet to harrow. Mak- 
ing plows in the shop. 
14tb. Wind northwest. Frosty night. 
15t]i. Wind south. Heavy shower at 3 p. m. 
ICth. Wiiid turns to the west, and continues through 
tbo day; at sun-down it gradually shifts to north-west. 
Clear. Still too wet to plow. Snow on valley range. 

17fb. Clear, frosty morniug. Wind changes in even- 
ing to southwest. 

18th. Strong southwest wind. Eain. Wind shifts to 

north, and clears up. Commences freezingin the evening. 

19lb. Ground frozen so thick that it is difficult to plow. 

Wiad northwest; moderate. At sun-down freezing; very 


20tb. Ground frozen two inches deep. Coldest night 
ever known iu California. Freezing through the day. Ice 
hears a man. Men not working. Wind goes down with 
the sun. Bought 15 tons of hay at S25 per ton. 

21st. Cold and dreary. Ground frozen six inches. Ice 
two inches thick in a barrel. 

22d. Weather moderates, but wind continues in north- 
ivoat. Ground frozen sis inches deep. In afternoon frost 
begins to come out on surface of the giound. 

-3d. Frost out two inches. Commenced harrowing. 
In the evening commenced raining. 

24th. Wind southeast. Twelve teams plowing, but 
ratber wet. 

2oth. Wind northwest. Clear. Continuing the same 
lor balance of the month. 

Mruanj—lst to 3d. Grows cold. Appearance of rain. 

5tb. AVarm. Raining all day. 

"tb. Raining in. forenoon. Wind north. Clears off. 
a»ve had a quantity of rain. Grain looks fine; is all com- 
ing lip. 

Wind northwest. 

Kam in afternoon. Warm. 

Showery all day. 


naiuy. Mountahis covered with snow. 

Wind nortli. 
18th and 19th. Wind south. 
•'Ist. Changeable. Bain all day. 

^iny. Puto Creek full. 









11 th. 



2eth. Rainy aU day 
27th. Rainy. ^ 

28th. Clear. 

J/.rc;i-3dand4th. Wind northwest 

nth. Heavy hall-^OoTm. 
12th. Wind south. Clear. 
Ajml—lih. Raining. 
Uth. Raining in the morning. 

weUsoake^d"""" '" "" '^'''°"°'' """^^ ''" "'fi*"' ^""""<^ 

^«j/-Ctb. Had shower just at night. 

■ll'tli. Commnwoi /laijiwj. 

13th. Rainy. 

14th. Showers. 

25th. Eclipse. 

26tli. Heavy fog. 

2Sth. High north wind, that has thrown down consid- 
erable grain, 
2!Jth. Wind continues until nearly night. 

June— 5th. Commenced cutting volunteer barley. 

8th. Commenced cutting new crop of barley. 

12th. A little rain in the morning. In the afternoon a 
tremendous rain and hail storm, mlk hamj t/mnrlc; has 
thrown down all the grain. 

17tli. Rain. Wind northwest. 

2lBt. Commenced cutting wheat. 

Juhj—Gth. Heavy northeast wind, that has shelled a 
largo quantity of wheat that was standing. 

iVoyemfter— 9th. Warren killed an antelope. 
13th. First fall of rain last night. 

December 31st. Commenced raining at half-paat three 
A. M., and continued all day and night. 


February — 2d. A slight rain. 

4th. A. M., rain. 

8th, Fog. 

14th. Pruning peach trees. 
18th. Ground getting dry. 
24th. No rain yet. 

2Gth. Strong north wind. Ground drying up. Fin- 
ished plowing and sowing. 

27th, 28th and 29th. Strong north wind. 

March — 1st. Wind south. Setting maple trees. 

2d. No rain since Feb. 4th. Need it to sprout late 
sowed groin. 

4th. Never such a time known. Hardly any grain 
6th. Fog. 
9th. Grain coming up very thin and slow. 

10th. Wind north. 

12th and 13th. Wind south. 

14th. It actually commenced raining at 9 a. m. Cleared 
ap at night. Sandy soil, wet down two inches; clayey one. 

16th. North wind has taken the moisture out of the 


22d. Wind has been north since the 16th, untd to-day, 
when it shifted into the south. 

27th. For the last three nights, considerable dew. 
Fog all day. Afternoon, wind south. 

s'sth. Cloudy in the morning. Few drops of rain. 
Strong south wind towards noon. At night, falls and 

clears off. 

29th. Wind southeast; comes up with the sun, and 
does mt follow it round, as usual. Commenced raining at 
3 p. 11. The hardest thimderstorm I ever saw, for about 

half an hour. 

30th Yesterday's rain, wet sandy soil down four 
inches; clayey two. Wind south and southwest, but 
clears up in the evening. „ , it „:„T.f 

31st. Showers. Wind strong southwest. At night 

clears up. 
JprU-lst. Strong south wind. Everything growing. 

Corn sprouting, -rp- ^ 

8th. Two sun-dogs and circle around the sun. Wind 

"""m. Wind south and cloudy. Wind shifts to north and 
clears off at dark. 

- No record kept by lb. Greene. Eaiuf^U in Sacramento 4.919 inches. 

10th. Wind soatliMst Rains all dav and nisht. 

11th. Wind south. Showon all day 'and night. 

12th. Wind norih. Rain ovi^r and ground woU soakotl. 

I3lh. Strong south wind. 

14th. Strong aoath wind. Showers on the moanlaina. 

13th. Strong, eold north wind. 

16th. Strong, cold north and norlliwosl winda. Grain 

growing finely. 

18th. Plojisaut. Barley fivo coofat a ponnd and hay the 


28th. Wind Bonth-oaat. 
29th. lUinod a little during last niKlit. 
30th. Rained all day. Wind southoaxt. 
-W/y— 1st. Showery In tht> afternoon. 
10th. Commenced grinding gcifthca /or hm/ing. 
12th. Commenced hayiny. 
16th. Wind north. 

19th. Cloudy in the morning. Rained hnnl inat at 

21st. Rained in the afternoon and night. Gnmml well 

28th. Stage company put on four horsoa. 

June~5t\i. Commenced eutling barky. Finished cutting 

6th. Trioil tbo now hay /trcsa. 

9th. Raking Hcatttirings with wiro rako, and >jel nbout 
Iwli'c bushels Id the acre. 

17tli. Tom IJimnctt went to tbo city with grnon corn, 
and sold it for ton cents per dozon. 

20tli. Cumiiicnced cutting wheat. 

22d. Strong northwest wind. 

28tb. Havo a groat deal of northwosl wind, 

(*) Jit!y—3i\. Finished cutting wheat this morning at 

4tli. All drunk. Nothing dning. 

(*) Auynat—^mi. Damn the man that stole Bally. 

OoUilier — lat. There has been a groat loss thin year, on 
account of barley being ao short that it could not be gath- 
ered by raking. 

7th. Strong south wind. Rain enough to wot ground. 

November — 2l8t. Tried the gang-plowa. 

December— V3\h, lUh and 12th. Rainy. 

26th, Too dry for jjlowing. 

29th. Rained all the afternoon. Wind nortbonst. 

30tb. Coast hills covered lolth snow. Wind Houthoast. 
Rained last night. 

Slst — Shower in the night. Wind southeast. Clears 


January — Ist. Puto Creek too high to ford hero. Stage 
crosses at Peck's. Tried tbogaiig-pluwo^jfew^Hrf, noyo. 
2d. Rained in afternoon. 
3d. Showery all day. 
4th. Showery. 

6tb. Commenced sowing wheat. 
12th. Commenced sowing barley. 
16tb. Rained all day. 

February — 4tii. Heavy rain in afternoon. 
5th Rained iu the morning. 
12tb. Rained heavy in tbo afternoon. 
13th. Showery. 
27th. Rain, moderate. 

March — 21st. Wind southeast. Bains in the morning. 

April — 5tb. Northwest wind, strong. 

7th. Northwest wind, strong. 

8th. Northwest wind. 
13th. Grain suffering for rain. 
28th. Commenced mowing. 

May — 14th. Strong north wind. 
18th. Commenced catting. 
24th. Dry north wind. 
June — 27th. Commenced threshing. 
28th. Cool south wind. 

29th. Sprinkle in the daytime. Rain at night. I 

3l)tb. Cold as winter, , 

j^ly — 3(1, Terrific wind and rain-storm, thunder and I 
4th. Heavy north wind. No one at work. j 

November — 3d. Slight showers dnring the night. 

4th. Rainy. 

7th, Heavy north wind. 

28th and 29th. Showery, 

• The journal of Jnly and Angnst was k«pt by an employeo. 




300.. Odc good •bow. Gfoaiid«el down .boot foor 

Deotmber-^lh. C<fmmtneid touring wKetU vUh iirUit. 

0th. lUio in tbe oigbL 

lOtli. lUtD nil n'i^i- 

lllh. Ilain all Aaj »di1 ni«bl. 

12th. Groaiid wcl <lowu ftbool foartoeo inches. 

2ltb. Homo raio dorinR the ni(;ht. 

aSth. Crown and black-bird)* v«ry thick. 

30tb. KiUing crows with atrycbnioc. 


Jimuury-Ut. Tho year bogina with & atrong north- 
weat wind. 

6th. Coldest night of the soaaoo. 
7th. Kaiiifd a little in tbe night. 

nth. Vrtrj-dry. Wiodsoutboost. Showere. Clenraoff. 

12lh. RaiiiJ night. 

13tb. Consid«rahle rain fell last night- Wind south- 
eaat turns to north, and clears off. Heavy froBt donng the 
night. Ground frozen half an inch. 

20Hi. A little rain just at night. 

21st. Southeast storm. Rained all night. 

22d. Heavy showers during the day. 

23th. I think tho rain hn.s huen tho best of any for three 
years. Heavy fog during tho lost of the month. 

/Vfcrimry— 13th. Wind southwest. Cloudy. 

nth. Rftiu in nftcrnoon, 

1.5tb. Wind southeast. Rained all night and day. 

IGtii. liuiued all la«t night and this morning, 5 p. M.— 
Brown's loveo gouo. But little rain after 10 A. si. It is 
now mining. Wind southeast. 

17th. Rained all night very hard. Puto Creek down 
two feet. Came up and overflowed its banks this P. 31. No 
rain to-day. 

18th. Croak commenced falling again about sundoivD. 
la now down olght feet. Squulleis arc phwimj out vla'ms 
back of the Jitld. 

20th. Creek down twenty feet this morning. 

March— U\i. Strong north wind, 
flth. Wind 80 atroug tliat no one works to-day. 
11th. Cattle affected with dry murrian and hollow horn. 
12th. Rained one hour. 
13th and 17th. Severe northwest wind. 
Ifith. Blows like a Imrricane, cold, from northwest. 
Not so sovoro. 

Clay gottiug dry. Have had a heavy frost. 
Wind southwest . A little rain. 
Some showers daring the day. 
Wind southeast. Rained all night. 
Ground wet down about ten inches. Storm 
broke away about noon. Showers the rest of the day. 

aOth. Wind southeast. Kiiued most of the night. 
Favorable inospccts for a fine yield of grain. 
31st. Circle around the sun. 

Men rvtiiivf iofi i>fr 
price; h.iro engaged somo 




^/)n/— Ist. Wind southeast. Showery. I see by the 
Swcaraonto t^Mi'oathat this storm was the equinoctial, 
and that three inches of rain fell there. 
3d. Frost last night. Clear and cold. 
4th. Rainy morning. 
5th. Corn coming up. 
7th. Rained three hours. 
8lh. Strong northwest wind. 

9th and 10th. Strong northwest wind. Grain growing 
13th. Volunteer barley heading out. 
18th. Crops look very flue. 
20th. Warm and sultry. 

21st. Where ground was not overflowed grain begins 
to curl. Rain wanted badly. Wind north. 
22d. Strong north wind. 

2ith. The last week has changed our prospects for a crop; 
it will bo light unless we get rain at once. 

26th. It looks discouraging to see a fine crop cut down 
by the drouth. 

2Sth. Cool north wind. Showers everywbere but here. 
Rather cool. 

30th. Foggy morning. 

SJaij — 1st. Commenced moiolng on ground that did not 

3d. Circle around the san nearly all dav. Windsoatb- 

4th and 5th. Stiff northwest wind. 

eth. Strong north wind all day and night. Grain dam- 
aged considerably. Wind is cooler than is usual at this 
time of year. 

longest blow at the season; bat lis Doiub 

to the grain. 

8ihand9th. Wind sonthwest 

10th. Wind north; very warm.^ ^^^^ ^ ^ .^.^ ^^„^ ,, ,,,,, 
,^t §40 per month through buy- 
ing and harvest. Wind southwest. . naietime. 

13th. Anomberof men coming and yoingau I 

Uth. 0.1d...ntbwestwiod. Overflowed gram so^voa 
early, is looking well; later sown, though overflowed. 

not doing so well. overflowed and 

17th. Warm; gmio ripening whore not overnoweu 

very light. 
19th. Showers all the forenoon. _ 

Some rain last night-one-fiftb of an incb. 
Wind southwest, just enough to make it nasty. 

Blue Monday. 

A litlle rain-not enough to do any good. ^ 

29th, 30th and 31st. Strong northwest wind. Gram 
not overflowed torribly dried np and shnvoled. 

J,dy-lst. Tax-collector here and made a great scatter- 
ing among the men. Commenced threshing. 

J.(7((s(— 13th. Wind southeast. 

Uth Few drops of rain. AVe have threshed and 
hauled to market a little raising of 10,000 bushels of wheat. 

5e/)/emJer— 29th. Finished threshing to-day; have been 
at it since the 1st of July. 

October— ilh. The ijreal comet appears to be very large; 
supposed to be the one that was to destroy the earth last 
year; seems to be no fear of its knocking us into a cocked 

21st. Rain commenced about midnight, and we were 

much surprised. 

22d. We have had twenty-four hours' rain, that has 
wet the ground down about six to eight inches; a trifle less 
than three inches fell in Sacramento. 

23d. Rained hard for a spell during the uight. Total 
fall at Sacramento up to date 3.010 Jachea. 

28th. Commenced plowing. 

December— M. Strong north wind. Creek nearly frorj^n 
over last night. 

9th. Have had a week of freezing nights. Ice from 
half to three-quarters of an ineli thick. 

10th. Wind northeast, rain-storm all day. 

15th. High north wind. Foggy. 

23d, Southeast storm commenced at nine A. m., and. 
has rained all day. Fall 1.603 inehea. 

24. Shower in morning. Fall .350 inch. Same in 

26th. Commenced raining at 7 p. m., and continued 
until about 4 a. m. Monday. Fall 0.590 of an inch. 

27th. Another shower during the uight. Fall .228 
iuch. Total fall, inclading last night, of the season 
7.496 inches. 

31st. Have sowed in December 760 acres of wheat. 

3/ui-cA— Stb. 9th and lOtb. Wind north; froat at night. 

19th. Need rain. 

20tb. Commenced raining after dark, 

2lst. Moderate raiu all day. 

22d. Clears oft'. 

31st. Cold north wind since the 27th ; and on tlio night 
ot the 29th, bad a very hard black frost that has onrlea 
the wheat np as though a five had gone over it. 

^^n7— 1st to 4th. Strong nortU wind; 4th, tiirns to 
south; 5tb, no wind; Gth, strong north wind. 

7t!i. Sultry. Grain on clay land suffering a lilHo for 

8th. Raining! Hurrab ! ! Not enough, after idl, to 
wot the gionud down more than an inch. 

9tb. Clear. 

10th, lltb and 12th. Cold north and nortliweal wind. 
Frost on tbe night of the lltU. 

13th. Wind north; outlook very discouraging. 

14th. Wind north, all last night. Dronth hogins to 
affect the grain materially. 

15th. Warm north wind again. It is awfnl to thinli 
that the country is again bound to dry up. 

16tb. No rain ; no appearance of rain; unless wc get it 
there wiU be no hay or grain this year. I am getting en- 
tirely discouraged about crops. 

23d. Cold southwest wind; some appearauco of min. 
24th. Mild rain for an hour. 

30th. Well ! we have had quite a shower of rain einco 
about two P. u. to-day. 


January — 4th. In the morning foggy. 

10th. Fog frozen on the trees. 

15th. Sun gone. Has not been seen in a number of 
days. Lost in a fog. Cold; wind turns north and sun 
comes out. 

17tb. Crows and blackbirds simply awful. They skin 
the barley and eat it in no time. 

19th. Strong north wind. 

25th. Hurricane from the north; it has destroyed our 
wind mill. 

27th. Ground very dry. 

2Sth. Raining in the night. 

30th. Considerable rain last night and this morning. 
Showers all day. 

31st. Southeast rain commenced this morning; show- 
ers all day. 

Ftbruai-y— Gth. Showers all day. 

7th. Rained all night. 

8th. Rained nearly all day. 

9tb. Showers. 
11th. Wind southwest. 

I2th. Rained hard latter part of the night; showers 
to-day; wind southeast; grain growing nicely. 
13th. One fifteen minute shower. 
17th. Rained very hard in the forenoon. 
18tli and 19th. Frosty nights. 
23d. Rain in forenoon. 
27th. There mnst have fallen i inch of rain to-day. 

Jifay—lst. Had quite a shower of rain at two P.M. 

2d. Have had ten hours good rain; it has wet tho 
ground four inches down. / hope it may Imug out the 

Uh. Grain has come to life, and if the future ia fnvor- 
able we will get half a crop. 

7th. Commenced haying. 

9th, 10th, 11th. Dry; north wind; cold. 

12th. Hurricano from the north; sand flying. Poor 
crop and little hay this year.* 

31st. Hurricane from the north. 

June—lat. Commenced cutting grain. Wind nortb. 
Finished cutting July 2d, 

Noveinher—Zd. First rain of the season. 

4th. Raiued all last night and to-day. 

5th. Raiued hard all the afternoon. 

6th. Rained all last night, with heavy thunder betwceu 
nine and ten. Pleasant to-day. 

7th. The ground is wet twelve inches down, hat the 
creek has raised none. At Sacramento the rainfall was 
3.340 inches. 

9th. Rained steadily all day. 

23d. A little rain in tbe night. 

25tb. Commenced raining hard last night, and coulio- 
ued until noon to-day. Wind strong; southeast until 
night, when it changed north. 

28th. Trifle of lain. Wind north. Total rainfall in 
Sacramento for the month, 6.4S5 inches. To tins add 
that which fell in September, .025, making a toUd, at Sac- 
ramento, of 6.510 inches. 

Decemher— 5th and 6th. Wind north and freezing. 

24tU. At nine this morning there is one and a qnflrw 
inches of water in tbe rain-gauge. , 

N. B. I have a rain-gauge given me hj Dr. 'F.Vi.ii'^^'' , 

ot Sacramento. . ,. 

25th. Kained last uight. At noon one and nme-tflnm 
inches water in gauge. _ _ . ., j^^jg 

26th. Some rain last night. The total rainf 
storm has been 2.200 inches.. Total rainfall '« •'J'' 
mento during this month, 1.834 inches. Eainto" 
Greene's Ranch more than at Sacramento, .366 inches. 


January— 6th. One inch of rain since the l^eavy 'oa^J 
7tb. Wind north. A ten minutes' shower, ana - 
inch of rain. , ■ 

9th. Gauge indicates a faU of 1.850 inches of rW"- 

13th. Cold. . gy 

23d. Wind north. Rain needed to make ploiviog J^ 

31st. Too dry to plow. Total rain for montn. 
Greene's, 1.850 inches; at Sacramento, 2.310 mcbes. 

February— dd. Stormy. North wind. 

7 th. 
of rain, 

ay. worcnwmu. .j„,hes 

Ra-iuy to-day. Gauge shows a fall oi J-. ^^^ 

There was in Sacramento only enough to j 

' From tho 13lh lo the 30th the jontunl iras 
hnvmg been cut ont. 





I3tb Bain": -^^ ^^°^' '^^^^^ ^'^ ^'^'^^ '° ^**™' 

'"^°*?' Cold north yind. Raiofall this month at Greeoe's, 
1 5o ipcbe.; »t Sacromcoto, 0.931 inchea. 
If rcA-lfit. Rains: .500 of an loch. It was badly 
led Nor'l^ wind for a week past. 
"Ij aud 3J- Wiad sontbeast. 

nih Triflo of rain. Consitlerabie has fallen on the 
colfltrang"- Creek ming. 
6th. Slight Hhower. 

Quite a rain commenced at midnight. 

Ilainod untU noon; 0.800 inch in the gauge. 

Two Sun-dogs to-day. 

Commenced raining aboat noon. 

A. little rain Ibis morning. Gange indicates 0.375 












Circle aronnd the snn nearly all day; anltry. 
Miv^d. Commenced raining at uooq. 
3d. Rained hard all last night; wind north; cleared 
ap at night. . . 

4tli W'1'1 sontbeast; raining. 

5th". It has finally stopped raining; we have bad 2.000 
inehna this time. . , - ^, 

Gill. Sunday; a Httle frost in the mommg. 
Showoiy all day. 
Wind southeiist; heavy Bhowera. 
Heavy shower at noon ; gange indicates 0.750 in. 
Eaiu'ufter G P. M. 
-.i,u. Haid rain from 7 to 10 A. M; cleared away this 
oveuiG". Since noon of the 23d the gauge indicates 0.450 
i,.l,eB- total this storm, 1200 inches; total ram tbis 
month, at Greene's, 3.200 inches; at Sacramento, 2.491 in. 

June-Ui. A little rain to-day. ,,,.,, ' 

ad. Finished mowing and comnaenced cattmg barley. 

Kith. Wind north. . , „. • r.n« 

m. Heavy north wind that is shelling grain a little. 
Toliil rainfall in Saeramento this month, 0.017 in. 
J»i»— lOth. Shower of xftin just at night, 
nth. Rained enough to wet the ground down an inch 
18tii Sunday. Hod an eclipse of the san to-iloy. iotal 
raiutall in Sitcraraento for the month 0.549.,-2M. Has rained to-day one inch. The rain 
f.llin Sacramento for the month has been 0.914 of an 
Deccmhcr-imi. Ruins commenced. 
2-Uh. Raining all night. Has rained considerably foi 
the past two weeks. The gauge has indicated five inches 
in that time. In Sacramento the rainfaU for the month 

litis been 4.282 inches. 


,/flm.ari/-4th and 5th. Rained 4.200 inches. 

(1th. Rain has ceaEed. No change of wind. 

Creek is over its banks. 

The following is from the " KnigMs Landing Nem:'' 


Oc/oin— 29th. Spviuklo. *«,„*„„ 

Novmber~im. Rainfall to date three-quarters of an 


Da-mhe,--nh. Not enongh rain yet to wet the ground 
hut the banks of the Sacramento are full and quantities 
of wood are floating in the stream. . 

26th. A terrific rain storm during the day and night. 


23d. Wind north; cold; ic« qoarter of an inch thick; ] 
strong wind at twelve m. 

June—oih and 6th. Hmtj north wind thkt threshed 
oat standing grain. 

Oc/o/>cr— 5th. First rain of season; wet the ground two 


Deamber—'jad. A violont storm. 
23d. Stonn continnes. 

January— lit. The storm has now cea»cd. It had 
been almost continuous for two weeks. 

7th. Cold northwest wind : did not thaw in the shade. 
12th. At night cummenocd to rain; wind northwest; 
turned to snow, depositing three and a bsilf inches. 
13lh. Ground covered with snow; wind southwest, 
lith. No snow in the vaUoy; drifts yet on the hills. 
1.5th and IGlh. Wind northwest. 
19tli and 21st. Rained at night. 
22d. Rained. 

2'id. Ruin, with a northwest wind all day. 
24th. Fresh full of snow on coast range. 
25th. Heavy rain at night with south wind, and snow 
on coast range diaappeured on the morning of the 2Gtb. 

Fehruanf—^lst. At five p. m. the rain fell in torrents, 
accompanied by heai'ij peah of thumler and shnyt jlnshes of 
light iiing. 

Matj—Hih. Another violent rain-storm last night. 

Odoher—2\st. At twenty miuntes post seven this morn- 
ing, while at the table, wo experienced the shock of an 
earthquake, the motion being from northeast to southwest, 
undulating like a wave. The motion was so strong that 
it made eveiy loose object about the house shake. 


Jauuary-Bih. The snow falling all day has deposited 
on an average one foot over the country. ^•"' '''^, ."V ,^ 
in January was very cold, the ice being sufficiently thick 
hold a man. 


Living about 15 miles northwest ot Woodland from Nov. 
3d, 1866, to May 14th, 1868. 

No,e„ibc>^M. Rain-the first of the season; wet the 
groHiid two inches down. 
6th. Snow on the coast range. 
7lh. Clear and cool. 
■Dft-enifcei^30tb. Drizzling rain all day. 

Ja„„an,-24th. Snow on the coastrange; ice and tro 
in the valley. . , 

K6r»(ir(/— 20th. Storm commenced with a violen ^nn 
and rain. 
2lst. Storm continued until evoning- 
22a. Wind north. 



After January 6th, 1861. Mr. Chas. E. Greene kept no 
iournal until the 1st of January, 1807. During this last 
mentioned month, there were three rains; one of twenty- 
four hours' duration, in which fell three inches o water. 
On the morning of the 19th there was frost. The total 
rain-fall for the month was 5.900 inches. 

Fehmar,r-'oth and 6th. There was three inches of rain- 
fuU, and the total for the month was 10.500 inches. 

March— '^o rain. 

Jprii-Three inches of rain tell during the month. 

Oc^obei— The rainfaU was one-half inch. 

Noveu^he^-T^he rainfall was 4.500 inches. 
n.cemfcer-There were thirteen rainy days, in which 
in^OO iLc^es of water fell. During the month, there was 
i total Painfull of 16.500 inches, and 40.900 inches in the 

ye"'- 1868. 

Ti^-r\t,o this month, there were twelve rainy 
. ■"rinZ^^oSefof r'nfali. On the 12th. there was 
days, and t>- J"" °^ deposited seven inches of snow on 

^....-There were seven rainy days and 5.100 
"::::l:L were eight rainy days and 4.300 inches 
^::Uere were four rainy days and 3.400 inches 

/„„^Commenced cutting barley on them. 
^:::..-0n the 19th, the fall rains commenced with 

,.am of ^■''':^^''''-. ,^.,^ the month that ag- 
Decem?.e,-Nine f ^'"^ .^^J^^/'Sing a total for the 
.related 4.000 inches of water, maK y 
fear of 1868 of 25.300 inches. 

1369. ^, 

;„l.t rainv days in this montU, 
^anuarj^-There were eight lamy y 

and 6.400 inches of water fell- 

four inches. . , 

J = - 9 nOO inches rainlaU. 

Orfoio--0n the 19th. «l snnwl, the fimt f>iW «"" co>n- 
m.>no«.l. conUnning until iho 'iUt. doiHwitiup two inches 
of water.wettiugthe ground (our inches down and slatting 
Iho volunteer croi«. Totftl rainfall for Uio month. IwO 

Sofrmber-But one iwny d«. tho fall being 1.333 
inches. Fr>jm the 23il to the close of the mouth thoro waa 
a hc«vy north wind. 

X»rt<«l*r— There was considerable north wind during 
tho 6rat part of the month, and the groniid w«s too dry to 
plow. In tho latter jwrt of Uio month thorc was a niiufa 1 
of thrv-o inches, u total for the moulli of font and a half 
inches, and a total for W>9 of i-l.'XiO iuchoa. 

Januarv— There was a rain lasliug from tho 18th to tho 
21at, and a fall of two inches in tho month. 

f»niary-Fivo rainy daya in which foil 9.800 inches of 
iVarcA— No rain. 

April- Fonr rainy days and one inch of water. 
J«nc -Commenced barvesling barley on tho lOtb, and 
on tho I2th there was a shower. 

Noi-cmlnr-On Uio 20lb tliore woa a slight shower, tho 
firstot the fall. 

Aomfcer-Sovon rainy days and l.ltdO inches of water, 
making a total for 1870 of 7.700 iii.dus. 

^«.n(an/-From the Sth of Decmnlier to the 8tliof .lami- 
ary there" was no rain, but on tl.o 9th thoro was a full of 
0.750 of lui inch. The total of llio inontli was 2.450 lUoboB, 
and it put the ground in fair condition. 

mruary-On tho night of the aist there was a heavy 
thunder storm from the fioulheast. On the morning of 
tho 22d the coast range of mount^iins was covered wit i 
suow. The morning of tho 2.1th disclosed a heavy frost. 
The total rainfall for tho month was 2.875 inches. 

ilfarc/i-Tbo rainfall was 0.850 of an inch. During the 
last seven days o( tho month, a strong north wind took 
the moisture out ot the ground and dried up tho crops. 
^,>n7'0n tho 3d. 4th and Gth, 0.400 inches of rain; 
8th. north wind again, and the crops were about used up. 
Mr Greene had an mmor-f allowed nuuh of Ins land the 
previous year, and there had not bocn sulliccn rain dur- 
o" the spring to wet the ground do«-n to the old moisture 
eUincd by this manner of cultivation. Thore was abou 
wo inches of dry dirt between the upper and lower 
damp soils and the April winds diied out the surface 
moisture. The grain began to show signs of dronth, bu 
Te roots searching down for life and mois nre, strugg M 
tUroiigU the two inches of dry earth, and read ing the 
moSre below, sprang into new life and astonished Mr. 
Greene by yielding twenty bushels to tho acre. 
J,(ne-Commenced cutting wheat on the 30tb. 
Odoier-First autumn rain on the 27th. 0.100th of an 


Nove,nJ>er-On the 20th, 27th and 28tb there was rain. 
Total for the month 1.750 inches. 

Decemkr-Sontheast rain-storm commenced on the 17th. 
aud on the 19th the water-gauge was found to bo running 
over and no account was made of the umonnt thus lost 
bXnough had been registered to show that 7 inches had 
fa len in the preceding forty-eight hours. t confnned to 
ran daring the month, making a total ior Chat r,n,„th o 18 
a hes 12 of which fell in one week. This is the greafeat 
S^mmt that has fallen in the Sacramento valley in any one 
rnS sLee its occupation by the whites. The total rain- 
fall for 1871 was 26.425 inches. 
J-anuariz-During this month there were eight rainy 
days, with a rainfall of 4.400 inches. 

J-,6nmrir-Tliere were thirteen days in which it rained, 
the gauge registering 6.830 inches. 

Jfo.J<-Tu this month, fonr rainy days, and three with 
north wind. The rainfaU was 1 .050 mches. 
jpn7-Rain from Uth to 26th; O.oOO of an inch. 
J-«„e-Commenced harvesting on the 10th. 
Woremfeer-Fall rains commenced on the night of the 
28^ t^xainfall being 1-750 inches, followed by four 
davs of fog. 



/)e«»frT-C<«iineD»J raiuing at I P. *- on the 2M. 
■b4 eontino^t, '^f'h '^i' "Tcpption of the 27th. to the end 
ot the month ■ "f "'o feW- nuikiDg a total, 

forthejearui inchoB. 

BT •■ !)• BULT05, 

Liriog aboot fiie miles aootheast from Madison. 


jMrt?--7lh.— Gr»**hoppers hare iojoreU the gmpe vines 

to8om« extent. Daring the W'iut*r wo had very ligbt 

rainii, llioio being otiljr a suftiL-icnt amount to met tlie 

groaud oiglit inch<!8 down, not uoough to miiko the slongha 

ran. Tlie nio began October 20th, W>0, and o«afl«l 

April 2d, 1870, with light showeni, still we had very good 

*^"P*- 187i. 

Dry year. Very little grain raipted. 

Fthntary — 22d Wo ha<l abont one inch of snow; it 
lasted only a few lioun*. The Fall rains begun November 
6tli, 1870;' ceased April 4th, 1871. 


Heavy rains during the VTioler, and a good crop year. 
Rains began November a7th; ceased, with light showers, 

March Hist, 1873. 


Good crop year. Rains began November 29th, 1873, 
and oflased April lOth, 1873. 


Go«l crop year. Heavy rains during the winter. They 
began Nov. 5th, 1873, but not enough full until Dec. *2d 
to start the grass. On the moruiiig of the 3d of Deo. the 
snow began to fall, and it continued uU day. At night it 
was 12 int'hes deep on n level. The school-house, just 
oompletfd at Bockeyo, at considorublo expense, was 
crashed to the gronud' with tho weight of the buow. The 
rains ceased May 24th. 


Good crop year. Tho rains began Oct. 18th, and 
ceased with an unusually heavy rain on June 10th, after 
nearly all tho grain was cut and in the stack. About 2 



Ocldlwr . 
jiinuary , . . 
Frbtunry . . 
March . . . ■ 


Jaiia ... 


Angnvl . . . 

Tolal for SeMon 10 22 


4 US 

a M 







187a-TS. lft7»-74. 




1 15 
10 II 

1 33 
3 S3 






1 -iw 

3 05U 


U in 
G 22 



1 su 





8 706 
6 SfiO 

23.703 22.31 

■2 40 
4 40 
4 24 






4 IGD 

1 000 




3 D3 

20.156 10.51 




1 400 

9 305 



11 62 







1 070 
9. 2110 







3. 880 
4. 880 
2. COO 

tnolioa foil. Grain in stacks had to be stirred up. Sowo 
farmois oommonood plowicg. 

Itaiua conimouood Nov. 1st and ooftaeii 

Good crop year, 
April 21st. 



Not a vory good crop year. Bain-fall was only nbont 
8 inches. "Whoro the land was now crops wore a total 
failure, unless wt> had ii greater aniount of rain; but cul- 
tivating the soil soems to make it moistor, and it conae- 
iiHOntly requires less rain, so that this yoar, with only 1 
inch more than wn had in tlio druutli yeiir of 18(il, w,, 
have over half a crop. Rains bogau Oui. ll>tli, ceuaoil 
March 3Uth. 


Tho crops this year were vory mueU injnrod by iiiet, 
caused by a hailstorm on May lUth, that passed in a 
nortboastevly dirontion over a portion of tho eoiuitj', voiu- 
jug a great many liolds that lay in its course. Tho antiimn 
rains commouced October 21st, and wore light up to Jan- 
nary 16th, causing a lock of faith among tlio faioiora. 
After tho heavy rains began, it was impoHsiblo to do miioh 
farm work until they ceased, May 20th. From tho 15lli lo 
the 26th of Decombor the tliormoineter stood below tlio 
freezing point, reaching as low as twenty-two degrees, 
Ico three-quarters of an inch thick on tho morning of tlm 
20th. Raiu commenced on the dlst. 

Rain began Oct. 14tli, and enough fell lo spioiil tlio 
saramor-fallowod grain, and then consed for so long a limo 
that many liolds had tn bo re-sown. Tbo yvm averaged 
fairly, some damage from rust, but less thau the procodiiig 


Ktpl hy Vit latt Dr. T. .V. Logan, and siriM Ms death hy Dr. F. W. Uakh. S. H. OerrwA ami the VuiUd atalen Sigml Service JJ'jmt. 

SiiMiv or 













Total 3G.O00 

1849-50. 1850-51. 1851-52. 1852-53. 1853-54. 1854-55. 18S5-5C. 1858-57. 


















4.710 17.991) 36.305 


























2 396 

















* 0.485 ■ 


















'6.085 ■ 






1 806-06 


2 018 






'3. 806' 
li 030 



2 612 


a. 120 



16,644 13.673 


1 UlU 









Floods, Snow-Storms and Earthquakes. 

ESgctalHlKhWiIsrlaTolaOoBat; Is the Eulj Futot 1830— Scenetnf Hanoi in Bdc- 
rameata u DeiciiM bjDr. J. F. Uons— Fiool of Seombei 1052 aoj JanoujlSsS 
— SacrWDsnto Dnd*! WaUr— Kidght'i Lindlag the Onlj Polm on tti» Wmi 3lde of ths 
fiirer B«t>Mn Benida luidColau Wbere EtsUDon Coald Diishirge Fnlgbt— TbeTodOf 
Honnd lJs«d u a Whuf— Tbs Indlua Pick tbs Fnight Aibors— Jbj Qnen Triea It— 
Ths FilmitiTs Hotsl— 8c«n*i in 3aci3jnon(«— Flood of Seamber. 18S1, and Jumar;, 
1883 -Tetrible DeitrDction of Propsrtj and Liro Stock— HuTO» Ejtape of a Family— 
FInl of 1637-68— KarroT Eaoijm of F. W. Dteibich ud Otben fnun Dronio; 
Throngh tbo Bravo VeBtore ot a Boj— Fload ot January and Fsbnia/y. 1878— lt« 
£&ct on Enlgbl't Landing; and Other FatU of tho Coca t;— Something in Bigaid to 
tho L(«i — Coadniion ot Floodt-Tho Saor-Stoims of 1855, 1862, 1888 anl 1873 — 
EaitbqnikM of I86G, 1BB8, and 1872 Felt in Tolo County. 

The Flood of Jasdahy, 1850. 

The high water, in the early part of 1S50, that rolled like 
a wave through Siterameuto, found little in Tolo county to 
destroy. Farming had not then commenced; there was not 
an excessive amount of stock in the county, and but little 
improvement subject todestmction. The tale lands were 
full, there being, on an average, about six inches of water 
ou the high ground nest the river, between Fremont and 
"Washington. The Indians were wise enough to come from 
the East across the river, and take possession of the 
mounds, before there had been mnch rise in the river. 
They told the Whites at Fremont that soon there wonld be 
•• heap water cover country all ep," but they were laughed 
at. A slight levee was thrown up along the river-front, 
thai kept back the overflow at Fremont, and nothing bnt 
inconvenience resulted to disturb the people of that vil- 
lage. Further down the river Hon. J. 51. Kelley, who 
was a woodnihopper, with a claim and a cabin at that time, for two or three weeks a water carpet on his floor, 
of Turkish softness, that was about one foot thick. 

His oooking was done during the lime on a pile of logs. 
At Washington a large number of immigi-ants' cattle mired, 
from weokoess, and died; but the native stock was mostly 
saved by the oivners. The highest point above low-water 
mark attained by the river wa!^ twenty-four feet on about 
the 10th of January. At Sacramento the flood became in 
its passage a resistless power that scattered destruction 
and death along its way. At that time Dr. John F. 
Morse lived there. He was a physician by profession, a 
philanthropist bypracfcice.and a humanitarian by instinct. 
When born into the world. Nature had left the gates of 
his heart ajar, and they were never after closed. He was 
also an artist, and his pictures were painted in Bem- 
brandt colors with the pen. He is now dead. Peace to his 
ashes, but his memory still lives. He witnessed the hor- 
rors of that flood, and afterwards pictured the scene. As 
he painted it so wo give it to the reader. 

" The reckless spirit of speculation had declared an in- 
" undation as out of the question, if not physically im- 
" possible. The very air was tremulous with oft-repeated 
" assurances that the town plat had remained free from 
" floods during the sojourn of the oldest Califomians, and 
" the headlong aud nnreSecting career of the people 
" showed them sufficiently credulous to believe the really 
" transparent story. 

" Thus, persons who would have raised their buildings 

■' so as to have given them some security, or fastened their 

" merchandise in order to prevent its being swept from 

" their reach, were induced to bnild npon the ground 

" whatever the topography of the lot on which improve' 

'• ments were erected. And as will always be the case 

when the re ative height of lots is estimated by the eye 

hundreds of persons who supposed themselves to be 

upon elevated grounds, found that they were the first to 

be submerged by the inrnshing waters of 1850 

" The rains through the latter part of December and 
" first of January were so heavy that men began to oidor- 
" tain an apprehension of approaching ditlieulty. Tbo 
" Sacramento river and the American fork were raising 
" rapidly, and the back country seemed to be fast filliug 
" up and cutting ofi' communication from the highlanus. 

" But still every one was inclined to believe the ridica- 
" lous and false assurances of safety, which could scarcely 
" be extinguished when the city was absolutely uudor 
'* water, and hence, when the deluging waters began lo 
" rush in and overwhelm the city, there was no adequate 
" means of escape for life and property, and conBequently 
" many were drowned, some in their beds, some in tlieir 
" feeble efforts at escape, and many died in consequence 
" of tho terrible exposures to which they were subjected. 
" The few boats which belonged to the shipping moored 
" by the levee, were brought into immediate requisition 
" in gathering up the women, children and invalids tiat 
" were scattered over the city in tents and canvas bouses. 
" Some of the women who were living in tents, situated 
" in remote low place?, were found standing upon beds 
'■' and boxes in water a foot and a half deep, and which 
" was still rising with perilous rapidity. Sick men, to- 
" tally helpless, were found floating upon cots that seemed 
" miraculously buoyant, and in the enfeebled tones of di»- 
" solution erj'ing for help. 

"The hospital then used by the authorities was tlio 
"frame and canvas house first occupied by Dr. White. 
"It was unfortunately situated upon very low ground, 
" and, in the absence of tho attending physician, was en- 
" tirely abandoned by those who could have been of ser- 
" vice to the poor invalids during the aggressions of tli^ 
"water. By mere accident, about, in wiiich Captain J- 
" Sherwood was manager, passed the hospital, and dis- 
" covered the situation of the floating sick by their dread- 
" ful cries for help. The boat was immediately oppW" 

Plater 25 

■ M to the o&ce of removing them to a vacant hoose 
"^l"l(- Samael Braanan, where they were nt least safe 

" 01 J*'' ' „ ^ j; ^t 

„ n'g believe there were between twelve and twenty re- 
« ore*! to this yjlace on the levee, only two of which 
" ninber revived from the nnatterable BofiFerings they 
" had endured. After the death of a majority of them 
.. the balance were removed, by order of CaptniQ Sher- 
>• ood odA coDseut of the aathorities, to tiie hospita] 
■■corner of K and Tliird streets. One of these thus re- 
" raoTfd was an old man who had become a mere skeleton 
<' froDi chronic diarrhoja. With assistance his threadbare 
„ post and pants were removed, and by reqnest hung np 
•I I r bis cot. In a few hours afterwards one of the phy- 
" uiciani* going np to see him discovered that hia coatand 
■' nnntrt had changed their color from a black to a light 
" and decidedly grey, and npon a Httlo closer inspection 
" tlic grey w^s found to depend upon a perfect coating of 
*■ those estcrable animals, technically called pedicnlie, 
'■ and nf that abominable apeoiea that prefer a habitation 
" uiioii the bodies of neglected or filthy individuals. But 
" his situation was less revolting than u nnmber of the 
II ^^ny victims to disease and dispicable neglect which 
'■ were crowded into the second story of this hospital on 
" tlic night of the flood. From a miserable canvas build- 
" inc; on K street, between Second and Third, called 
" a liospitJil, opened by Drs. Hazzard and Taylor, and 
" flul)3oquently kept by Hazzard, the most dreadful repre- 
" Bcntativea of a worse than heartless neglect were res- 
" cued from the invading waters and thrust iuto the above 
" triimo hospital on the opposite corner. Three were 
" brought at one boatload, rolled up in blankets in which 
'• tliey hud been lying, no one could tell how long, but 
" certainly in a condition too horrible to be seen and too 
■' awful to meet a faithful description. One of them, 
" whoso blanket enveloped the entire body and head, 
" soemod to be rapidly dying, and consequently he was 
" Iho first to get the attention of the physicians and 
" nurses. An attempt was made to unroll the blanket, 
" but it was found to be so adherent to many parts of 
" tli8 body as to make it difficult of removal— so difficult 
" tliiit the eflbrt was delayed after the face was relieved, 
" for the deplorable victim to revive if possible, or if not, 
" tlmt death might free him from a sense of his situation. 
" Fortiiuately for him death was the speedy alternative. 
''■ Hia troubles were ended. A finely developed form, a 
" face oa which lingered the indices of cultivated intel- 
" lect, a heart that once beat with manly pride, were en- 
" wrapped in a death so dreadful as to beggar descrip- 
" tiou, aud 90 appalling as to excite an almost eternal 
" impression of nausea and disgust in the minds of those 
" wlm beheld it. 



" The blanket was with difficulty detached, and when 
" drawn off, presented a shirtless bodyaheady partially de- 
" vouredby an immense body of maggots, occupying nearly 
" us much space as the emaciated carcass itself. And when 
" one adds to this loathsome mass these crawling elements 
" ot disgust, the accumulated excretions which were alike 
" confined by the agglutinated folds of the blanket, a head 
" ot hair almost clogged up with vermin, then- can a just 
" conception be formed ot what was suffered during the 
" siL'kness of the fall and winter ot '49. This, which was 
" probably the worst ease of the interval referred to, was 
" too nearly approached by many of the victims ot an im- 
" poverished excitement. Where the best efforts were 
" made to promote cleanliness, with men who had fortunes 
" at their command, it was almost impossible to avoid an 
" exhibition of the scenes that would appall the heart of 
" iiuy man who had been reared amid the comforts and 
" cleanliness of eastern homes; many might suppose that 
" under snch circumstances, when disease was rioting in the 
" community, when seven-tenths of the population were 
" vahtudinarians, that physici-ins were pilmg «P fortunes 
" through professional assessments. Bat nothing could 
" be fiu:ther from the truth. Their professional knowledge 
" became fountains of charity, entailing upon them not 
" only the motives and means of doing good, but in many 
" instances associated appeals that consumed alike their 
"previous savings and even their wardrobes, in vain to 
" assuage the misery and distress which they could ^ot Aj 
" from. We say fly from, for it was the instinctive habit 
" of those whose professional or official positions did not 
"rciiTurethem to visit the sick, to avoid all knowledge 
of the sufferings around them. 

" Hence, at ton o'clock, on the evening of the flood, when 

*' the back waters of the slough and the water that came 

" pouring in from the banks of the Sacramento were rusb- 

■ " ing into the city, tearing up sidewalks and dislodging 

n "'*7^^'^^'««. «w«epu,g a.ay teals «d upsetting bona.*. 
^^ at tb.a very time, and thronghout the inundation, the 
^^ city seemed almo«t mad »ilb boinlerous frolic with th« 
^^ most irresistible disposition to r^vel in all the ioking, ', 
^^ laughing, talking, drinking, swearing, dancinp. and ! 
^ fiboutmg that ever were patronised bv the wine^rinking '■ 
son of Jupiter and Semele. ' > 

"AH the shipping and two-story houses became crowded ] 

" will, the uDwebbed bipeds of hilaritv and mcrrimont. i 

" When hundreds of thousands of dolla're in merchandise | 

" were being wTe«ted from the grasp of the merchants nod 1 

" traderft of our city by the currents thol were running I 

" through the streeU in some places with irresistible force, ' 

" no man could have fonnd among the losers of property 

" a single dejected face or despondent spirit. There were 

" no gloomy consultations, no longing looks cast npon the 

" wakes of absconding produce, no animosities excited. 

" Brannan, Cornwall, Lee, Hensley, Heading, Fowler, and 

" a score of others, whose enterprise had fixed the local 

" destiny of the town, and who were so artlessly skeptical 

" as to the possibility of inundations, were the pecoHor 

" spirits of congeniality and the decided favorites of the 

" aquatic yet amphibious community. A man who would 

" purposely roll into the water that ho might share the 

" general laugh that was entailed upon one who had ncci- 

" dentally fallen in, would not wet the solo of hia foot or 

" disturb a joke to save a barrel of his pork, flour or whis- 

" key that were being carried off with the current. 

" In the early part of this great flood small boats would 
" bring almost any price on sale or hire. A common 
" sized whale boat would bring ?30 per hour, nud sell 
" readily for SI, 000; but in an incredibly short time evoiy 
" particle of lumber that would answer for boat or raft 
" making was thus appropriated; in a few days the people 
" were enabled to emigrate to the adjacent hills, where 
" settlements were made in the manner ot the Hobokon 
" in 1853. 

" At the time that this sudden inundation was affecting 
" its destruction to lite and property, the city council were 
" most commendably at work making vigorous and untir- 
" ing efforts to relieve the distressed and unprotected. 
" The council were seconded in their exertions by all who 
" had means, and especially by those who had places of 
" refuge to offer. Almost eveiy second story was freely 
" appropriated to the occupancy ot the needy. 

" It would be impossible to estimate the amount of 
" property destroyed by this tenible visitation. The flood 
" occurred at a time when there was not less than tbreo 
" hundred persons engaged extensively in business, and 
" of these there were not more than five or six who had 
'■ second stories for storing goods, and perhaps an equal 
'■ number not entirely flooded on the firststory. riiebal- 
.. ance were obliged to see their effects floated off to de- 
'■ struction, or nearly ruined by the ^ater that inundated 
" them in their stores." 

There was another overflow in the spring of that year, 
but it was comparatively small and harmless. 

Flood of December, 1852 and Jamuauy, 1853. 

The greatest rainfall in the Sacramento valley during 

.V nna season since its occupation by the whites, oc- 

"rredinlSs's. There was a deposit of 3fi.365 inches, 

1 1V4IO inches fell in December 1852. a greater portion 

^Mt du ini tt «st half of the month. There had been 

Vi, «x inches during November that raised the Sac- 

" ^ to ten ?eet - the first day of December. On the 

ramento ten feet on ^^^.^^^enced filling the tule 

ganged to ^- -- "-^ ;-3 ,,,,,, bad reached a point snf- 

r"nt\?hiitrod that place, and by the first of Janu- 

^1853 had reached its highest point, twenty4wo ee 

ary, 18o^. l^^a seventeen inches higher 

bove 17 :-*«^^^;^^^^^^^^^^ puee on the west bank ot the 
tban in I80O. There. P^^^^^^^ ^^^ ,,a Colusa 

Sacramento, between iu» ^ ^^^ 

except the Indian mounds that ^^asn« ^^^^ 

fcbe whites have never seen a ^--^^n of cattle were 
Wd cover those ^'-f'°X^„^T Uncle John Morris 
caught in the lowlands ndd^o-J-^ ^^^ ,,bsided-the 

attempted to ^/""^"f ^1 ^^ "^i.^g the margin ot the 
number of dead animal, he ^w aiOB5 ^^^^^^^^^^,^^, 

;:;S tl^:rre^- th^- -ndoned the nnder- 
rndt;:L%ri o. ot water and steamers could 

como nlongHide it, and receive or di^hargo freight or p:»«- 
eengerft. It could be rcachcul fri.>m tho country on the 
'oppottito fiidt?. by wading a short disl«ni"t< through water 
from llie high lands; and thi:* was tli« only pliu*w botwcon 
Bcnicia and Colusa. fn>m wht'ro the high lauds back from 
the river coalJ bo r*4chcil. Because of this fact, tluni- 
cands of stock, both horses and calllc. won* ouKwdivl 
there and driven back to the upland, Ihal hud bwn pioVcd 
up at Tarious points along iho river. whon> ihey had been 
hemmed in by the flood. Tlu> atoamor, " ll. Wintor." was 
busy in this lino. The great number o{ litiK'kpriswingtotlio 
mound, through the water two and a half fi'i't deep, inler- 
voning botwoon it and the high ground boyond. made lh«> 
mnd almost bottomlcj« and dangerous to tn\tvT, in piiiisiug 
to and from the landing. ComicqiiODtly. Indians wore 
employed to carry out Uitfrmfirma nucb freight, provi- 
sions, etc., OS was discharged at that point> and thoy made 
it a profitable bupincss. 

Jay Green says tUat ho receivoil from Sacramento a iimnll 
cask of Sugar, pos.sibly 100 llis., and none of the race of the 
noblu rod men could bo induced by tillby lucre to oarry it 
out. Thoy were afraid that so uuu-h swi-utnosa on their 
backs, all at once, might result in planting thorn poriua- 
noutly in the underlying mud, aa thoy wadod through tho 
water, although he succuodod in buying one. on ooiidl- 
tion that he was to undertake to carry ouo end of the 
package himself. Mr. Groon becomes uxcitod when he 
tells of this event, and says tho thing wan light enough 
when they started, but as thoy approached the middUi of 
the stream ho wonld swear it wiuglied tliroo ipmrttirs of a 
ton, and won't take a pound off tlio yarn. Wu supyested 
that this was considerable sugar fur ns to tako in at ouo 
sitting; but he thought it could have boon done easy 
enough if we had been tho ludiun hanging to tho south 
end ot the cask. 

Two wood-choppers, driven off the island by tho water, 
were camped on the mound, and comprohonding their op- 
portunity started a hotel. Thoy served tho public with 
bread strong enough to be i]w staff of life, accompanied 
by a solvent ot mahogany-colored wutur tlmt tanted as did 
tho book swallowed by John tho Uapti.Ht, when ho got it 
securely down, followed by a sample of bacon Hint was an 
antidote for too much eating. Takun as a whohi, the fare 
was nothing to brag of, but the buiMing was. Its founda- 
tion was tour ten-foot rails, laid to form a sqmiie, tho up- 
right being a perpendicular continuance of thti foundation. 
The cooking range was in the center— fl ta wigwjim— and 
the landlord entered the place, as do all blesfiings, from 
above. The guests were left out in tho rain, to arrange 
themselves like sardines along tho side of tho hotel, to eat 
from "tho lay-out "placed bt;foro them on tlio oaves of 
the house. Ouo dollar a meal and plenty of custom; if 
you did not like it yon could leave it alone. Business 
was thrust upon these two enterprising landlords as honors 
are upon some other men. Steamboals wore not as 
prompt in making their schedule time of arrival at tho 
landing in those days as they wore in exacting twenty 
dollars' fare to Sacramento and return. Passougers who 
expected to g"t off in the morning were on hand, but tho 
steamer generally, was not, and along towards night those 
in waiting were ready to patronize the pioneer hotel of 
Knight's Landing. 

Sacramento had been transformed into a second Venice, 
and on New Year's day the people held high carnival. 
They were as joyous, apparently, as though the muddy 
waters flowing into their streets wore from the springs ol 
Perpetual loath. Every boat, raft or floating thing that 
could be navigated through tho city, was traversing the 
streets It was a scene of general hilarity, due not en- 
tirely to the influence of water "straight;" but the spirit of 
speculation was not entirely lost sight ot ami.l the general 
iifluences of the hour. U a mau wlio wished to navigate 
was so unlucky as not to be the captain of a raft or a 
■Whitehall gondola, he was forced to subsidize one who 
was and passenger traffic became a lively business^ Mi- 
chael Leman, now. and since 1856, living near Wood- 
land was the fortunate possessor of a little boat of his 
own'manuf-icture, with which he cleared one hundred 
dollars in carrying passengers on that day. and was of- 
fered auolber hundred for the boat, by a rival boatman, 
n, the evening, but refused to sell and regretted having 
done so on tbe next day, when he could not have sold it 
for one hundred cents. , ., ,r ^ 

At the ranch of E. Comstock, eight miles up the nver 
from Sacramento, the water was about one foot deep on 
the high ground along the banks of the stream. That 
gentleman lost seventy-five out of one hundred and twen- 
ty five head of cattle, and sold in the spring the fifty saved 



FROM 1825 TO 1880. 

f..r oT« IIOO > be^ There wM fttacbi of hay along the 
riT*r. Dot «med off bat were thorooghly scked. from 
«htcb p.rti« M «och of their utock m conW get on the 
Udiso monod«. paring for it IfiO per ton. 

By the iMt of Janoarr the «ter h«d receJed mfficientlT 
to permil a renewal of ba«OM« in the country, and by the 
tweoty^th of Marcli wm onlv fire feet aboro low water 
mark in the Sacrmmento, bat that stream ro*- apain sad- 
.IcDlj on the fir^tt of April to nio«te«D and a half f«el. and 
then gradoally fell away. 

The firet aprinklo of rain in thia county io the fall of 
1861, fell on October 29lh. Tho ten days previous bad in- 
dicated rain, and tho mornings and ereninga were uu- 
uaoally cold for that season of tho year. In the second 
week of Norcniber there were other showers, with a rain- 
fall of three-quarters of an inch. On November 30th the 
following iUim iippoared in tho Knight's DindingA'wa; 
" On Thors-lar night last (-iSlht the water in the river at 
" thia point raise<l abont his feet, and has been rising 
" ever since." 

On the 7th of December the following appeared in the 
same paper: " The Sacramento river at this point has risen 
" unosaally high for this season of the year. It is now 
" nearly biuik-fnll. • » » We presume last week, 
" while we had cloudy but pleasant weather, it mnst have 
** been raining incessantly in the mountains. The river 
" is tho only indication, however, wo have thus far of much 
" wet, as oar farmers are complaining of a want of rain to 
" wot the land to enable them to plow and put in their 
" crops." The days are recorded as having been unusually 
worm for two weeks previous to this, and it is noted that 
the green grass was two inches high. The editor further 
remarks thai " one week more of such growing days and 
" stock will have plenty of feed." 

On the 10th, three days later, Sacramento was flooded. 
Poverty Ridge, I street, and some of tho levees being the 
only portion of that city not submerged. Tho JR street 
lovoo, between Fifth and Sixth streets, was cnt to give 
vent to the uccumuluted water, that, when allowed to es- 
cape, nished through the opening in torrents, carrying 
some twenty-five houses with it, that were floating within 
current influence of the breach. On the 11th the stage- 
driver reached Knight's Landing from Sacramento, but 
left his coach somewhere on the road, stuck in the mud. 
This was the last arrival before the flood closed in, leav- 
ing Knight's Landing unapproachable, except from the 
country to the west, and by water. On the llth Sutter 
county was submerged as far as could be seen from Knight's 
Landing, except a small strip of land on the bank of the 
river, opposite that place. Large droves of cattle were 
caught in the lowlands and perished, and the Knight's Laud- 
ing News states that" the suddenness of the rise prevented 
*' their owners from getting them on high land in time, 
" and the poor animals can be seen standing around, some 
" on small knolls, with nothing to eat, others mid-sides in 
" water, while the owners are wading around endeavoring 
" to get them to a place of safety. During Thursday over 
" a thousand head were taken out and ferried across the 
" river to this place." 

About the loth the flood had reached an elevation 
twenty-two feet above low-water mark, when it began to re- 
cede. Previous to its subsideuce. most of the cattle had 
either been drowned or driven from the tules in Tolo 
county to the country west. 

Up to this time there had been but little rain in the val- 
ley, but on the 26lh of December it fell in torrents all day 
and night, accompanied by a heavy wind. 

On the third of January the river again rose at Sacra- 
mento a half foot higher than at the highest stage a few 
days previous. At Knight's Landing, with a north wind, 
it was kept from passing through the town, in places by 
the temporary levees, and was at least two feet higher than 
tho first high water. Ou the fourth the elements marsh- 
aled for the final great storm, and ou Sunday, the fifth, 
it snowed all day, depositing on an average, a foot of the 
fleecy carpet over the county of Tolo. Ou the thirteenth, 
the lost rise began at Knight's Landing, and reached its 
highest point, three inches higher than on the thiid — the 
nest day at Sacramento it reached a point twenty-four feet 
above low-water mark, being eighteen inches higher than 
ever before known. 

In the big bend about one and a half miles above the 
Comslock place, a levee had been started that was extended 
along down the west hank of the river some five miles. 
It was built by the farmers and was not far from two feet 
high, with width on top sufficient for a path. This kept 

when it gave way all 

alone the line, and the water two eei i 

Mr. Conistock 

VlV^oTuom tho river into the tules. 
them above high water 

Mostof his horses were saved, and 
sole hor"rnumber of cattle were fonnd hanging by 
he 1 ead'^u the crotches of trees after the flood snbs.ded 
Lome horses belonging to J. L. Lewis that were kept ^ . 
four weeks standing in water were ruined and had to be 
killed Their flesh would drop from the bono as fai up 
the leg as it had been continuously in the water. 

On the 18th of January, tho Kuights Landing Neus 
thus graphically describes tho situation: 

.' Our to«-n is dry, being protected by a temporary 
" levee thrown up bv our citizens prior to the formjr 
" froshet. In making this announcement wo do so with a 
" feeling of gratification, knowing, from observation, that 
" desolation utterly reigns all around us. Below here, 
■' on the river, tho loss to rauchers is immense. On the 
" finely fenced lands between hero and Fremont, all tho 
*' fencing is swept away. Messrs. McCormick, Knee- 
" land and Wilcoxson, Sheriff Gray and Mr. Dawson be- 
"ing the greatest sufferers. These gentlemen had thou- 
" sands of acres under Bug board fences set up with rod- 
" wood posU, on which their herds grazed. Now all is 
" deluged— their stock starring and miring on tho lower 
" hills and their lands made a waste. Truly this is a 
" fearful calamity. Our town is filled to overflowing 
'* with families driven from their homes, both above and 
" below here on tho river, until not even a spare room 
" can be rented in town, and yet the end is not yet. Still 
" it ruins— ponrs rain; no matter how tho winds blow, 
" north, south, east or west, rain comes from very quar- 
" ter. Heretofore all our rain came from the ocean by a 
" south wind, but this year two of our heaviest and 
" longest rains came from the arid regions of the north, 
*' making true the old adage, 'All signsfail iu a wot time." 
" Toward Cacheville, and in the Cache Crook district, the 
' ' floods have been also severe. Cache Creek was on Sun- 
" day last higher than ever known before, overflowing its 
" banks and flooding several farms in the vicinity. We 
" understand Mr. W. G-. Hunt had a thousand head of 
" fine sheep swept away and drowned, and the losses are 
"so numerous that they cannot be specified. Xet, with 
" all our suffering and calamity by the floods, ^ve have 
" reason to congratulate ourselves in the fact that we 
" have not suffered anything in comparison to other parts 
" of the State; that we are in a valley of plenty. Though 
" the waters may raise and the floods come, still high 
" land is in view and accessible to all, and plenty of pro- 
" visions and abundance of fuel, that all may be comfort- 
"able who will only make an effort." 

The Union, of Sacramento, contains the following ac- 
count of tho destruction of property in the south part of 
Yolo county: 

" "We were informed yesterday by Geo. H. Swingle, 
" who arrived from the sink of Putah Creek, that the 
" flood has been very severe between that point and Sac- 
" ramento, coveringa distance of aboutnine miles. From 
" Martins, at that place to Sacramento, some seven houses 
" have been carried away by the flood, Tho well-known 
" Tule House and Miners' House are both gone, with all 
" their outbuildings. The water in that section is now 
" about eight feet deep, and has been eleven feet. There 
" is nothing to indicate the location of the ranches about 
" the sink of Pntah but a wind-mill. Miles of fences 
" have been canied away. Geo. H. Swingle lost about 
" one hundred head of hogs, but the stock generally had 
" been driven back to higher land. Mr. Swingle says 
" that for about threo days he witnessed houses, many of 
" them fine one story and a half edifices, passing down 
" the flood from tho north. He should estimate the 
" number about ten or twelve. The telegraph wires 
" in that section on the line to Benicia were generally 
" down, bat would soon be repaired. To show the depth 
" of water on these plains it is only necessary to state 
" that a sloop sailed from Washington to ToZo city on 
" Wednesday last. 

" Mike Bryte lost, on Saturday last, by the freshet one 
"hundred and fifty head of cattle, of which eighty-five 
" were milch cows. He lost about one hundred head a 
" month ago. Of three hundred head about fifty only 
" remain." 

The river steamers and sailing vessels were constantly 
employed in saving the Uvea and property of the lowland 

sufferers. It was like the time when God bociimo aagered 
at tho perversion of his image, and veiling the f«co of 
the sun, sent cold desolation iu waves to enfold tlio catlli 
—No it was not like that, tor there was an ark thonwlioso 
captain paid no attention to tho cries for help issnini' 
from a drowning world. It was difforout this Califoniia 
deluge to those who tromblinfily looked out from iU 
midst upon cold, bleak, snow-shrouded mounlnins, over 
the moving, troubled sen; for thoy knew it was not Hio 
wrath of God that was visitiug them, it was only tlio 
angry elements; but to them it was rnin, it was an oscit. 
iug calamity beyond which they could comprehend notli. 
ing greater, unless it was death. Some ten milca holow 
Sacramento a mother (Mrs. Judge liead). her little ones 
and ft servant wore driven into the second alory of tlioir 
house, whoro hour after hour thoy watched for llio Loin 
that canio not. Thoy were forced to remain in this dis- 
tressing condition and see tho water creep alowly up, 
and farther up towards their last rotroilt. Minutes moiled 
into hours as they watched until tho hours hocamo with, 
out beginning or end, a space of time woven by an agony 
of suspense, into a comprehension of tho fooli»(^ only of 
an approaching horror that might bo caenpod, if liolp 
would only como. It was littlo ones praying for life, imd 
the mother asking that hor offspring might hu sparml, 
that tho cold waves listened to, and then reached further 
up; tho winds catching the supplication boro it iiwny n\n\ 
brought back no response; but Ho, that notes tlio fl|mr- 
rows fall, heard tho cries, and by unseen influciico giiidod 
succor to their rescue. Tho steamer " Chry3opolia"ffng 
steaming down the river towards San Francisco with pns- 
sengors on board, among whom several imaginod llioy 
heard tho notes of a horn swulling out occasionally upon 
the breeze, and then dying away like far off tones of Iho 
"curfew boll." Searciiing over tho waste of water for a 
cause, they discovered on Iho front of a house tho flut- 
tering of something white. As they approached all conlil 
plainly see gathered upon tho upper balcony a party 
of ladies and children all waving clothes ns signals of 
distress, while another person who hud attractod atten- 
tion by blowing the horn, stood there holding it in tho 
hand, as if transformed to stono. A small boat was soon 
alongside, that taking the castaways, placed tliem on 
tho stonmor's decks. The mother was the last to leave 
the little yawl and go on board, whore she stood tot 
a moment surrounded by her children all saved, with her 
loose hair streaming out upon the air, palo, wan and hag- 
gard; when with hollow eyes she took one backward glanoo 
over the surging tide at the old home still wrestling with 
the flood, aud realizing at last that the long horror was 
over: gave voice to her pent up feelings in ono glau, 
joyful cry of thankfulness, so thrillingly wild and heart- 
touching; fchit life is not long enough for its echoes to 
die upon the ear of those who heard ifc. 

To record tho detail of general disaster, or to chronicio 
tho tragic events and amusing incidents of that flood, 
would require too much time and spnco to warrant the at- 
tempt in this work. Within tho month of Jannaiy over 
fifteen inchea of rain fell in Sacramento, tho greatest 
quantity yet known to have fallen at that place during one 
month. The last of January was clear and cold, ice hav- 
ing been frozen thick enough to bear the weight of a raau. 
On the fifteenth of February the Knights Landing ik^f'^s 
notes that the pleasant weather of the past week had 
caused all the farmers to commence putting in their cropHj 
except those whose land was still under water, and that 
the new grass was so far advanced as to cause a cessation 
in the wholesale death of starving stock. Thus ended 
the most destructive flood ever known since the occupa- 
tion of the country by the whites. 

The Floods op 18G7 and 1868. 
In May, 1867, there was high water in consequence of 
the melting, by spring showers, of the heavy snows de- 
posited during the previous winter in the mountains. It 
caused considerable damage to the low land crops. Much 
of tho new levees built by District No. 18 were washed 
away. The American river flowed across the Sacramento, 
cut the levees north of Washington and passed ou out to 
the tules west. There was a quantity of stock drowned, 
among which were sixty-four head belonging to Martin <t 
Greene. They had swam about two miles towards high 
ground, and when near the sink of Tuto creek they be- 
came entangled in a wire fence, and out of eighty-six head 
but twenty-two escaped. In the latter part of the same 
year there was a more serious flood, which was first indi- 
cated as noted in the following article which appeared iu 
the Tolo Democrat, dated Saturday, December 21, 1867= 
" We have had a heavy fall of rain this week, with i» 

Plate N? 26 






"c^ a. c 




Liri .V r oAiLO'^A/; s p 

., rospMt of an additional sapply. We learn that the 
'•• si^eDto river is risiDg rapidly, and that the water 
.' from TariooH overflowed streamB ia spreading oat on the 
, ]anJ«- Communication between Sacramento and 
.. fl'ooJli"''* >" almost cut off, and altbough the stage men 
\, i^Tc doue tlieir level best to get through, they find it an 
«< up-hill bufliness' and are now carrying the mail on 
" horeehack." That was the condition of things on the 
ntv-fir^it of Decemhor. On the next day, Sunday, there 
'^ s terrifit; st'jrm of noatheast wind and rain that was 
uilc general throughout the State. Cache creek was 
''r in over ita hanks and running across the country, over 
"l jiQjt], end of Charles Coil's ranch and flowing through 
ttobumof Mr. Campbell into the streets of Cacheville. 
I'oUi creek was very high, one foot of water being noted 
jesting on the floor of Jerome C. Davis' barn, a higher 
,oiiit timu it was ever kuowu to attain before. The hea^y 
ind overtarned trees, injured the roofs of houses and 
ilemolished some buildings entirely, leveled orchards to 
the ground and worked extensive damage geuerally. On 
tbe fourth of January, 1868, the following brief note ap- 
nearetl, but after it no further mention of the flood is 
niade in t'lo Yu)o county papers, a rather curt disposal of 
an imporlrint matter: " We learn that one diy this week 
" tbe water stood within four inches of tbe top of the 
" coHutor in the Tule House. It extends from the river, 
"westward, to a point within three miles of Woodland, 
" from wliCQce boats make daily trips to the Sacramento 
" bridge. Cache creok has been over its banks again in 
" tlie vicinity of Cacheville. On the south side of the 
" creek, noar the l)ridge, tho water was from two to four- 
" (cct deep yesterday, and still rising. 

The Tiilo House referred to stood near the center of sec- 
tion thirty-four, rango three east, township nine north, 
anil the water, to reach the counter, was about eight feet 
dcop. This building was carried away in 1S61, when 
twelve feut of water covered the country in that immediate 
noighborhood, but was anchored at its old moorings after 
tiio fluod hud subsided. The levee, built with a slope of 
two feot to ODe, on tho north side of Puto creek, at the 
H. M. Lftvue place, west of Davisville, in 1866, was swept 
awftv. It was afterwards rebuilt by T. M. Martin, in 1873, 
lit ft'u espoHSB of $3,300, with a slope of four feet to one. 
Tbo smphlB water of that stream sought its ancient bed 
through tho break flowing out by the timber north of Davis- 
ville, thence on to the tule country. A German, named 
John Jndaraire, was caught by tbe stream as it spread out 
over the low country, and was seen waving signals from 
fbouiiper story of bis bouse through tbe day; but he could 
not bo reached because of the want of a boat and adverse 
winds. His animals took to the water and swam out, and 
towards night he built a raft and followed them, being 
blown ashore by the wind. He was so ofi'ended because 
Lis neighbors had not gone out, against wind and current, 
on a raft to his rescue that he would not speak to them. 
In tbe full of 1S70, Judamire was found dead in front of 
his house, his body being badly disfigured, possibly by 
Ibe hogs that were roaming about the place. 

Tbo river levees were seriously damaged by this flood. 
John Hongland, caught between breaks, was forced to 
chmb a tree, where be remained nearly twenty-four hours 
boEore he was rescued. Several persons were drowned m 
attempting to cross the overflowed country in boats. H. 
M. Hoyl, now a resident of Woodland, was at that time 
keeping the Miner's House at Washington. About ten 
o'clock, one morning, he heard a voice sounding like some 
one calling a long way oft", and finally came to the conclu- 
sion that it was some one calling for help. He procured 
ft boat, and sent it out in charge of two boatmen towards 
where the sound seemed to come from. They found a cap- 
sized White Hall boat, with six men, and a boy with a lit- 
tle diick-boat tiying to save the men from drowning. The 
lad had been hunting in his little craft in the timber, and 
seeing the peril of the men had gone to their rescue. It 
was a wiiuder that he ever reached them over the waves 
and that he himself was not drowued in the effort. It was a 
Irave act that entitled the boy to remembrance in the an- 
nals of generous heroism, and we regi-et that we have been 
anahle to obtain his name. One of the men, a teamster, 
was so nearly drowned when the boat sent by Mr. Hoj't 
^trived that he was unconscious, and was being supported 
^y liis associates, who would have been unable to have 
stood the contest much longer. The boy's boat was too 
small to hold them, and they were hanging to its sides 
drifting wiUi the current and wind, and were all saved; 
*>«' it was a narrow escape. Mr. F- W. Dresbach and a 
«egto, both of Davisville, were of the party, also a roan 
■^aed Ward. It was June before the water had gone 




^rt o?l ^^T 1' *""«*' '' ^^ '^^ '""» ^« Pri'-iP*! 
Sr I If *"** "^"'^ "'''^ '° **»« «-»- The ra^- 

inehe; ^^ °*°°*^ "' December. 1867. was 12.^ 

Floods op Jascibt jwd Febbcabt, 1878. 
The following is tbe register aa recoiled bv Dr. E. L. 
Parramore of Woodland, of the rainfall of the'sea.son end- 
ing with Pebroary, 1878: 

Oct. 21, 1877. 

" 23. 
Nov. 3. 

" 5. 

** 11. 

" 12, 
Dec. 17. 

" 18. 

" 22, 

" 23, 

" 24. 
Jan. 7, 1878. 

" 8. 

" 10, 

" 14. 

" 15, 

" 16. 

" 17. 

" 19, 

" 21, 

" 22, 

" 24, 
Total for the 

.. .30.. 

.- .64 . 

.. .13.. 

.- .04.. 

-. .56.. 

.. .37,, 

.. .43.. 

.. .2.5 . 

.. .(jy.. 

-. .50.. 
.. .02.. 
.. .20.. 
.. -08.. 
. .11.. 
.. .22 . 
.. .30.. 
.. .17.. 
.. .06,. 




Jan. 25, 1878. 

'* 28. 

" 30, 

1 " 31, 
I Feb. G. 

" 6. 

" 7. 

" 8. 

" 11. 

" 12, 

" 13. 

■ " 14, 

" 15. 

" 17. 

" 18. 

■' 19. 

" 21. 

" 24, 

'■ 25, 

' " 2fi, 

i " 28, 



. .93. 
.. .55. 
.. .63. 
.. .52. 
.. .05. 
.. .34. 
.. .15. 
.. .38. 
.. .65. 
.. .36. 
.. .65 
.. .23 
.. .76 
.. .57. 
.. .52, 

. .94. 
.. .25. 
.. .50. 
.. .11. 



season 22.46 

From the above table it will be observed that the rain 
held off until the 15tli of January. Tlie farmers hud gen- 
erally become discouraged at tho prospect of another dry 
year. Up to that time tho total rains amounted to 3.94 in- 
ches, including October, November and December, and the 
14th of January. On the 15th, 16th and 17th there was a 
total fall of 4.78 inches, that transformed Puto and Cache 
creeks into foaming torrents, and caused them to over- 
flow their banks. Puto swept away tho railroad bridge 
at Winters, and the young village was thoroughly irrigated. 
Cache Creek leaped its banks between Cacheville and 
Nelson's Bridge and flowed down over the country, sub- 
merged Hon. Jason Watkins' farm, and passed out to- 
ward tbe tules over the northern part of Charles Coil's 
place. The storm was mainly confined to the west side 
of the Sacramento river. On the 22d and 24th, 3.54 in- 
ches more rain fell. Eeclaraation District, No. 108, had 
become a vast reservoir into which the overflowing river 
had discharged its sni-plua waters up in Colusa county, 
that came down and met the strong levees at the south, an 
obstruction to its further passage. These levees were the 
dividing lines between the town of Knight's Landing and 
the reservoir. Tlie quantity of water accuninlated there 
was so gi-eat that it flowed over the embankment into the 
south part of the town, and Mr. Charles F. Reed caused 
the levee to be cut north of the place, to drain off into the 
Sacramento river the surplus water that had accumulated, 
and thus remove the immediate eauso of peril to the 
village It was of little avail, however, for the river 
kept°rising, then falling back then rising a little higher, 
until Wednesday, Feb>-unry 19th. During that day the 
wind blew a gale from the southeast keeping back the 
water toward the north in the reservoir, when suddenly 
about six o'clock in the evening, it shifted and came a 
tempest from the north bringing with it an irres.stable 
wave that leaped the levees and swept over the town. The 
scene that followed for a time would be hard to describe, 
but one who was there thus writes of it. 

.< The water was rushing madly everywhere, waves beat 
"against houses and through fences .v^men screanoed 
..children cried, dogs howled, cattle lowed and men 
.-aped fearlessly into the tide -^ -^y st..ggkcUo 
..,esL women and children from the 'I- "S^^- ^ /^«^ 
-fhev successfully accomplished m less than half an 

.. horn- I» t^e -"^'^ ^''' °^ "^^ *""" "" "^'T "" h 
..feet deep in some houses, but Front street was 
.. Atv'' Cbas F.Eeed was the greatest loser. Ale^x. 
IT f^l' . house wrecked; a house belonging to Mr. 
Eibes had a •^o^^^^^;*^'^ ' i-.i^childs lost a house, a 
Carpenter ^^/^^J^ Ed. Hull's house was wrecked 
barn and some cattle. -E-u. '^ general 

and lodged against t^^^-^^';^"^^; ^ ,.^„' ^he soufh part 

~^°/.'^:!S\::^aer;ed a, far as Cache C«* 

roau u. •■ — □_ ' ^oBtrnved as far as uai;u<j ^i— - 

railroad havmg been f^/l^f^'t,^"" j„,t put in place, after 

The new -l-^^d a^y ^^^^ before, again took 
been washed a«ay a 

ble for flat boats. Cottonwood Cr«ek bocftmo a river and 
took anio orer thocoanlry to MBdis«,m.carriM off a qnan- 
titv of lumber from the yanl« of F. B. Chandler, diittri- 
bot«d it orer threo mil<« of conulry and dnmAgtHl a largo 
qoaotity of har bolonging to D. (j. Adams. Cache Crvek 
came down from tin' mountain^ and Ica^khI its bankit in 
many places, doluging CiioheviUo and sprpading as far out 
as Scbiudlor'a place, a mile distant. ThiH wa« tlie most 
serions overflow ovor known at that place. Tho railroad 
bridge at Davi^iviUo was sprung oat of lino, and tho jiaa- 
Mge of tniinit stopped. 

The following is tho summing up of tho ill» befoll 
KnightK I,.:inding. a* related by a corrospondent of tlio 
S. F. Po^, after all waa over: "Tho town \\aa been moro 
" fortunate than any i>art of tho surnnindiiig district. 
" Front street hiis boon high and dry all through tho 
" flood. Tho hot4<bi. reAtiurantfiaudbu!)inc»t housoit hiivo 
" all escaped. Tho back portion of tho town hoH boon 
" flootlod. Three houses wore washvd away with thoir 
"contents, namely: A. O. Eiboa' houso lost and other 
" damage, SI, 500; Mrs. Smith'^ house. $700; Carpontor'ti 
" bouse, $600. Other property wax damaged as foUowti: 
" J. A. Black. $501); Ed. Huston, ?600; Wm. Hanoy, n 0; 
" Wm. Barnett. J-J-'ill; W. S. Ilnston. ?51M>; S. R. Smith. 
" ?500; John O'Koofo. $500; other damagu to I'iti/ou'it, 
' $4,000. The warehousoaand thi'ir contonti^iireall iugood 
" condition, ono of which, a vorj- largn ono, is opened free 
" for stock, etc., brought out of tho flooded districts, and 
" all the citizens that are not flooded lirive done all they 
" could for tho comfort of thu«o who wore couiiiullcd to 
" leave thoir residoucos. The water is now going down 
" and tho citizens ant cleaning tnit and drying their hounoH 
" in the flooded portion of ti)wn pr<'|iiiralory to moving 
" home again." Tho Sacramento river kept rising un- 
til about tho 22d. when tho levoo began to givo way 
in many places, thus relieving the ntruams by hide 
escapes out to the tules in Yolo county. Two hrotikn 
occurred south of Washington, ono about two milen be- 
low, the other at tho Williams' h<i|> ranch, sonio flvo 
miles further down, anil two occurred above Watdiing- 
ton, one at tho English Raucli, tho other at Wnllaeo'H 
place, some four miles up. These breaks aavod Sacra- 
mento city from an overflow at tlie oxponfie of Yolo 
county. Washington was under water and tho damage 
to levees in this county wa.s estimated at $60,000 by tho 
editor of the Yolo Democrat, Mr. Wm. Hanndors. 

The following is a partial list of those injured, witli thn 
amount of damage, ti> each occurring in Yolo county. It 
was publi-sbod in tho San Franoisoo Post in tho latter part 
of February, and foots an aggregate Iohh of $218,7.'iO. but 
is probably double what it shtmld he. It ih given nut fur 
it!" accuracy, but bocauHo it shows the projiortion of loss 
and losers. J. C. and Frank Welch, ?!5,00(); D, Cox, 
$3,000; J. P. Bullock, $20,000; W. Haney. $1,000; A. J. 
Downs, $1,000; D.N. Horshoy, $1,200; W. J. Clarke, 
Wm. H. H. Copp, John J. Do Rose, N. B. Cook, John 
Byms, F. Gignere, Geo. Shnrpnnck, J. B. and J. M. 
Pockman, Sterling Creason, F. M. Rahin and Mr. Lcoimrd, 
all of whom are heavy losers, Wm. Millw, $5,000; J. P. 
Menen, $1,000; James Ridley, $4,000; P. S. GlasHcock, 
$2 500; H. Hurlbert, Si,000; P. Peterson, $1,500; Thos. 
HHibbard, $500; Robert Connor, $1,000; H. B. Heard, 
$2,500; Hayward White, $1,200; I. W. Jacobs, 82,500; 
Noble Clark, $3,000; J. D. Laugouour, $2,000; Mrs, Phd- 
lipg $500- Mrs. McClintic, $500; R. RoberUs, $2,500; K. 
E Fairchild $7,000; D, Hamilton, $4,000; H. O. Gwinn, 
$1000- D M. Edson, $6,000; E. Willott, $600; E. H. 
Curtis' $J00; Chas. F. Reed, $75,000; W. C. Wright, 
$3 00o' James St. Louis, $4,500; Henry Provost. $2,500; 
John Colier. $1,500; Wm. Fryatt, $500; J. W. Snowball. 
$10 000; Philemon Beck, $500; h. John=(on. $300; Mrs. 
8 A Powell, $500; Mrs. Simmons. $500; B. H. llose- 
bprrv $2 500; Mr. Curtiss, $-^00; Edward Lefover, $300; 
a! G." McCormick, $6,000; H. B. Wood, $3,000; E. B. 
Lowe, $3,000. 

The following from the Toio Denwcrat of March 7th, 
1879, mentions the only panacea for the ills that are planted 
in the path of the floods: 

" A Bbiqht Featdre dj tab Flood. -The story of the 

■' flood as it is now being narrated is one of woo. It is a 

.' tale of devastated grain fields, vineyards and orchards; 

" of drowning cattle and houseless settlers seeking refuge 

" in the hills andshelter under the roofs of their morefor- 

: '■ tnnate neighbors. This disastrous flood is, however, 

i " like a cloud with a silver lining, says the /Jwi/c/iH. It 

.' has some bright features that wiU soon crop ont much 

I " more conspicuously than they do now. Some of the 

I -. lands now under water in the Sacramento valley have 



" been prodoeing vh«st for the bvHer portion o( ft aoore 
" of ftmn. The Toralt is tb«t tho *oil has been almoat 
■* exhausted. ErerT je*r tba qosntitj barrested i*r acM 
" ws* decreaMng. Snch. ospecialW, was the case iu Yolo 
" and Coloaa coaotioi. Tho present Boai is now fertilix- 
" ing these exhaoAted Uodn with the rich soils of the foot- 
" hills. It i» doing for them JQsl what tha Sile does ereiy 
•* year for the wheat lands of Egrpt. In Colosa county 
" another procMS is obserrcd. A rich seiliment from ft 
" foot to eighteen inches in thickness is fonntng on tbut 
*' section of tho conntry where the hard pan has hereto- 
" fore been exposed. This will greatly increaso the nrca 
" of agricoltonil Isnd in that coanty. Farming land, such 
" as is being formtKl by tlio flw>d there, ia regardud a.s the 
"mo«t fertile for wheat culture. Then, again, the flood 
" means death to tlioae destructive pests, tho gopher and 
" tho groond oqiiirrel. The farming lands ol the grost 
" rallev of California have been overrun for years by these 
" pesti. The problem of their extermination is one with 
" which the farmer luis ansnccessfully wrestled for years. 
" The inventive mochanic 1ms been designing traps iii- 
" numerable and ibo chemist miiuiifactoring poisons by 
" the wholesale for their destruction; but the struggle for 
" supremacy favored the gopher aud the squirrel. Tho 
" iiood has. however, solved the problem. Both pests 
" have perished by countless numbers, aud have beeu on- 
" tombed iu their own burrows. The future story of the 
" results of the flood of 1878 will be that of abundant 
" crops and a froodom from agricultural pests." 

In conclusion, we would add that there were no levees 
along the river prior to 1S54, to obalruct the passage of 
its surplus water buck into the great reservoir called tale 
or swamp land. In 18G2, there hud been a five mile 
leveo built two foet high, but it gave way and left the 
flood free to take its course. In 18G7 and 18G8, tho levees 
wore new, aud soon yielJcd to tho force of thocurreut. In 
1877 and 1878, those obstructions were firmer and held 
back the water longer but finally gave way, and have not 
us yet beeu repaired. 

The depth of water on the high banks along tho river on 
the outside of the levees at the Comstock place was, before 
the lovees gave way: 

In 1849 and 1850 Six inches. 

Iu 1852 and 1853 One foot. 

In 1861 and 1SG2 Two feet. 

In 18G7 and 18G8 Three and a half feet. 

In 1877 and 1878 Five feet. 

The Snow Storms 

Of nnosnal severity that have occurred in Tolo county 
have been in the years 1855, 18G2, 18G8 aud 1873. 
Snow upon the coast range, with a flaky fall in the valley 
that melted as soon as it reached the ground has been 
more frequent. The snow storm of 1855, commenced with 
a northwest wind on the night before Christmas, aud in 
the morning there had been deposited five inches at the 
Gable rauch, about four inches in the valley north of Cache 
creek, and two inches at Woodland. In a southerly direc- 
tion aud towards the river, it diminished in quantity, and 
south of Puto creek there was none. Previous to this 
date there had been no rains, but as night approached on 
Christmas the rain commenced, and the snow was gone in 
the morning. From the Sacramento Daiti/ Union of De- 
cember 27th, 1855, we take the following: 

" Ssow, Hail .kkd Eain. — Escep' that we had no streak 
" of sunshine, we were favored with every variety of 
" weather yesterday. It commenced snowing sometime 
" previous to daylight, so that at the usual hour of rising 
" the ground far and wide, was covered with a mantle 
*' of ermine, reminding one forcibly of the prevailing fea- 
" tare at this season in the cooler latitude at the east. 

"Never before sinr^ tba foundation of the city had such 
" a sight been witnessed in the vicinity, bat unfortunately 
" the prospect was of short continuance. About nine 
' ' o'clock A. M. the phenomenon was transferred into a hail- 
" storm, and at noon settled into a steady, old-fashioned 
" storm. The total amount of distillation up to 9 p. si. as 
" ascertained by Dr. Logan, measured 0.140 of an inch, in- 
" eluding O.OIG of an inch of melted snow. The fall of snow 
" in the vicinity of the hills must have been very heavy, as 
' ' will doubtless be developed to our vision on the first clear 
*' day, should we have one soon. It was observed yester- 
" day that while the clouds were drifting from the south- 
' ' east an under-current of air was driving the rain towards 
" the south. At nine o'clock last evening the wind and 
" clouds came from the same direction, the southeast indi- 
" eating a coutinnance of the storm. The barometer at the 

.. «„e hour was lower than ftt any prev.ous ^^^^^^^^ 
...hcwinter. A^-ght have been aut.c.patc.1 ft^^^^ 
..aroso soon afterwards, and. .^ we are ^ '^''^f^^^f 
.. extensive damage a«.ong tho awmng and I'^l't o t^;d« 
.- fixtures throughout the city. We have been ^^^^--^^^^1^ 
" snow before, but not until now with ft ^l^S^^/?^ H* "^^^^^^ 
.. It snowed lighUy at half-past ten i> «._on the 6 Uv-J^"*^ 
.. on tho 5th and Uth of January, ISoo and at BrightoD 
" daring the Hoboken speculation, in January or 1 ebru- 

'" Thisnow'storm of 1862 commenced and ended on Sun- 
day. January 5th. and loft on an average a foot o snow 
covering the vallev, there being sixteen inches at the Ua- 
ble much, where' there wore five different snow-storms 
during the next few days. The lost of it had not gone 
from tho north side of the low hills seven weeks later, 
and over the valleys it hid the grass from the starving 
stock for throe weeks, rendering it useless for thorn after 
the fleecy mantle had melted away, leaving tho poor beasU 
to sUrvo and die before the new gross had taken its place. 
During some of the days it would melt and then freeze 
again at night, making a hard crust on the surface that 
rendered it difficult for animals to travel over the country. 

On the night of January 12th, 1868, tiiore was a fall of 
seven inches of snow at the Dig ranch on Puto eieek, 
equal to a raiu faU of 0.750 of an inch. In Capay vaUey 
it was eight inches deep, iu Madison six inches, and said 
to bo twelve iu Woodland. In two days it had disap- 
peared from the valleys. 

In 1873, a storm set in about eight o'clock on the morn- 
ing of December 3d, commencing with snow that changed 
at evening to rain. On tho 4th and 5tli it raiued again, mak- 
ing a total water-fall of five inches during three days. 
Previous to this there had practically been no rain. The 
snowfall at Green McMahona on Puto creek was ten and a 
half inches; atCbas. E. Greene's ten inches, and at tho Ga- 
ble ranch fifteen inches. It was damp and heavy, and the 
roofsot many buildings in thecoanty were crushed, among 
them being the warehouse of Thomas and Hunt, in Wood- 
land, and a new school-house at Buckeye. In three days 
it had mostly disappeared, yet some could be found on 
the 25th of the month hid away in by-places. 


This is a subject regarding which much has been writ- 
ten and little known. They are attributed to gracious ex- 
plosions, also to the sudden generation of steam, etc. 
Whatever maybe the cause the effect is certainly known to 
be such as to whiten the cheek of the bravest. In the 
year 19, when Tibrous was Emperor, 120,000 people were 
swallowed up, and in the year 526, in Syria, 200,000 mora 
became victims to this terrible destroyer, and Ibarra, Ot- 
tavalle and Lisbon added 700,000 more to the vast army of 
those who, without a moment's warning, hud been hurled 
upon the strand of that mystic realm around which ripples 
the immortal waves of a shoreless sea. Those named have 
been tho greatest calamities, but the lesser ones are num- 
bered by the thousands. Within two hundred and fifty 
years, prior to ISoO, between six and seven thousand earth- 
quakes were recorded, some coming with terrors that kill, 
others like those experienced in Yolo county. No other 
element in nature has proved so destructive to human life 
as that which produces this rocking, wrenching and trem- 
bling of the earth. 

In the adjoining county of Lake, a shock made furniture 
in houses dance at nine p. m. on January 2d, 1865. The 
vibration was from east to southwest, and commenced with 
a rumbling sound. No damage was done, and Yolo county 
was not disturbed by it, and ha-s not in the memory of men 
been visited by a shock from earthquake that has been 
sufficiently strong to work any injury to life or property. 
The shocks have been felt at three different times in this 
county. First on the 8th of October, 1865, at 12.45 p. u., 
the vibration bemg sufficiently strong to cause the thin 
ice on Willow slough to rush out upon dry land, as noticed 
by Mr. N. Wyckoff at a crossing near Dr. Euddock's. The 
motion, where noted, was from the northeast to the south- 
west, and at Sacramento there were several vibrations 
then an interval of a few minutes, when the motion was 
repeated with greater violence. No damage was done, but 
a lively dance was inaugurated among movable things. 
Bells rang, dishes tried to set themselves, chairs waltzed 
around, clocks stopped in disgust, as eveiything else in 
the houses seemed bent on having a little time. "Old 
topers" found themselves reeling, and stopped in the street 
to sit down on a curbstone, imagining themselves drunk 
mentally anathematized the saloon-keeper, and started in to 
make believe they were all right by looking meditative and 

dignified; but suddenly finding themselves sober again I 
became bewildered and lost track of their firat intention' ■ 
Others thought tlioy were bilious, and a few were relieved ' 
from their dizziness by vomiting; and one pei-son, aludy, ! 
believed that tho spirits had laid hold of hor, and tlmtalic 
was boing made a medium. Many, knowing what tho 
trouble was, rushed in fright into tho stroots; bnl in ni| 
this comedy of miscouceptious no one was harmed. Iu 
San Francisco this shock was more severe, the damage to 
property being estimated at $250,000. and a number of iior- 
sons were injured. Some damage was done at Snn Jose mi 
Sautrt Cruz, but it did not reach Los Angeles. It slionV 
up Stockton and Petaluran, but was not (olt at Visaliu, vol 
tho ocean felt its ])owor, and ships far out at aea found 
therasolvG.'i surging on " troubled waters." 

In 1868, on tho 2ist of October, between seven and oight 
in the morning, a severe shock was felt in tho Stivlo— 
stroiigt'st iu the vicinity of San Francisco— that wtis ro- 
foiTod to by the Yolo Democrat as follows; 

" Tho heaviest earthquake shock over oxporionood in 
" this part of the oouutry was folt here about 8 o'clock a. «. 
" on Wednesday last. There were two distinctBhooks. Tlio 
" first being tlio hardest ami lasting aovtiral aocoiids, 
" Buildings were swayed to and fro and groat ouk trees 
" were agitated by tho unsoon power, as if they had boon 
" shaken by a miglity storm. In some iiistaimcs plastor- 
" ing was broken, and the croaking of timbois and com- 
" motion of furniture, wares and morcliandiso, erenled 
" considerable alarm. At tho court house the county offi* 
" cors and tlioso iu attendance at court were panic striokon 
" and all rushed in hot haste into tho court yard. Btoros 
" and dwellings were deserted by their occupnnlH in n 
" twinkling, and many groups of pale faces and dizzy 
" heads were seen gathered together on tlie streets, tlioir 
" terror stricken owners seemingly engaged in attom|ttiug 
" to solve the portentious question, 'What next?' I'o- 
" litical topics wore for the time being forgotten and more 
"serious thoughts iu their stead KComod to posaoBS tlio 
" minds of the disturbed community. Of courao, as ia 
" the case in all similar frights, many amusing incidunls 
" occurred ; but the apprehension felt for the safety of 
" other cities and towns believed to have beeu moroex- 
" posed to the violence of the shock thau our own, ren- 
" dured the mysterious visitation too sonoua a mattor for 
" tho indulgence of jesting. The news from other pnrts 
" of the State stricken by the terrible disaster haa proven 
" that such apprehensions were not gi'0undlea8,andadeep 
" sympathy is now felt for those who, less fortunate than 
" ourselves, have suffered so teiTibly. In San Franciflco 
" a great part of tho city suffered severely. Several per- 
" sons were killed and many were wounded by falling 
" chimneys, walls, awnings, etc. At Oakland, San Lonn- 
" dro, Alvarado, San Lorenzo and Alameda much damage 
" was sustained. Tho town of Haywards is in ruins, 
" Many buildings were injured at Redwood City. At San 
" JoBi^, Santa Clara, Gilroy, Santa Cruz, Oeutreville, San 
" Kafael,Petaluma, Santa Eosa, Somerville, Matinez, Pfl- 
" checo and many other places the shocks were very severe, 
" in many instances buildings were thrown flat down, aud 
" the people greatly terrified, sought safety in flight from 
" the ruins. But few lives are reported lost in tie places 
" above mentioned. The damage to property can only bo 
"estimated by millions." 

The vibrations were from northeast to southwest, and 
were recorded by Jay Green, living near Black's Station, 
as occurring at 7.20 in the morning. Some men wero 
painting the house of John Hollings worth, and the ladders 
narrowly escaped being thrown to the ground. Boya jump- 
ing did not notice the shock; but seeing the water begin to 
rush from one end of the watering-trough to the otber, 
were astonished at such eccentricities, and searched dih- 
gently under "the thing "to see what had "loosened it. 
A man who was in the cellar of the house, where H. ». 
Deanor now lives, near Woodland, became sea-sick; but 
the family up stairs failed to notice the shock. In otber 
parts of the coanty the effect was similar, and the force 
of the vibrations about the same. In 1872, on the nioru- 
ing of March 22d, at about two o'clock, the third aud Isst 
earthquake was felt in Woodland. Wm. Saunders wtee 
as follows : 

" Woodland was visited by an earthquake at 2.-0 *■ ^■ 
" on Tuesday morning last, which was the most severe 
" ever experienced in this locality since its settlemeaf, 
" but doing no damage other than causing something of a 
" scare. It seemed to come from the south or southwest 
" and continued, as near as we could judge, about tbirty 
" seconds. The motion was gentle and regular, iaabon- 
" zontal direction— no jerking, but a regular, though rather 

Plate N? 27 

I, Bt^J^GS. 




i„g bftck and forth. Clocks hanging on east j 
•ijtpia .'^giijj were geoerally stopped, windows and 
*°^ *^ttled, and those who happened to notice say that 
"I^^JT-a anil nlirobhery bowed gracefully either way. i 
Willi) lre»« ^ ^ « • , , ; 

If 'are Ihftukfal it was no worse. The jnrymen who ; 
" locked op iu the Jarj' Koom of the Court Hoose 
;:j«liLrating "l>oi. the case of Wright ra. Laugeuoor ■ 
coDHiderahlv flcared and chimored to be released I 
",VZ confinement, and shortly after were relea.sed, as i 
,1 conld not agree, and the case adjourned for the 
"•uno Tte V^l""^ ^^I"""' " general " turning out" in 
" c ntneuto, and an acquaintance of ours who was so- 
^^^j.jjj„jj at ilie Capital says he never before saw so many 
_"*"^",^p^^i,,] people as rushed into the streets on this oc- 

"l^ioii. It «■'"* "^ '''^**'>' "'^^'' ""*^ ^''*^ ™°°" looked 
M ciilmly down upon the scone." 

1 r. ^}^^^' ^ title, in C^Ufomia. ■ k«,wi. « ' 

swaZ T'*' *^'''^: '^"^ "- «»*'• °>»P« ^n*! pUu of 

w thoQt regard to whether they were «wimp Uni. or not. 
when found to <..nform to the recUaguUr Ltem of Hur- 
veya. pronde*! they did not include Un.U for which riRhta '' 
had alrea,U accrued to settlers under the Uniled SUtea ' 
Jaws. rhu8 was finally settled what particuUr land wa* to 
be passed to the State by the United Sta*e» grant. 


Swamp Land, Reclamations and Levees. 

Onet bj lU Ooll^ Stilw to OdlKofDli OnwrUln-Tho Qaertion of Tills SslUod-Eoda- 
o»l!ira-Oeci(r&l EjiMni AlUmpUJ-OominlMlancra Appoialol-ComiOBDainiBnl of 
ttwlM-Whit tho Lei»*» Ooit Yolo Oonntv naiti ihe CommlBion-Qrana Iilana 
Dlilritl, No. 108 UorrlU Wnod Dlelrlrt, Ho. IBO-Llihorn DiBtrict, So, 307. 

On the 28t1i of Soptembor. 1850, Congress by an Act, 
conveyed to thu Stute of California all the land within her 
limits, that because of its being swamp or overflowed, 
was roiidered unfit for cultivation. Tiie title to the same 
imssiuf; immediately to and vesting in the State. There was 
ouu tliUig uiifortnniitely left unsettled, and that was what 
l»nti<!ulnr townsliips, or legal subdivisions of townships, 
ivovo iiiL'lmleil in the grant. 

'fhiswns im impoitaut defect as the question of what 
holDiigud to tlio United States and what to the State of 
Ciiliforuia soon became a serious one, as the settlers' title 
iloptiudeil upon his maldug application to the rightful 
offnor tor a patent. The law, however, provided a means 
of ilctormiuing this matter. It provided that the Secretary 
of tlio Interior, should ilesiguate, that which should go 
to till) State, after having it surveyed and platted to enable 
liini to obtJiin the necessary knowledge of what was and 
wbiit was not swamp or overflowed. 

The surveys were made, but the Secretary did not, as a 
nib, certify or cause to be designated in accordance with 
tliB Act the subdivisions that properly belonged to the 

Hia deeisiou, however, when made, was final, but the 
fiict lliat on the United States maps certain localities were 
Uid down as uplaml; was not couclusive to the extent of 
(leterminiug that it belouged to the United States. Yet 
whou those same approved maps showed that the laud 
WHS swamp or overflowed, it was conclusive as against the 
ownership by the United States whether the Secretary of 
tlio Interior liad so decided or not. 

Mrtttei-s romaiued thus until a law was passed by Con- 
gress, March lith, 1860, giving the State the right to des- 
igunte, under ecrtaiu restrictions what was swamp and 
overtlowed lauds. 

In conformity to the congressional law, the State Lagis- 
lal lire passed an Act, May 31st, 1861, that made it the duty 
of tlie County Surveyors, by maps and surveys, to segregate 
tiiL' sKiiinp from the uplands iu their respective counties, 
iiiid to transmit maps showiug what they had done, together 
witli sworn testimony in regard to the cliaraeter thereof to 
the Surveyor-General of the State, who sent copies to the 
UnittHlStates LaudDepartmeutaaking that what was there- 

>u set forth as swamp and overflowed should be certified 
t« the State in necoi-dance with the Act of 1850. The 
County Surveyors immediately proceeded to act under 
tliis law, and the result was a demonstration that the 
yuitcd Slates Sarvoyois had platted tiuantities of land 
»a the State as upland that properly should have been 
classed us swamp and overflowed, on some of which set- 
tlere hud made pre-emption or homestead claims. There- 
ipoa arose a conflict of title that was likely to produce 
enaiess litigatiou. This slate of things fiually caUed fortn 
a congressional law passed July 23d, 1866, that purported 


In the meantime Camoniia had grasped feebly with the 
question of reclamation of this class of the State realty. 
Aa early as 185.';, an Act was passed by the Legislature 
authorizing the sale of swamp land on five years' time, 
with interest at ten per cent. In 18.3S, another Act re- 
quired all moneys received from the sale of that class of 
property to be retained a.s a separate fun.l to be expended 
in reclaiming the property sold, but iu all tho legislation 
the object seemed to be to make the effort an individual 
one, until May 13th, 1861, when a law was ouacted intro- 
ducing a general system. This Act created a " Board of 
Reclamation Commissioners," naming tho following gen- 
tlemen as members thereof; A. M. Wiun, of Sutter. Priss- 
ident; J. C. Pemberton, of Tulare; Wm. J. Hootcn, of 
Solano ; B. B. Redding, of Sacramento, and T. T. Bonldiu, 
of San Joaquin. 

This board employed about twenty engineers, and during 
the two years they served laid out some thirty districts, 
among which was No. 18, formed in 1862, extending from 
Knight's Landing to Cache slough, including something 
over 16O,U00 acres of land. It was the floods of the winter 
of 1861-2 that awakened the people to the necessity of pro- 
tection against higli water. Between the years of IH.^il and 
1862, the Sacramento river had not overflowed its banks, 
and in 1863 a commencement was made on the river levees 
in Yolo county, under a system authorized by law. Con- 
tracts were let to tUe farmers over whoso land they imssfld 
to build the same and the construction went on towards 
completion as they could be conveniently worked, nntil 
the winter of 1867-8, when tho American river came down 
from the Sierra in a torrent, rushing across the Sacra- 
mento river, tore away tho levee above and close to ■Wash- 
ington, and passed into the country beyond. The levees 
being now and light were damaged all along the district 
and afl'orded but little protection. 

In the meantime, during the f.ill of 1864, the canal 
through the center of the tule marshes had been excava- 
ted, j'imes Moore performing eleven and a half miles of 
the work, for which he received about §18,000. 

Tlie system of reclamation and levees, as conducted un- 
der the State Board, cost in Yolo county $213,797.34, and 
was finally abandoned as an irapractiuable system. Ihe 
board was abolished in 1866. by an Act of the Legisla- 
ture passed April 2d. that turned the whole matter over 
to the counties having such lands within their bniits. 
The Board of Supervisors assumed control of district ISo. 
18, on the 9th of May, 1S66. 

Geasd Island District, No. 108. 
In 1869 Chas. P. Reed, of Knights Landing, inaugura- 
ted a svst;m of reclamation to be applied to the immense 
r • L Iviu" alon- the west bank of the Sacramento 
tule country lyiualon^ and extending up into 

river, north of Jvmgnts i^aiiuiub. »^. acres of 

Colusa county, embracing an area of 74,0bD „„ "'^'^^^ *" 
Colusa co^^^' i,A by h.m to some San 

H. Rose, Wm. B ■>"« o""'- ,,„i 

the Stale !»-, ^oA ""ouUo.OOO acres o , ^^ 

a„d transferred >\ '» ^^^^S^ioS '^Wcb »as done on 
organize Eeclamation »'»'"'' ;;°" g„„ gbas. T. Keed, 

S"-; ^- ^-tC U e^b»eed .nihe district, 4«,S05 ,^ 
acres in Yolo, and 33,.SU r„, ^^^ j^^ j^^ ^3 

making 74,C6o ,V. 'l^'-^J^rLi'^S >» tire town of 
building of a Yflfreio^tCe contractor^ at 20 cents per 
Colnsa, .J. M. Lemon bein ^^.^^ ^^ ^,^, 

„nbic yard. Tl,e P'» ;if,°J° t, j„„ and a half feet, 


more Sloagh, ftdistMKv of 3S} mUm, mmI th« iwooqiI t<- u 
after, it wu dl rmiaed two fc«t higbcr. «ht<h ptn it « Iuk- 
of thirty-foar foot. Cbu-les F. R«^l hi« had chiti^ of 
tho MiDstmctioD unoo tho comuflni*«ni«nt, and utulor hi* 
ni«)Kg«me&t 3S| miW of U>td« h.t« bocn built, utd About 
♦toO.OCO s}K>nt in thin rrclamation. 

At tho npp«r end of llio district tboiw i* a chnnncl tun- 
ning fmm the Sacraut'nto Kivor out to Iho tnlo InndH, 
thnmgh which Uio itati-r, nhvu lii^h. wv>uld How lv.-kck into 
tbo low conutiy. At tho south cud uf tho di^lrtct Ihi'tv 
WM tinolhor channel tbrouiih nliich it could )vm>, oilhor 
out of or into tho narno low land, and lh<wo chaiincU con- 
necting tho lower jMirt of thi> Kwanip Uud with llio river 
are known undt>r Iho ouo namo of the Sycamon* Slough, 
being dinlingnisluHl by I'ppor «nd Lowfr. Tho sj-xtoui 
of leveeing of conr»o must cimlrol the paiuuigo of wutor 
inb) thoiio wfttor-couraoa from tho river, or tlio lovooa 
would be of no nccmnt. To acoomplinh lhi», two ini- 
menjie hulkhea^^ls have been construotcd — i>uo at tho 
mouth of each of (huso chanrnds. The one at the land- 
ing cost *lo,00(). and tho one at the north inlot $l'i,lWO. 
The flume, where Sycamore Slough einptioH into the river 
at the landing is sixtvon fcwt wido. sixteen foot high, 
and has a length of 120 foot. Thuro are four poudorouj* 
gates, tliat servo to lot tho water that may have accumu- 
lated ill tho slongh during the rainy nea'ionii, flow out into 
the river when it in low. Thoro liaa, according to tho 
county records, boon expended iu thiit portion of 
the district included in thi« county *H>6.8:U, In tho 
year 1879, Dr. Hugh J. Glenn completed tho lovoo 
across his ranch, which niakos a continuous one fur 80 
niih'-i noithorly from Kniglifa Ijiuiding to seven miUm 
above rrinclon, in Colnsa County. This niafco* comploto 
tho reclamation o( district N.>. 108, that has horoto- 
foro been siibmorgcd by tlm water flowing over tileim'n 
ranch, wliuro there was no obstrnclion to itn piw- 
snge into the talcs during a th)od. About 20,000 
acres are tilled that havu been reclaimed, bortidi-H 
many thousands tliat are being grazed. Tho grain 
raised upon it is mostly wheat, and thirty-five buKlioU 
to the acre is courtidorod an avorago yield, tliougli 
sixty are occasienally prodnced. At the time of ..rganiwi- 
tion, 42,270 {<]„ acres of the land in district No. 103 
belonged to Charles F. Reed, A. H. Rose, L. A. Garnott 
and the Sacramento Valley Reclamation Company. 

Mebihtt's Islakd, DisinicT No. 150. 

On the 10th of November, 1870, tho Board of Suporvi- 
aoi-3 formed Swamp Land District, No. ir,0, but the pro- 
ceedin"3 were not in accordance with the law and conse- 
quently were void. November Sth, 1873, the second 
order was pa.ssed by them re-creating thu district and 
their action was declared void by the Siiprfme Court of 
California, April 18tb, 1876. Pending the litigation tho 
Legislature passed a special Act, March :iOtli, 1874, crcat- 
iu"°didirict No. 150 and the same is now in operation. 

There had been a largo amount of leveeing done uudcr 
the action of the Board of Supervisors and tho partina 
who had built under that illegal organization were entitled 
to be credited for the work they had done or ho much as 
was of use uuder the new state of things. How much 
those old levees cost we have no means at hand of ascer- 
taining, but since the special Act was passed tho district 
has expended $39,321.84, and tho amount of land reclaimed 

is 4 986 foV ^"^^- ^''^'■® "'■*' '^'S''*«'^» •"''"* **' ^''^''^ 
that'encloses Merritt's Island, which comprises this dis- 
trict There have been two jissosHments, one of «lU.6o 
per acre, another in 1878 of fifty-five cents per acre. The 
levee is of varions heights, ranging from four to twelve 
feet, aver^iging possibly seven with a width of two feet on 
top and a slope on both sides of two to one It is bml 
mosllv of clay and another assessment of two dollars would 
improVe it sufficiently to ensure the district against dan- 
ger from high water, except from seepage, 

LisBOS DiSTiiiCT, No. 307. 
The first order by the Board of Supervisors organizing 
this district is dated October 20ih, 1876; but there were im- 
proper descriptions given of tbo land included and a re- 
ll^ni^Miou took place September U, 1«77. It is located 
between Bable Slongh and Merritt's Island or Dis rict 
No 150 and contains 6,000 acres of swamp land. There 
are fourieen miles of levee in all, divided as follows: 
AloDK the Sacramento River, it is six feet high, three feet 
wide on top and has a base of thirty feet, the slope out- 
side being three to one, and io-i-le, two to one. From 
the river out along Bable Slongh it is eight feet high 
four feet wide on top. with a base «f forty-four feet, and 

a ilop« of Utrve to ooe onfaride a&d tiro to oq« od tbo io- 
Rtde. Tha vr<>9s U-tp« thst coooecta the coolh eoJ of the 
OD« sloDg the rirer villi the w<:«t eoil of that on B«ble 
Sloof^h is n moniiler andertakiog. It biu & bas« of one 
humircd aoJ titirtj faet, a slope of fire to one, a wiillh oa 
U^if of Iwclre feet, and aTera{;e« flcreDl««D feet faigl). The 
tlire« lefoea are baUt of cluy, sad to cumtlrttct Ibfin an 
?i"--iincnt has b<:-«a Ittvied of $20 |>er acru for the land 
'"•'id. Tbe work u Qot oDtirrlycomptotctl at tbU time, 
Ifui m projjre*tmy wull ander the maoagomeot of Wm. 
Owtou, the coDtnM:tor. 


Htitory of the Churches In Yolo County. 

A OlMtta It tla B^jiaslsi: la Aitoali&Ml UtaltUr Tte DtnUna cl ■ Pntcbu 
fatttatUi Bf tte Onck of th? DM^Iy BurelTcr— SerrioM la • VlubnU Llqnoi 
BW«~L«tUi Fw» tU Ploater J(UiltlM»t TobCoiolf -Tlii " Oseboit" Pr«ehef— 
Ad tWrlj CimikDuetlDC Tb* Hitluidlit Cbnrcbn-Cbnrtbrt of Ohilit - Bipltit 
Cbuc^ - PieabrUtUa Cbircbft—CotigTrgUiODil Charcbu-SsteathJif A^tchIUe 
Cbaitbft nnllxl Brctbjia la Cbrlit-Bom&n Oitballci-Sueastli ef ObiiiUu De> 
BHnlDStlnai Id ib* Coastj, ii i^owu hj « Titt* it Boinaiirlei. 

Amoiifi t!io masses who, from Iho humfin storehouses of 
the woi'Id, found lliemsGlves strnngerg on tlio Piicitic Coast, 
in thosi- ' 'days of '4'.'" sliiving to wrest from natnre'rt secret 
plucca hor hiddeii weftltb; citmo also the folluweis of Him 
that wan ft Nnzarene, who wore not seeking before nil else 
llio trcasiircH found nt Colomn, or the reward thnt came 
from the npproval of miin. Tht'y were a small band, a 
forlorn hope, the advance guard of God's great array. 
They came to raiso tlieir Muster's standard among a people 
that had apparently furgotlon, as thoy fell down before 
Aaron's image, that there was aiight else, in nil the nni- 
verso, save Iho Golileii Calf, to worship. They wore but 
a haudfnl amoug a iiost, a few devoted men, those pioneer 
prencbcra that came — some sent by denominations, more 
ujioa their own responsibility — to try and stem the tide of 
evil acts and iuHuouces, that had hound in shackles of 
iron, the desires, the will and the impulse of men- 
It will be difficult in the years that lie beyond us, for 
the reader to comprehend (he strange mixture that entered 
into the worship of God, among the pioneers of Califor- 
nia; and to realize the scenes that wore enacted among 
their own nucestry, and by them. 

A minister was ouce preaching, in one of the mountain 
mining camps of this State, calling upou his hearers to 
" tlee from the wralb to come;" enlarging upon the re- 
wards and induceraeuls for the believers; and the benefits 
that would fall to the lot of him who was found recorded 
in tlie book of life; as such would he permitted to walk 
through the gates of ]tearl into the streela of the new Jeru- 
salem, that were paved with •jokl. 

Imagine the consternation of that divine, when iu re- 
sponse to his eloquent exortation, an unwashed son of 
Belial, arose from among the auditoi-s and said; "Put 
" me down as a prospector for that gulch, parson; it beats 
" h — 1 out of these ere diggings for a home stake." It is 
difficult to realize even now that but thirty years have 
passed since a minister of tlie gospel, Kev. James Woods, 
while living in Stockton, Cab, was obliged to stop with his 
family in a gsunbling house, separated from the gambling 
tables only by a thin partition, occasionally' having his de- 
votions piinctnated by the crack of the deadly revolver ns 
some gjimbler entered npon the warpath. As we go info a 
modern edifice, where the people meet and listen to divine 
services, can we of IS79 fully appreciate the position, or 
act of a blacksmith who vacated the front half of his shop 
that it might be occupied for Sunday preaching, while he 
plied Ms vocation in the other half that was divided from 
the congregation only by a cloth screen. A. strange med- 
ley, that, for the recording angel; the exhortation of the 
minister for his bearers to remember the Sabbath day to 
keep it holy, mingled with the sharp ringing notes from 
the anvil as the smith forged the shoes for a horse he was 
shoeing at the time. Will it be entered to his credit in 
the final reckoning that he received $3'2 for shoeing tbat 
horse. There are" now in California gilded temples where 
eloqnent divines preach to fashionable suits of clothin" 
that cost of shekels; places where, if bv acci- 
dent Christ should enter He would be sbown a seat near 

the door, if Ho oscai»od boinp summarily thrust out. 
The temporary ocupants of these elegant suits of gar- 
roeuts woojd 6nd it vt'ry hiir.1 to conceive ovoo uow that a 
mini»tvr preached a telling and spirited sermon to a I'on- 
KreKati-jo that was s.ated upon whisky K-uTels in a whole- 
aalo liquor store in Stw-ktou in 1819. and that his hearera 
lifit*nied with respect and greater interest to the ilivme 
word pn-achtd that day. than do the golden calves of 1S79. 
who on Sunday couKr^V"** nt the crystal palaces to wor- 
ship their own images and listen to tho pi-ocept* from the 
polpit that thoy are fully jtersuaded arc oxoellent in theory 
and to bo applied to and practised by their fnemh. 

There has been no place in the world whore in tho siimo 
length of time tho Christina religion has worked so com- 
plete ft transformation in the moral status of a people as 
has been accomplished through that iigem-y in California 
in the last thirty years, and it is duo to llio men who were 
pioneers in the work that their names should be preserved. 
There wore a few of those ministers that found their way 
into Yolo county as early as 1849 and '50, the first ono 
being llev. J. E. Braly, the writer of the following letter: 

" S.4STA Claha, Oal., Ootobor 20th. 1879. 

"S. C. WoLFsRn.i., Winters, Ca\.-~T)c(ir Sir: I tako 
" great pleasure in complying with yonr request in regard 
" to the (?arly religious history of Yolo county. In tho 
" latter part of July, lH4i(, I arrived with my family on 
" the Sjieramento river, nt the mouth of Feather river. 
" Jonas Spect, who was an actpiaiidaiiee of mine, was 
" about completing a town plat of tho place, which ho 
" named i'rcmont. We had come overland from fJregou, 
" and were, of course, somewliat tired and weary from the 
" journey in the hot weather. JMr. Spoct was anxious 
" that wo should stop there, and wu accordingly did so, 
" remaining nearly a year and a half nt that place. Our 
" first religious services in that locality, were held in the 
" shade of a little canvas house, at 4 r. M. of tho last Sun- 
" day in July or August, 1849, and was conducted by tho 
" writer.* After that we constructed a large camp, partly 
" out of tlie mainsail of a ship, partly of willow boughs 
" and wagon sheets. In this our family lived, and kept a 
" long boarding table, at which wo boarded a number, 
" and supplied tho wants of a great many passers-by. But 
" during tho balance of the Summer and Fall, after dinner, 
*' or about two o'clock of Sabbaths, wo rang our dinner 
" hell, and tho people assembled in our camp, which was 
" large, and accommodated a great nundjer. It was still 
" further adapted for the puipoao iu having one side open. 
" In this way we kept up religions services all tho fall, es- 
" cepting a few Sabbaths when I was absent, and there 
" was no one else to conduct them. 

" About the last of October, 1849, Rev. Isaac Owens, of 
" the 31. E. Church, was brought to camp by an acqunin- 
" tanee of mine, and introduced as a minister of the Gos- 
" pel. This was Sabbath morning, and I was glad to 
" have him preach, which he did. This was tho first 
" sermon he had preached in the Sacramento valley. 

"Soon after this Ecv. John AI. Cameron, a Cumbor- 
" land Presbyterian Minister, with his family stopped at 
"Fremont for a few weeks; and he preached for ns several 
" times." 

" In the mean time Mr. Specfc bnilt a board house for 
" school purposes. A young lady named Matilda MeCord 
" taught tlie first school in the place." 

" We also bad a Sabbalh-school for a short time, but 
" the rains set in e.arly and were very heavy. The whole 
" town and country were overflowed; putting a stop to all 
" our services and closing the schools; and for the most 
" part of the winter my own health was very bad. With 
" the return of Spring there was a general rush for the 
" rnines and during the greater part of the Spring and 
" Summer I too was away from home, but during the 
"latter part of the Snmmer and Fall we bad frequent 
" religions services." 

"During t^e summer of "50," some parties (Mr. H. 
" B. Wood, now of Woodland and bis partner) built a 
"frame house on the lot adjoining mine, which they 
"kindly allowed us to as a place of worship, even 
" before it was finished. It became my dutj- during these 
" years to conduct numerous funerals in the little^town. 
" Among these was the ease of a very interesting and 
"much loved young man named Montague, "who 
" died during my absence from home. His father was 
" a sea captain of cnltnre and refinement as well us relig- 
" ious convictions. On my return, at his request, I 

• According to Qjonrnal kept at the lime by Mr. W. J Friereon of 
Knighfs L-ndiDg , Mr. Only arriTed in Fremont duriug the first week in 
Aogast 1319; therefore the preaching allnded to wnst Lave been on the 
last Sabbath in that month. 

preached a funeral discourso for hia son. This .sorviee 
" was ludd in tho new frame house already referred to. 

" In this same year. ISov. ThnmtLs A. I»h, a Cumhi-rlfuul 
" Presbyterian Minister, in jiassing through Imnoiit 
" pj-eached for us." 

'■Some timo during tho month of Ootobor, Rev. Mr, 
*' Owens spent a Saturday and Sabbath with us and we 
" held communion service together, which I dmdil uut 
" was tho tirst sacramental service over held in \n\u 
" County. If there was, during those years any pienvli- 
" i»g or religious service bc.iides that refcrrt'd to, 1 uevor 
" heard of it. We made no eftort to organizi' a oluircli 
" during these years, as no ono sounioil to sutllo 
" though a groat many religious people wore from linio to 
" timo in tho community.'' 

" I left Fromont on ChristrafW Evo, 1850, and Imvo 
" novttr visited Fremont or Yolo county ainoe. I refor to 
" our Sabbath and day rcIiooIs, etc., to show thai t'vuii 
" amongst the excitement and money gelting fif ISl!) aiiil 
■' Til) the people wi>rc not uiiinindful of llie rt'ligioHsniul 
" intellccfual wants of their children. Tim tender vosjioct 
" shown to the dead in the matter of burial almi f-havta 
" that we had an enlightened and chriHtian coiainiuiitr. 
" 1 may also add that all of ttie above survieua were well 
" atteudoil by respcctrul and oidorly eoiigrcgationa, 
Yours rcKpectriilly, 


Thus are presented to us the almoijt OKlinct footpriiitft 
of tho advance guard. Undo John Morris, an old mnu, 
a pioneer of 1H-J9, rememberH that in (ho fall of 18')(I, 
Itov. Thomas A. Ish uaiuo to his placo on the soutli Hido 
of Cache Creek, about one-half mile above the town, iiuil 
expressed a dosird to liohl religious uurviuos ihoru, 
under an oak tree, on tho following day, (Sundny), aud 
asked tho adviao of Unchs ■loliii as to the most elTectuul 
modo of giving out so short a notice. The result was, 
tbat'they iogoliior went down to tho rufc track, just holow 
Cacheville, on tlio sonlh side of tho creek, where a Imrrio 
race Avas about to lake place, and gave out the nutico. 
On tho following day, at 11 A. M., aljout thirty Bot- 
tlei'S had assembled at thu {)lace do.-signated, to lii^ten 
to the tirst sermon preachod iu Yolo county, woat of [bo 
tules. Uncle John says: '* I remombor distinctly, that it 
" was remarked at the time, that it was the first." Rev, 
T. A. Ish was a Presbyterian, a man that looked on tlio 
bright side of life, had a smile and jolly word for all, 
would give and take a joke, and was calimlatGd to make 
headway among men found upon tho frontier. His head- 
quarters wore with Uncle John, and ho was tho only 
preacher west of tlie fnles up to July, 185lJ, when Hov, H. 

B. Sheldon, of tho M. E. Church came. Mr. Ish is now 
living at Brownsville, Browne county, Texas; Ijishrother, 

C. W. Ish, 18 ft resident of this county, living noar Win- 

In 1850, Rev. Isaac Owen preached in 'ff'aahiugton, in 
this county, and was followed by Rev. M. C. Briggs, now 
pa.stor of the Howard-street church, in San Francisco, 
Rev. 0. G. Wheeler, now the General Baggage Agent for 
the C. P. II. R, Co., was one of the Baptist preacher.s of 
1849. Rev. H. B. Sheldon was sueceoded in March, 1853, 
by a young man named — Benhjtm, whose sad fate is oue 
of the many incidents that help mark, with a shadowy 
gloom, a page here and tiioro in tho early history of tho 
ehurch in California. Tho following account of his death 
we give as it comes from ono who witnessed the tragedy: 

" Cacheville, Juno 7, 1879. 
" CoL. GlLumT—Dear Sir: I charge you with the loss 
" of ono night's sleep, for I woke up in the night thiuk- 
" ing of our conversation yesterday, when other jioiuts 
" crowded in upon me, that I bad failed to mention 
" to you. In the Winter of 1852-3 a young man by the 
"name of Benham was sent to California by the M. E. 
" Church from Brooklyn, N.Y., and came to this county 
" sometime in the Spring of 1853. One evening about 
" the last of March, he crossed'tbe creek at this place to 
" stay with John T. Lewis (who lived in tho house for- 
" merly occupied by Parish & Tyler.) It had been rain- 
" ing, but the creek could be forded on the evening he 
" crossed to our side; but during tho night it had risen 
" and was swimming. I saw Benhaiu pass our house 
" toward the ford, but not thinking that he would attempt 
" to cross, did not tell bim to the contrary! I supposed 
" be was going to the creek to water his But in a 
" few minutes after he passed, I heard shouting and went 
" to the door; and saw the men from the blacksmith shop 
'' standing on the bank of the creek. With others, I rau 
" to see what the matter was; andVe saw the horse that 

Plate H? 28 

Plate M?29 




^^r^-^^^^^rSwEU----^^^^^^ ^°-^- 

7-« rt- T aALLl 


I ' 



!■ ,],jm rode swimming in the creek. When be en- 
■ the stream and ffjQud it go deep it sctmed that be 
.. »twt alarnjed. and held bis liridle reia so tight tluil it 
" wan r'>ry difficult for the horne to av'tia; hot the auimal 
H 1)^1 fi-suriii'-d shore on tlio op|M*sito side, and was at- 
" temi'tiny *« K'^' °P ^^'^ hauk; nnd the mt-ii at the black- 
•' emith "hop, w»tfhiug hira, juw what the trouble was 
" »rid «lh^d to him to I<>t the bridle go. That necmed to 
•* slarfD him the more, <aiisinK him to pall the tighter on 
I'tlicrci'i; this forced the iiiiiinal batk into the stream, 
" irhnn Bouhani slipped from the saddle nod was nei-er 
" fl^in »eoa alive. Ht- hud on at thLi time a heavy rubber 
" cost. Ho was found about the first of May by J. W. 
" Chil'-a, J. M. Harbio, F. C. ami L. B. Bng«le«, and 
" nlliern, about throe miles below, buried in the snud, near 
" wlmti«l(tio'^nu«t'><' Harbin Crossing. Thesturap of an 
■ iirin I'rotruding out of tlie sand, with the hand gone, 
"led to the discovery of tho botlj. ****** 


There was a time-honorod camp meeting of the Metho- 
iUhW, in 1853; held on tho ranch owned by the Hoppins. 
At the inoetiug was a minister named Jiewton, a member 
(it tie M. E. Church, Houth, who related a legend of a 
certain Monarch in ancient time who was dethroned, 
ami pl'iiicil by his rebellious subjects in a high tower 
wlwTQ it aoemcd impossibln for his frieuds to reach him 
«'itli iwsislimco. In this aiid dileraniii they bethought 
llioiiiselvea of a "strange device" to work his deliverance. 
There was in tlie country an insect called a "Geebug," a 
npucios of Beotio that natnro had given long projofting 
lii>riin, so constructed that the little bug coulil not 
liy any menus reaijh their points. They were always thrust 
mit hefiu-c liini just out of tlio roach of his legs. Another 
IiuL'iiliurity of tho little animal was that it loved butter and 
would go to any extreme to obtain it. Knowing these 
puouliarities tho frieuds of the Prince caught one and 
tied to it the end of a silk fiber as it comes unwound from 
tin.' coctjtjn. They then placed it on tlio side of the tower 
will] iln head towards tlio top, put some butter on tho tips 
o[ its horns, and away up, and up, and np, went tho de- 
luded little insert after tho over enticing butter, until it 
liiul ilrti;^god to the towers top the silken fibre. The at- 
tinitiou of the ciiptive Prince was attracted by the advent 
of the straiif^oly behaved little bug into his presence, and 
I'liU'liiitg it ho discovered the fibre of silk. He took hold 
of it luid began drawing it in until he had in his hand a 
thread tbut had been attached to the other end of the silk, 
Ihe tlu'ead in time bringing a string, the string cord, the 
ford a lope, and the King found himself in the possession 
of menus by which to descend to his deliverers and escape 
tioin hia eucniies. My friends, said the preacher, you 
lire that monarch, the tower is sin in which you are cap- 
tives, and your friend the Heavenly Father is sending his 
religion, tho silken fibre to you, that you may escape 
froQi tlio tower of sin; and ho uses the "Geebug" to con- 
vey it to yoii. l\Iy brothers, you may call me the Geebug 
—anil they did that very thing. They called him 
the Goohiig preacher ever after that and the oldest cilizen.s 
ff the county knew him only by that name. This same 
preacher had some very strange ways. Ho wore a very 
loug beard, and the reason for it was that his father had 
ilioil insolvent and he, the sou. had taken a yow to never 
shave until he had paid the last of Lis parents debts. 
His heard had grown long under the vow, but in 1855 
those obligations were nearly all cancelled. People called 
him a strange, eccentric man; were he living now he would 
hecalled a hiniitic; twenty years hence, if mankind con- 
tinues progressive he would bo sent to Stockton for such 
conclusive evideuce of "a mind diseased." 


Methodism dates from 1739, when the brothers John 
and Charles M'esley, associated with Charles Whitfield, 
J^ecame the founders of the Methodist denomination in 
^uj^laud. The name was given them because of their 
s[ni;t motliod of observing the ritual of the Episcopal 
'-hnrch, and when they were finally excluded from that 
jleuomination the name followed them, although there was 
ess of form or method in their new organization than in 
«<jy other at the time. Methodism is the offshoot of the 
J-Hurch of England, the primitive order being the Wes- 
tyan Methodist. Then eame the Galvinislic secession 
roni It, followed by other withdrawals, until twenty-eight 
^^'iterent Methodist denominations had their separate name 
'", ^s*«"*^e. A few of them consolidated, and the gen- 
J" 'fO'lency of their variously named orders is toward 
^^-^sehdation at the present time. 

Aq Irwhman named Philip Embarr came to Now York 
in 1*6G and comment*.! holdiim' scr^ces that resalted id 
tho organuation of Uic fint Methodist «>Dgrep*tion in 
Am.-riea. They built a chnnrh in that citr in 116». the 
hntt buildmg erect©.! m the Wt^lcro Hemi«pli*re by Iho 
Methodist deuomiaatioD as a pkco of wondiip. and wait 
called the " Johns Stre.l Chai*!." The Ara.ricaa onior 
r<^^ *''e "Metho-iiHt Episcopal Chimh.'and id 

1«4 tliat part of it l.>c.ited in tho shivo States withdrfw. 
organizing the following year at Louisville, Ky.. and call- 
ing themselves the " M. E. Church Sooth." Tho now 
organizatio_o drew from the oM i,;2,m of its raembere, 
and m 187-t the number had increa.sed to 712,705. It is 
estimated that there were, in tho world in i^lG, 4,000,000 
Methodiat comrnmilcants, of whom 2,591, 87'j wito in 
North America, mostly in the United States. 

The Metaodist EnscopAi. CiivitciiEs op Yolo Coitctt. 

In the latter part of October, 1849, Rev. Isaac Owen* 
preached his first sennon in the Sacramento valley at Fre- 
mont, in Yolo County. One year later ho held commu- 
nion senices, in connection with Kev. J. E. IJraly, at the 
same place, the first services of the kind bold in Yolo 

The following, regarding Rev. Sheldon, is from the pen 
of one fully conversant with Iho facts : 

In July, 1852, a young man by the nomo of Henrv ii. 
Sliehlon, from Ohio, was appointed by Rev. Isaac Owens, 
Presiding Elder of tho M. E. Chundi, to tho Caclie Creek 
circuit. He was din-cted to organize said inreuit, as np to 
that time there had been no regular organization main- 
tained, if indeed any had been made by any t-huich in the 
county. The circuit then embraced all that part of tho 
Sacramento valley lying west of the river between Puto 
Creek and Colusa inclusive. This territory he organized 
iuto a two weeks' circuit, and supplied by riding from 20 
to 40 miles, and preaching from three to live times each 
Sabbath, and some week eveuiiigs. His regular appoint- 
ments were as follows, viz: At W. G. Hunt's, nearCache- 
ville; John Morris', near where Woodland now stands; 
Gordon's neighborhood; Lone Tree, a few miles north of 
Gordon's; Knight's Landing, or Reed's SL-houlhouse; Fre- 
mont, Washington and Colusa, with occasional visits to 
•Jerome 0. Davis', on Puto Creek, and to other places where 
he could gather the people for worship. 

Having a loud clear voice, he used it as a church bell 
in singing to call his congregation together. At Washing- 
ton he occupied a room known as Taylor's Hall, now 
standing near the railroad in said town. At Fremont he 
preaciied in Mr. Brown's Hotel. At Hunt's nndtr a large 
oak tree south of the creek; at Colusa (to which place ho 
traveled mostly by steamboat) he preached at first in an old 
gambling house on the bank of the river and afterwards 
in Vincent's Hotel. During tiia fall of lSo2 he hold a 
"basket meeting " on the south bank of the creek, oppo- 
site Gordon's. He prepared the ground by first clearing 
off the brush and then hauling in dry cottonwood logs for 
seats, with saddle-horse and riata, kindly furnished by 
Matt. Harbiu. 

Being a bachelor he "boarded round," making his 
home eUher at Brown's, in Fairmount, Harbin's, at Caohe 
Creek, or at Dr. Taylor's, in Washmgton. 

Mr. Sheldon interested himself in obtaining a postoffice 
for Cacheville, circulating the petition and sent on the pa- 
pers procuring tho appointment of the late Judge Hntton, 
of that place, as Postmaster. , ., ,, 

In February, 1S53, the first annual conference of the M. 
E Chui-chfor California, met in San Francisco, and Mr. 
Sheldon was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Benham, who was 
drowned in the creek in March following, as already men- 
tioned m the letter by Mr. Griffith. 

Mr Sheldon organized three classes m connecUon with 
the M E Church, in 1852. viz. : one at Washington, one 
on upper Cache creek, and one at Fremont. 

Rev J B. Hartsough, a local preacher of the M. E. 
Church bought a place about fonr miles from Hutton s. m 
^r ..1, 'lS53 Mr. Hartsough-5 residence is near German- 
^:nVolnsa county. Rev.^Frankhn G. Grey succeeded 
the minister Benham. who was dro«-ncd. 
Tee Cacheville Cibcuit. 

T l^'^o Rev J. W. Burton, who at that time was a local 

In ISoo, l■ie^. J- „ , jjie circuit. This included 
preacher, traveled the Cahev^l^^^^._^^^^^^^_ 

Prairie Seminary C-h-^K „^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

l.„d, t^^-^rM^CaUforn^f Conference. Hecontinned 
was selected by the CaMorma ^^^^^^ .^ ^ 

Cl^lht:r::d'ortto terms, was followed by 

H. J. Bland and B. F. MerMs. «uh of whom prmohed 
one year. In 1862. J. S. Corwin -a« a^nt (o Yolo ooantr. 
and a lot mn ^urcd in Wo.x!h.nd th»l vtar. on Court 
stnyjt. between Third and FonrUi. whori a -loao hoaso 
wa» ereotetl for n p..r«.nage. Mr. Conrio r».m»i»wl ono 
year and was (ho Pallor who woaad up Iho aiT»ir* ol lh<i 
old ciroQit. A now one wm cr«te,l with tho Prairio Scm- 
wary left ont. Thi- UhUvJ umil IsTl, *hon the eitvnil 
was again changi-Kl. touting Woo«Uaad out and nJding lo 
l(« place Prairie Seminary. In ISTS another ehiiugo oc- 
cumAl, and tho eircuit bccjune C;ichcnlto and Ms.bM>o. 

WooDusD M. E. CncMai. 

Tho M. E. Church, or Cla**, was orgsniwd iu Yolo 
City, now Woodland, in 1S5G. and romainwl n jwrt of Iho 
Cacheville cin-uit until lUCt, K*t, J. W. Hurlon being it« 
first local resident Ptutor. Ho died during tho tt^rm. tho 
unexpired portion of which wa.-* filled by V. Uightmver. 
Next followed W. N. Smith in ISfrl, during whose term 
the Woodland Methodists became of a Ctinreh 
of thoir own at a cost of iVlH, tho fir^il in Ihe county 
owned exclusively by the donoraiimtion. Th.. building 
had been previously used oa a Court hoimo by tli« Oonnly, 
and is now converted into a bakorj- and ooeupiod by t)lto 
Schlnor. Previous to ISrtl their sorvieos had been hold 
in tho Pioneer Church of Yolo county— tho Union build- 
ing erected in 1S')5 on tho gronndu now oocnpied as a 
cunietory. In ISGfi Hnv. Philctus Oruvo wils Htiitioncd at 
Woodland, and during that year thoir pi-esont brick Church 
on Jfain street was oioctod at « o<iwt of 8:1.500. Hiiico 
Mr. Grove's term tho successivo miniHters have been: W. 
C. Curry, 3 years; W. C. Damon, 1 your; R. W. William- 
son, 1 year; W. S. Urniy, 1 year; A. R. ShcrilT, 1 year; 
James Burns, 2 years; W. C. Curry, 3 years; E. M. Stu- 
art, presont. 

The officorn selected at tlio original organization in 1856, 
were L. B. Ruygles. Win. Hatcher and Chaunoy Hnhburd. 
At present they are D. l-'ishor, C. C. Scott, J. J. Cook, 
Theodore Dopking, Daniel Farnham, Mr». J. Qarontto, 
Mrs. C. S. Frost and II. P. Marlin. At ono ttmo tliuro 
were !)5 momhers. but owing to withdrawals of parlies who 
wished to attach tliemHidves to classes or churchcH in 
othor and adjacent villagoH in tho county, tho number haii 
diminished to G5. Thcrro ih a Sunday Scliool connoctod 
with tho Church, having about 1(JU HclmlarK, Prof, Frank 
A. Pedler being tlia Supuriutendcut. 

Cacheville M. E. Cnoncn. 

A Methodist Class was formed in Caehevillo in 185C, 
and that village became ono of tho point» within tho 
" Caeheville Circuit." Tho travelling preacher niailo it 
his home thore, the paraomige being at that |ilaco. It 
was afterwards sold by Kev. J. S. Corwin for two hnndrod 
and tifly dollars, and the proceeds applied in tlio orcotion 
of the Woodland parsonage. Wlien tlioHO two organizations 
became independent of each other in 1S71, at the time of tho 
withdrawiil of the Woodland Church from tiie circuit, tho 
latter paid back to the Cucheville orBiini/jition one-half of 
the amount the old building had been sold for. The first 
pastor after the Church became Bepando from the Wood- 
land circuit was J. B- Hartsough, in 1H71. The succes- 
sive pastors to this date have been R. B. SchoJiold, J. M. 
Hinman, R- W. Willi.inison, Elijah Kendall, B. F. 
Rhoades and H J. Bland. 

At the organization in 1856, the officers elected were 
Wm. Hatcher, Juhu Fisher, A. C. Ruggles and Simon 
Ruggles, Stewards; at present those officiating in that 
capacity are A. Griffith, J. H. Murjihyaud J. P. March. 

In 18G7, a Church building was erected in Cacheville at 
a cost of about §1,800; at present their entire property is 
estimated at S2.000. There are thirty-six members in tho 
organization, and they have a Sunday Scliool with about 
sisty scholars, A. Griffith, who for the last twenty 
years held that position, being the superintendent. 

PL.4LVFIEU) Class. 
A Methodist class was formed at Plainfield, December 
20th 1877, by D. L. Stewart, a local preacher. There 
were fourteen members, and services were held in the 
Plainfield Schoolhouse mitil within a year, when owing 
to the difficulty in procuring a preacher for so small a 
con'T-e^ation the class waa discontinned, and in its place 
a Presbyterian society was organized July 13th, 187!J. 

Madisos M. E. Caciicn 
Was organized in March, 1870, at Madison, with Samnel 
Wootfen and Albert Taylor as Stewards, and E. H. 
Archer, G. W. Scott, John E. Wootten, Albert Taylor 
and John Plnmer for Troatees. The same parties are 



COLMY FROM 1825 TO 1880. 

nrrw hnMici" ' 
if,;; tiMir I't 
of tljtjit in )' 

— 'Tregmtioii, iinmbef- 
. boildingat ftcost 

■' — hool. 

Datisville M. E. Cb' - !!. 

We hare been mbl« to le«rD bat little cooccniing tbe 
caHr bi^torr of the M. E. Choreh South; in Yolo, doe to 
the fart, thftt mcmben of this onler h»TO taken oompaw- 
tirelj DO intcr-Ttt io the matter themwlre*. There were 
|<r««^beni of that dtnoui inalirm here at an early date, but 
.!..[.( of Rrv. Nr-wtnn tlie "Get'lfOR" preacher and Rev. 
Jiitu. * KuUou. in I8j3 or 18*1. and of ihi- latter, nothing 
hut his name, no one whom wt- have met seems to know 
oaijht of them. Sorricos of this order were first held in the 
vioiijitjrof DAvisTillo by Rev. James Shelton. in 1859 at 
the Franklin school boose, six miles south east from that 
place. The same year he organized the Davisville M. E. 
Chunh K.iiith. Since Rev. Shelton, the paslora of that 
chiireh have bceft Rev's Jacob Oruwfll, T. K. Howell, 
John Ward. R. F. .\llen, B. F. Barris. Joel Hedgepeth, 
J. F. Ciimphell, J. K. P. Price "and the present incnm- 
bent T. L. Doke. In IfiTl a church building was erected 
by the congregation at a cost of *3,U00. At present the 
merabenihip reaches thirly-fonr; the siibbath school 
SL-lioliir>s fifty; AV. D. Wriatcn being the Superintendent. 
The first and present officers are W. D. Wristen, L. C. 
Draminund, Joseph Molvin and B. J. Gnthrie. 

WfSTEn's M. E. Ceuncn South. 
The first Horvlee held by n divine of the above order, 
in the vicinity of Winter's was in IS'rl, at ji place said to 
ho uboiil two miles northwest from where tbut town 
now stnndrt. By whom, at whose re.sidence or whether in 
the open iiir, is not stilted. Neither have we been able to 
leavii when the clinreh was organized at Winters, or by 
whom; hut the ministers have been llovs — Latimoore, 
in lSli-">, Tin Taylor iu 13G6 to 18GS, Jacob Grnwell, four 
years, and John Ward, J. S. Ciark, B. P. Russell, John 
Campbell, J. K. P. Price and T. L. Duke, the present 
jinstor, each one year. They erected a church building at 
Winter's, in 1875, at an expense of SSj.WO. They have a 
membership of fifty at the present and a Sabbath school 
of forty-eight scholars, with L. Canterbery as Superin- 

Chuhch of Cbiiist, at Woodlakd. 

The " Church of Christ," org-iuized in Yolo County first 
in tbe Full of 1854. In the Spring of that year, notices 
calling Q meeting were posted in a few conspicuous places 
iu the county, designating as tbe point for congiegating, 
a certain large oak tree in a grove near the Shellhammer 
ranch, where the "wandering preacher " would preside. 
No name was attached to the call, and the result was that 
curiosity arrested the attention, and attracted to the prim- 
itive church an audience that came to learn who the "Wan- 
derer "was. They waited in exjiectation for some time, 
and no one stepped to the front. They began to fear a 
practical joke bail been played on them, when one of the 
spectators, a medium sized, siiuare shouldered, grey eyed 
man, middle aged, active and quick of motion, with black 
hair and plainly dressed, a total stranger to them all, arose 
nnd announced himself as the one referred to in the 
notice. He proceeded to deliver them a discourse that 
made itself felt among his auditors, and left its impress 
there. It wiis the beginning of the Christian Church 
niitvement iu this county, " and the end is not yet." It 
was a stone cast into the sea, creating ripples, which, mov- 
ing out further and further, will eventually reach the most 
distant shore. M tlie close of the sermon the assemblage 
was astonished to see the familiar hairless head of neigh- 
bor Joshoa Lawson gradually emerge from the shadowing 
folds of ft black wig that had disguised the "Wandering 
" Preacher." 

This wivs the first, followed by one other service held in 
the same place, and then the meetings were held in the old 
scbool-house, tlie second built west of the tales in the coun- 
ty. It was located a little north of what is now Woodland. 
As before stated, the church dates from the Pall of 18.^4, 
and Joshua Lawson became the or^nizer and first minis- 
ter. The first oflicers elected were Joshua Lawson, J. C. 
Welch, Elders, and Downing Lamb, Deacon, 

In tbe Fall of 1855 tbe Union Church was erected by 
tbe co-operation of all denominations, to be free to anv 
Christian order. It was built on the gronnds of the pres- 
ent Woodland cemetery, and after its completion services 
of tbe Church of Christ were held there until in the Fall 





same order m other The minist.-n.. sime Father 
Uwson.bavebeenJ.S. Pendegast. J. D. };;>'"*"*■ "^ 
H Smith. I. S. Ho<lgen and B- 0. Diwson. The present 
church officers are J. C. Welch. B. C. U«son. Josse 
Clark, I. X. Hodgen. Paniel Hubbanl. Elders -u'.l ^^ . 
H. Welch, U. Shellhammer. Hctirylern and J. I- IvHon. 
Dca..'ons. There is at present a Sabbath sohooi vvjth 
seventy-five scholars, over whom Clay Edwards presides 
as SoperintendoDt. 

CHoncH OP Cumin-, at Wistersi. 
The first minister of any denomination, to preach in t^.e of Winters, was Rev. S. B. Unutou. who del.vmod 
a sermon in the Mansfield Hall, in that place, .n August. 
1S75. At that time the M. E. Church South, and H'" <;'""'- 
berland Prcsbvlerians. were holding services at the \\ olfs- 
kill schooidioiise, on the south side of Puto crook; and 
soon after this commenced holding their meetings at ^\ in- 
ters In the Fall of 187G, a church organi/aliou was 
perfected under the name of "The First Christian 
Chnrch," with S. B. Dunton, Benjamin Ely and C. H. 
Wollo, for Elders, and H. M. Hord, John Briggs. John 
Dovilbiss and E. G. Brcv. for Deaoons. The samo parties 
are tbe present church officers, and Rev. S. B. Dunton has 
been their minister until the present time. In the F'all 
of 1877, u cburcli-buiUling was erected iu Winters, by the 
order, at a cost of S2,700. It is a fine building for a town 
of the size of Winters, and is a credit, botli to the project- 
ors and village. It is thirty by sixty feet, and of a mixed 
style of architecture known as. both Italian and Doric. It 
is situated on Main stioi't, in the western part of the town. 
There are sixty-five eliurcb members at present, and a 
Sabbath School with from thirty to lifty .^^cholurs, with C. 
H. Wolfe for Superintendent. 

CnuncH OF CmiisT, at Madison. 
In 1853, April lllh, a church organization was perfected 
at Buckeye, of the order known as tlio " Church of Christ," 
with Revs. J. N. Pendegttst and Joshua Lawson for its 
early pastoi-s. In the Fall of 187G it divided; one portion 
reorganizing at if^indrrs, the other at SJadtson. The Madi- 
son branch erected a ehurch in 1877, at a cost of S3,GG0. 
They have a membership of one hundred, and a Sabbath 
School of sixty scholars. The present officers aro Elders 
M. R.York, G. M. Dameron; Deacons Thomas Collett 
and J. W. Gilliam. 


All along down the pages of church history are the 
names of Baptist martyrs to the principle of religious lib- 
erty. Martin Luther claimed freedom of religious ex- 
pression and worship, but was not willing to gi'ant it to 
the Baptists, an order older than Protestantism, and ho as 
well as his followers joined the Catholics iu persccating 

From 1520 to 157-5, there were ten Baptists that yielded 
up their lives as a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom of 
conscience, where there was one who met a similar fate in 
the ranks of the great army of the Bcformation. 

It is a long, glorious list, those names of rictims at the 
AiUo-de-Fe; and it has become a part of our country's 
history that the only denomination in the Colonies that 
petitioned the framers of our Constitution to incorporate 
ihose tenets into the Anaerican Magna Charta, was the 
Baptist. It was due to the influence of tbe order, still un- 
der persecution, that tiie first authoritative recognition of 
freedom of conscience in modern times was engrafted into 
the Rhode Island charter, granted to Roger Williams iu 
16.36, followed fifty years later by Wm. Penn, and finally, 
in 1776, by our country. 

It has been often recorded in History that Roger Wil- 
liams was the founder of tbe first Baptist Church in Amer- 
ica, but it is an enor, for that distinction belongs to Dr. 
John Clark, a preacher, who was also a phj-sician; his 
church is still in existence, and dates to a time prior to 
the formation of a church by Williams. 

In 1770, the Baptists in the United States had 77 
churches and 5,000 members: one hundred years Inter, in 
ministers, and 1,419,493 members— tbe total in North 
America at that time being 1,464.G3S; add to this the 
minor sects of that name, and the total of Baptists in North 

of ISGS, when they tirst occupied their present structure | America reached the great number of 2,075 000. 

The B.vptist CnpRcaES of Yolo County. 

The tjrst Baptist Church wjis organized ahout ton inilus 

below Washington, by Rev. O. 0. Wheeler. It wns n 

short-lived atTair. and we can get nothing definite rcgnrtl- 

iug it. Grafton Baptist Church, tlie fii-st of which wo 

have any authentic infinmation was insliluted «l Hk, 

old Presbyterian ehureh near and north of CachmilU', 

ou the Utth of F.'briiary, 1859. Rev. J. E. Banios wiw 

the presiding Elder. The first ofiieers were G. M. 

Pinney. Clerk; James Hatch, and later J. W, Biildwin, 

Deacons. Tliere wore but four ineinhers tlmt i:oimti. 

tuted the original orgtinization, namely: James Hatoli, 

Ann Hatch, Jano Morris, and the since notorious G. 

M. Pinney. who was granted a withdrawal ciml on llio 

•iitd of Iho f<dlowing April. J- W. Baldwin was tlio first 

person to join the now church, and became ils ulork and 

ft deacon. A numbor of persons soon attached tlniniMelves 

to the congregation, until twenty-four names appciirud 

upon the books, \iut they wore never able to own a hiiiKl- 

ing of their own. and finally disbanded, tlmir lust iiiimilrs 

bearing date Doeeniber, ISGG. In iHGll tlieirnn'inl)i>islii|i 

was tbirteuu. Elder J. D. Gregory suceeodcd VMW 

Barnes. __ ^ 

Buckeye Baptist Ciionon. 

Tliis organization was formed in 18G1, by I'lKlova 0. 
Crittenden and S. M. Harrimnn, at the Lone Tree SuIiodI. 
bouse, near where the Union Sidioolhouse now Blaiula. 
The (list oflicers were. S. M. llarriman, I'astor; B. W. 
Stephens, Clerk; D. Fnmcisco, Troasnier; T.J. Mm- 
wgU and William Sims. Deacons. Services werfi liolil 
alternately at tbe I;nno Tree and Buckeye SelioollHuiHeH for 
several years, but the oougregatiou was tinally mergoil 

into the 

Plainhkld Baptist Cirunmi. 

On the 3d of March, 18GG, Rev. J. ii. Ihmm, assistod by 
Ekler J. D. Gregory, instituted ft ehnrcli nrgaiiizatioii nt 
tbe Plaiufield School-bouse, and the ithicc of meuling hu- 
oame the name of tho oliureh. After a time the place o( 
meeting was changed to tliu Praivio Hchuollioiise, whoro 
the members of tho Bnckeyo CJiurch joined them mid 
ceased to have a separate iirgaiii/aiioii. Tho Pliiiullold 
Baptists Imviug erected ii building at liuckeyo in Augiwi, 

1873, moved to Uiat place and changed tboir iiamo to 

Hopewell Baptist Ciiunon. 

The history of this congregation will bo found iindor 
the two preceding beads of " Buckeye " and " Plainliuld." 

Tho ministers presiding since the orgaiiisiutiun of tLo 
Buckeye Church were: J. D. Gregory, S, M. Hiirrimitn, 
J. T. Prior and H. Smith. 

The present officers are Elder H. Smith, B. W. and B. 
H. Stephens, Deacons; AVm. Sims, Treasurer; Sterling F. 
Stephens. Clerk; and T. J. Maxwell, Sexton. 

Their church cost $1,720, and tliey liave 01 moMibciH, 
never having had more than 08 at any one time. 

Woodlakd BArnsT Ciiuncn. 

This church was organized ou the third Sunday in July, 

1874. Elder Y. Withorspoon was lliefirst pastor, and was 
succeeded by Elder J. T. Prior, who bus been their pft-stor 
for the last four years, until tliis summer, 187!), when lia 
removed to San Francisco to take cbargo of the Evangel, 
as editor and projn-ietor, and tbe congregation is left willi- 
out a minister at ]iresont. 

The first officers were W. S. Flournoy, B. W. Sleitbens, 
F. M. Hall and P. W. Fisher, Trustees. Those gentle- 
men are still acting in that capacity with the single excep- 
tion of F. M. Hall, who, having witlulrawu, has been 
succeeded by G. T. Bidwell. P. W. Fiwher was chosen 
Clerk, and fills that position now. James White and P. 
W. Fisher were elected Deacons. Mr. White, having 
withdrawn, leaves the church with one Deacon. 

They Jiave no church edifice, but own three lots. At 
one time they had about 50 members, but now they have 
35. There is a Suiiday-school with abont 30 childrou, 
and F. S. Knauer is tho Superintendent, 


In attempting to establish the beginning o( tlio Presby- 
terian Church, they claim a date indefinite, that preceded 
the reformatiou in the sixteenth century, but their history 
became unquestionable only after that time. 

The modern church dates, in Switzerland, from the timo 
of Calvin, and in Scotland from that of John Knox, and 
became fully established iu the latter country as early o^ 
1560, when the union took place between Church «ii' 
State, and ifc bore the same relation to that country Ihnt 

BRtTTOff^f^ErjUTH. 5.F. 

^^fi^e ^C0.p(/8.S,F. 

W9, lliiit lia.'* thiity-two membcrn. Their )irnt pastor 
yi IlfiV. li. IS. JJ'Hiliiiin and tlie HUCt'csKivc* ones to duto 
ivf \ma ItovH. J. I>. Slroug, K. Vermis, A. Tairb and 

.• 1 IT t'...r.^ 

Uoitixl Frt-xlMtt-rijiim, etc., and th<-r hiwl a totil clinrch 
prmberfliip i" America of 1.100,790 at timt time. The \ 
rrtir prt'"'^'^''' i" '^'''- ^^ "*"'' "^^ co'iUl l)*? awertainod, ' 
tUew w<?''«^ '" *''* ^■'*"0°» conntrics of tijr- world a total of ' 
3) 133 rrcsbj-lt-riiiii Cbarchcs, witlj 18,774 luiniHtcre and 
2rt'7:j5_:)HG mtmbent, of whom 23,991,178 were in Ger- 
miiny,'Ho!land, Austria and Switzerland. 

First Presiiyterus Crit'itcii op DA^imuxE, 
riiis denomination is not Htronj; in tliis county. There 
it «n orf,'«»iz-'»t'"" at Davisville tJiat datt-s from Nor. Htli, 
|B(>9, lliiit l"i-'* thiity-two membcrn. Their )irnt pastor 



Alfrt"! H. Croco. 

'flit' fifst rillicers were Jnmoa H. Clark, "Wm. H. Hamp- 
lon, Miliug ttlth;rs. Thosn tilling that position at tho 
|irr-seiit tiiim nw VAnia. E, Greene, Wm. H. Hjunpton aad 
J.mliiia It. Tufts. 

Tlio firwt TrnsteCK were Wm. H. Marden, James K. 
Olnrk, A. J. liollius, Thos. M. Gregory and J. E. Parra- 
tili'r. Tlie Treiisuror wiw Wm. H. Mardon. 

In Iho fall of 1H70 they erected a chnrch building at a 
cent of about twenly-eiglit hundred dollars. Tliero is a 
Snbhiilh Sirhoul cuuiieolcd tltat has about seventy .scholars, 
with ('Ims. E. Greene for Superintendent. 

Fni3T PftESiiVTF.riuN CnuRoir of Plainpield. 
Tills (irgaiiizatioii was perfected on the 13th of July, 
]8T!I, nt rijiinfiehl, in tbl.s county. Eiglit persons eonsti- 
liilinl liio o(it,'iiiiiI moiiiborshiii. Tlieir place for Jiohling 
Ber»'ice8 is the selioulhonso for the present. The rnlin" 
rildur in G. 8. Chandler; thu pastor Kev. A. H. Croco. 


A gnint vevivftl of religion, under the preaching of 
Pre-itbylerian ministorR in Tennessee and Kentucky oc- 
cuimil in tho year ISHO, tlio camp meeting on record 
lu'iiig held by Iheni in July of that year. So many were 
convi-itcd that thu flimeii cjouid not supply tlie new con- 
Krcgnlidiis with niiuisteis, consequently joung men not 
e.liicutL'd oHpoL-ially fur the ministry were encouraged to 
I)ro|nuo themselves for that field, which they did, and 
prosoiiling themselves to the Pre.sbytery were licensed. 
Tliis continneil for a couple of years, when an opposition 
siiruugnp ill the old church against licensing what they 
Icruiod nnedncated ministers; finally an attempt was made 
to ninml the licenses already given. Another ingredient 
ciitc-riiig iu, to aid the discord was the failure of those new 
preflc^liLTs to believe in the doctrine of predestination. 
TIio n'sult of the attempt of the mother chnn-U to sup- 
press the new doctrine and the new ministers was that a 
seimrnto organization took place on the 4th of February, 
1«10, at the house of Mr. McAdum, iu Dickson County, 
feiiucssce. The word Cumberland being attached for no 
other reason thau to indicate the locality where the organ- 
jaition had i(s birth. In 1873 they had 1223 ministers, 
"212 congregations, and 98,408 members. 

Ill Yolo county, the Cumberland branch of the Presby- 

lonim denomination has been the principal one of that 

owtr. One of it5 mini-slers was the first to hold divine 

services within what is now Tolo county. It was on 

^e lust Sabbath in August, 1S19, at Fremont, by Kev. 

""" E. Bralj-, who, accompanied by his family, pitched 

j'ls tent nt that place in the fii-st week in August of 

t'liit year. He was elected the first Assessor of this 

L'oniity, but .liii not serve, and is now living ou a farm 

'" "'^*. 'o^vnship of Santa Clara, iu tlie county of that 

'■|»'i', ui this St,itc. Rev. John M. Cameron also preached 

«eii stopping there, in 18i9, for several weeks with 

's family. In 1850, Thonms A. Ish delivered a sermon 

\ ^'»^'"out. Revs. Cornelius Yager tnow living at Murtle 

^,y"gli. m the San Joaquin vall.-y) and Wesley Gillimore, 

^^sited Caohoville in 1852, to attend a camp-meeting, and 

"'<i It to be a '■ basket meeting," the one mentioned in 

wnnection witti Rev. H. B. Sheldon, of the M. E. Chnrch. 

^SB gentlemen preached when in this vicinity. 

ucle .John ilorris says that Rev. Yager preached at 

^honse of A. -Jesse in ly.50; that Rev. John M. Cameron, 

at] 1 in'" "'"^ '^' ^* ^^•'-^' l"e«cbed at his house in 1852, 

lie' I *'"^"" ^'"'^sby'erian Synod at the schoolhouse 

fi" w-hat is now Woodland, in the Fall of 1853, and or- 

J"''»^t two young ministers. 

U Y ^''" "* ^^•^^' ^e^'- nerrich preached at the 

«ecl schoolhouse, about three miles northeast of Cache- 

that it «lonld rem^n^h ^ ''«»»'- r*o,^e pref,.n^I 
«ndthep4ot X il"^ Vr '°"^^' *'"' '^''• 

CV.k^'' t. '« ; ^^^^"••«"' -^^hn SmiU. and Jo^.ph 

Farther concerning the churvh than tM it w« and i. 
not, we have been unable to leani. 

In 1875, October 17tl., a Cumberhind Clmrrb wn.s «tart- 
e»t With sixteen membt^rs, at or near WJutem; Itov T M 
Johnston being the 6rst pastor, his suro^sor being lU-v*. 
n.. L. Cnlton, the jiresent minister. 

At tho time of organ i/jjtion, S. C. Wolfskill and N. F. 
Hddebrand wt-re elecU-d eldvrs. Tho present officen. are 
S. C. -WoUskill, N. F. Hildebrund, K. B. IJutler. Honrv 
baling, Wm. B. Ball an.I C. W. Tsh. ItuHng Eldcra; Ken- 
nelh, Mcpherson and l^alviu Covell, D.acons. 

In 1875, they erected a church building in Winters, at a 
cost of about ?.3,000, and they have at present fievoaly- 
seven chnrch memhfrs, with a Sabbath School of seventy- 
five scholars, Rev. H. C. Culton being Snporintondent. 


Congregationalism in America originated in Now Eng- 
land, and flourishes principally in the North Eastern 

According to the best authority at onr command, (hero 
were, in 18G2, in the United States 2,.')55 Congregational 
Churches, and 255,034 members, to whom preached 2,(178 
ministers of that denomination, and in 1S72, ten years 
later, tho number had increased to 3,202 churchcK, with a 
membership of 312,054, the ministers numbering 3,124. 
In 1878, there were 3,49G ministers, 3,G20 churches, and 
375,654 members. 

Cache Creek Conoregational Cnuncu. 

The first congregation of this denomination to organize 
in Yolo county was on the 3il of September, 18(')5, and the 
name they assumed was the " Cache Creek Congn^gationiil 
Church." They erected a building for wor.'^hip about two 
miles south of what is now known as MaiUsou, close to 
where tho railroad passes, dedicating the sunie in Sojitom- 
ber of that year. Their first services had been held in 
the early part of the preceding June, iu Cachevillc, by 
Rev. Tvler Thacher, who became the first pastor <if that 
Church. He was a man advanced in life, and after four 
years of faithful and zealous labor, passed over tho silent 
river. Upon the tombstone that marks his resting place, 
close by the Church he had helped to build, is inscribed 
tho following, that con be truthfully said of not one other 
minister in California: 

" He loved, studied, preached and exemplified the Bible, 
" reading it in nine different languages, both ancient and 
'■ modern; was pre-eminenlly a man of pmyer." 

The organization has almost ceased to exist, yet his 
widow still lives by the place where tliey buried her 
dead, awaiting the summons from the dark angel t.. join 
iu "the sweet bye and bye," the lost companion who is 
awaiting her on the other shoie. 

In tlie start there were nine members, and two af ter«rads 
joined, making eleven, the highest number that belonge- 
to the order. S. B. Holton was their first Deacon and 
Cle^; Enoch Drew. Thomas Wiley and S. ^. HoUon eing 
_ . o .. T \r T?npr -Ir.. anil J. 1- iiaiuwin 

the Tnistees. Kevs. J. \\. ■^''"■. ,' rr,,. ..ojiain" 

sneceedecl Mr. Th^^f - who die in l- The^bn.Mm^ 

member of the Church, being its custodian. 

The Fikst Conoreg.atio.val CecrncE of Woodland. 

each for » she,. '-'■P;''^;:/j„„e;i370,ftere being 
church; tbaloccimeclo. lhc--a _^_^,___ ^^^_ 

thiiloen persons-sis .nalcs .md sc^ea 

stitateJ .he origin,,! >>'-'^;,"^'^;i°- j '^'. SSev being .he 
„„dS. M. Hopkins wer^Dc--. J ^^^^^ ^^^ 

S i'^CenU:. Hl":.a 18M,,hen .he aenon..nn.o„ 


•>*>. iftcIodioK lot. «r !U.t. R.«Km^ «)w i«v- 

«,l. ia 1S74. by J. A. lUnfit-hl. who rrmaint^l ibrw 

TW», 10.1 w^ stKwihlol in turn by J. lyiuiuui. ml.o n>- 

. tnainttl until ihf do*- of Is77, wb^-ii T!..-.'|<hibi« llciialoy. 

{ Ihp pr(H«<iit Piwtor. I I 1 l>7ynn' 

I S. P. IVoJ. E- I, I. u«;r.I. 

Bcaeb. S. P. PtHid, T. J. DvvUr. I). A. Jrtcl.->u ana N. 
M.Mcrritt, Tnut<v>ti Jiimwi Y. Dillon. t'Wk. Tti« mrni- 
beraliip at pT\-*.nl is thitly-«iglil. au.1 tlipy havi' ha.) no 
t;r«at(>r numlM»r »t »ny one limi>. The Suminy Sobiwd <\m- 
necto.1 with tho den<>niiu.itinn ia rr)N>rlixl (o linro 1*) 
schoUre, with E. C. Uilborl for suporintcndciit. 


Wm. MilW. wkoae It-achings roiuroi>i)e«<l in 1833, luid 
vliu livctl bi'fore the ■■MtibliiUim.'nl ..f iho " S«'^o»th-Dny 
Advi-nlist fhun-h." ttii^ b,»ri, hi PitUlicUI. Ma^s, in 17«1. 
He wiw A captain of vnlontecns dnriiiK llu' war «if ISl'J. 
and BH II biblical twholnr rank.-d high. In his •tudyings 
of the pn>phc«i(>s he came to ludiove (hal Ihi-y tvvoiihtl 
the day ou which Christ would luitki' Iiin w-cund ap|H>ar- 
anco on the cartli. At one lime \n' lind a« many bh fiH.WlO 
folhtwen*, but when Ihc uvi-nt foiMlnhldidnot oocnr outho 
day di'.-*igiiatfii. in 1811. there wfw an cud of MilleriHm; 
but immediately utter it. Kpnuig into life the oiilor known 
as Ihii Seventh -Day Advontisl Chui-ch. it« esiateiici' being 
due to the belief uf il-t nn-mbers that Miller cnrri*c(lv in- 
ltTprcto<l the Biblrt as to tinii-, but miMt.iok (lie event. 
Tliey think there is Komcthing forettdd that ivas to Ivans- 
pire. and that it did occur un tho diiy lliut Miller had 
named. That the something wan not what 'm popularly 
known n« tho end of the world, "tho Mocond cnming of 
Christ," but that it was the day mi which tho hmt epoch 
wn>t to bi^in; tho Hlmrt Hjiace blocked out of the hitt end 
nf time, in whicli Christ ii to muki' prrparatimi fur Ihh 
second coming, the length of wliicli i>t not revealed in the 
Bible; yet tbey believe [lint thiTc will be bnt lit(h< time 
occupied iu this preparation, and that the end Ih in 
tho near future. Wiu-n it doe« conie they expect the 
appearance of Chrint, and that then the living wicked will 
meet death, and all the fullowors of nln will remain dead 
for <mo thousand years, when they will ho reHiirreclcd 
from their rest and be destroyed. During that thonsand 
years wliile ihe wicked sleep, the righteous are to dwell 
with Christ while the world is being piiriHed, afliT wliidi 
the just are to occupy it. The soventli-day portion of 
their creed comes from the biblical record that Cod rested 
after He had liuished, instead of before He had lontmenccd 
the world's creation, eon^equonlly that man sljonld follow 
the example and rest at the end innlead of the beginning 
of the seven days whicli conntitnfe a week. Thin seventh- 
day clause of their etced was first tiinght by Mr«. Itacliel 
D. Preston, of New York, who moving to Wuhhingt'in, N. 
H., joined the Advent CImicli at that place. She con- 
vinced tlie congregatimi that they were keeping the wrong 
day; con.«que»tly they changed from Sunday (<i Saturday, 
and became the first Advent Chinch t" introduce the 
change that has given the order its name. This wa>* in 

In Alexandria, Egypt, they have a siiccesHful school 
whore the languages of tho oldest nations are taught, and 
men from that city carry these views to Russia, (treeco, 
Tnrkev, and those of the .Arabic tiiiigne. They also havo 
successful missions in Italy, Englaufl, Switzerland and 
Pnissia, and from these ]ioiiits publications are sent to 
every nation in the old world, including the islands of the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

There are published at Battle Creek, Michigan, the 
headqnarters of the denomination, two weeklies, six 
monthlies and two (laartorlies, with an aggregate circula- 
tion of 71,0U0 copies. There arc also several papers is- 
sued in Europe; a publishing house iu Baide, Switzerland, 
and the other at Christiana, Nor^vay, 

At Battle Creek, Michigan, is located their denomina- 
tional collce and a sanilJirium of great repute. The col- 
leee is capable of accommodating about live hnndred stu- 
dents and in the Fall and Wint*?r term.s is usually crowded. 
The sanitirium is 15l)x!>IJ feet, five stories high, having 
patients from all parts of the country. Connected with 
tlie college is a medical department, or hygienic school, 
conducted by J. H. Kellogg, M. D., physicmn-in-chief 
of the sanitarium. They have no settled pastors, but their 
ministers go with tents in the Summer, and use lialls and 
j mee ling-houses iu the Winter, iu which to present their 
' Tiews. When companies embrace their views, tfiey organ- 
' ize them, ordain local elders, and enter new fields. This 
I present season, 1879, tliey have upwards of one hundred 



UqU in tbe fieW. wobwriag lbo« in EngUwl. Sorway 
»nd Deourfc. Tfc—e tkj in *i» from »xty I««t «* 
diamotor to t^xl35 feet. 

lo 1*^7, U.oy h*! 190 niini»t*rt. 430 obarch«, and 
11.000 meroWn.. Tlii* baa N^- ' '^y .n«««d 

in 1K73. TIk- H^%rnth-D*T A-i- '»-»» f^ *'*J!»- 

t«g^ ,M,,K-r at OAUmI, calle.1 tl» >;i/^u ,./'*« T.«.r-. with 
a wwKly circuUli'Xi of nt-ariy l«Q thoiw-ina copios. 

WoODUifD 8. D. AtTKTr Chpbch. 
In C*lif..rniii. th« .l.t-trino* of Iho or.lcr wore firal 
preacliea in H*a Francisco, in alwot the year !*»«. by 
EMcre J. N. Ix>agl.».oroaBl. m..1 D. T.«in. Tlie.r 
firat preacliinK in Yolo cuunly was at W.^^xHanil, m Uie 
Autninn of 1872, bv EM« M. E. CoroeU. in n tont ond 
Iho \V..oaian.l orRanizAtion tlutca iU o-mmcnremfnt from 
that limo. lo l.S7:t. tli«y er«cU-.l a cl.nrcli-buiI.lmB id 
AVoO-llfin.1. on tliinl Htroot, between Main MU'Ct nm\ Lin- 
coln ..venae, at a cost of not far fnm. 93,.H«). Tlie.r brst 
officen* wore W. W. Smith an.i W«i. Sm.n.lors. EI.l«r5. 
The TrusUjos now aro Nathan l^Jraysoa. D. H- GmXe.W m. 
l.-.,«l..T.Wm. 8..uniI«rH luid O. C. Mnrtiri; H.o latt«r being 
the President, and V. H. Gnile the Secretary. 

Congregations of this order liiivo no rt^gular preaclior, 
iw there nro more congrcKationa than preachers; conse- 
quoutly mii.i.stors are foreed to occupy different pnlpits. 
distribHting their wurk where it is most needed, und often 
using a largo lent to preaeh in. The niinisters thtit liavo, 
from time to time, preacliod in Woodland, hnvo bceu as 
i follows: First, Elder M. E. Uorn.;II, f.-llow.d in succession 
by J. N. Lougliboionyh. M. tr. Kellogg. J- H. Wiiggoner, 
D M Cauriglit. James White, Mrs. E. (i. White. O. I. 
Batlor, I. 1>. Van Horn, Uriah Sioitli, W. M. Ilealey, B. 
A. Stepbons, W. C. Oraingor and S. N. Haskell. 

Thoro aro at preai.ut nixty-throe members; tho number 
belonging is somo loss thau the greatest number at one 
time in tho past, tho decrease being due to the removal 
of ita wombei-^ ont of thia connty, many having joined thai 
are no longer residents of this county. They have a bab- 
bath School of sixty-eiglit scholars, with J. G. Overslimer 
for Super in tendon t. 


Tliis demoninatlon, fiv.-it organized at Bidtiraore, Md., 
iu tho yoav IHOO, waa the result of tbo preachings of a 
minister of tlie German Refomi Church, Rev. William 
Otterbeiu. who commenced in 1774 to proclaim the doc- 
trine that closed the doors of his own denomination 
a"aiiist him. The doctrine that affirmed the necessity 
of a change of heart, and the right of all Christians, 
without regard to their creed, to assemble at the same 
comnmnion table. The followers of Otterbein were from 
all denominations, and no better name than the " United 
Brethren" conld well have been selected. It was at 
Mount Pleasant, Peun., fifteen years after tlie first or- 
ganization, that a church "discipline" was adopted, and 
the church lias steadily increased in numbers and grown 
in influence until the present time, 1879. It wages an 
especial war against intemperance and secret societies, as 
it did a-ainst slavery, nntil it ceased to exist in the United 
States.^ Tlie following will show the growth uf the 
church : 

. in 1861, 3,901; iu 1870, 3,924; in 1879. 4,356; 

MosnrENTAt Class 

Classes - 







" 154,796; 



" 159.925 



Sabbath Schools 

Institutions for Learning . . , . . . 

Sabbath Schuul Children 

Total moneys received 

The first minister of the denomination to anive in Cali- 
fornia was Rev. David Thompson, who came in 1849. 
Seveml others followed in the early years , but no organi- 
Ution was perfected hereuntU December lOtli, 1858, when 
Bev.Isniel Sloane formed a of eight on Pnto creek, in 
Tolo county. Tlieir first quarterly conference was held 
on the 9th of the following Jaiy, at the same place, there 
beiu" sevend ministers iu attondance. In 1S79, there 
were°fifteen assigned to duty iu the State. 

The fii-st picicbing in Yolo County by a minister of the 

V B. Church was at a grove at Monument, in 1858, by Kev. 

Israel Sloane. At that time Uiere were bnt sis church 

members of that denomination in the County. The nest 

-n-as held at the sehoolhoose called the Seminary, near the 

I residence of Hon. D. N. Hershey. At the present time 

I there is a membership of ninety in the County distrib- 

I uted as follows: 

ol the time. ^^^^^ ^^ 

In Grafton Township, w,u, '>^g»"'"«;^ '" ^f^" ^.^rnii!^' 
Shuck Pastor. J S. Rollins. L-^ader and N. Di mint. 
sSd Thi: society 1... been scrvod by t e Mlow..^ 
ministem: H. D. EuHley. T. S i"''-'^\ V;/;^ [j j 
L Field. A. E. Davis. J. H. \oung. E. H t n.t.s. .1. 
McBrideT. J. Bander and J. J. Gallaher. tho inm-n 
. cunib-nt. The meeting, aro bold in ?-'-'«;'-' 
House and a Sabbath School under the suporinton- 
dency of J. S. Rollins ia held in tbo samo place. 

Woodland Class 
Was organized in Ifi68, Rov. D. Shuck, Paslor. Phil- 
emon B''eck. Leader and M. Lemau. Steward, This cla 
...rshipin their church edifice situated about Uo and 
a half miles west ni Woodland. Th. <ml> 
church structure belonging to the denomination in the 
,o„„ty-was presented to it by Willard Hun ley in 87o 
It is a frame building of rustic arehitectuie, 22.^2 feet, it 
rests on a brick foundation, is painted white and cost be- 
tween ton and eleven hundred dollar.. It was g.v^n o 
tho United Brethren in Christ on conditions that it shoulU 
be held free to all douominatious e.voepl the Unitarians. 
The same ministers ofticiato hero and for tho Prairio 
class from lime to tinie. 

FAinviEW Class 
In West Grafton Township, was organized in 1870, with 
Rov. G. Starr, Paslor; D. G. Rush, Leader; and 8. 
Blodgett, Steward. The following ministers have sowed 
as its pastors: Revs. J. H. Young, J. L. Field, A. E. 
Davis. E. H. Curtis, .T. McBrido, T. J. Bander, and J. J. 
Gallaher, who is the present pastor. They have a Sabbath 
School, with S. Blodgett as Superintendent. Meetings 
are held in Fairview schoolhouse. 

Capay Class 

In Capay Valley, was organised in 1878, with Rev. T. J. 
Bander, Pastor; J. R. Lowe, Loader; and J. Winter, 
Steward. There is a Sabbath school at this point. Kev. 
J. J. Gallaher is the present pastor, and their meetings 
are held in Central View schoolhouse. Their parsonage 
was built at Dunnigan's Station, at a cost o( about $1,01)0. 

This denominatiou is one witli which the reader is too 
well acquainted to warrant any general remarks or 
abroviated history by us . They are the most numerous of 
any clirislian denomination in the world, ns will be seen 
by the following genei-al religions statistics of the globe 

by M. Huber: 

f Roman Catholics, 200 millions. 
Protestants, 110 millions. 
Greeks, 80 millions. 
Various sects, 10 millions. 

r Buddhists, 500 millions. 

j Brahminists, 150 millions. 

„ ,„ . ,. Mahomedans, 80 millions. 

^n^^T^'P'-n- "'°^- 1 Israelites, 6^ mUlions. 
992.>. millions, jr itr'.^^ , 

down. T« I8"i ft ^'"0'^ structure was put up to take its 
place, at a cost of about $'2,500. Tho building is nnfiu. 
ishiHi" internally, but the congregation have subsoribeil 
money to nMiiedy the defioioney. Tho choir, consvslingof 
W. B. Treailwoll and wife. E. E. Hoevuloiii. Miss McEvov. 
mid others, is considoivd veiy efficient. Every Sinulay nt 
"J A it. tho t'hildveu assemble at the ohmvh for Suiulay 
School.' The prospocts, at piesent, aro very favoi-ablo fur 
the oroctiou of a Oonvcut tit Woodland. 

At Davisvillb 
A neat little ohuroh has beon erected, and tho dononiina- 
tion has a building at Knights Landing also. Noithef o( 
these places of woi-ship is entirely complete in its ho- 
huigin'^, but inonov ia already aubscvilied for tho puriiuHo 
of iiniHhing them. ' All their property is free from dobl. 
Hcrviees aro held in Woodland on the first mid tliinl, nl 
Knights Landing on the third, at DavisviUe and Dixon on 
tho second ai.d fourth Sundays of each month, and iit 
Knowillo on tho tifth. when thai number occurs in a 
inonih. The Priost who vesiilos at Woodland altomlsnll 
these congiegations, and <ui wook days holds soiviouH in 
private rosidonces in localities not ctmvenioiillocliuiuhoH. 


Christians, 400 millions. 

I Known different religions, 240 millions. 
[Unknown different religions, 16 millions. 
Total religionists, 1,3921 millions. 

They are divided, by the same author, into about one 
thousand religions. We have no statistics of the present 
strength of the Roman Catholic Church in California, 

In Tolo County, until 1870, services were held by Priests 
from Sacramento and Folsom. During that year Father 
Lawrence Scanlon, now of Salt Lake, located in Woodland. 
The succeeding priests to date have been : Father Dom- 
inic Spellman, Father Patrick Gallaher, Father Peter 
.T, Kaiser, Father -Tames Largan, Father Patrick Ward, 
Father John F. Nugent, and Father Cornelius O'Connor. 

In 1869, a brick church was erected in Woodland, bnt 
owing to defects in the architectnre its foundation was 
rendered insecure bj" the heavy rains of that winter, and 
the edifice pai'tiaUj fell, and what remained was pulled 

Secret and Other Societies of Yolo County, and a 
Glimpse at the Origin of the Several Orders, 

Odd PeIlow.hlp-822,081,772.12 dl.Tmnsd by tbo Ord« In OharmM, ok.-Tb* Kulwt 
■.DdWblkBtPrVKe In Callforcla Hl.tory- Bac«m«nto Odd F-llm' t^'^^'^' 
Btrenglhoflha Order In lb» 8UU-Cap.y Eiicmpmeal, Ho, 02-ffo«ll«d Wr, 
H(..243-Elv«rLodBe,Ho. 260-YolDL(rfge,Ha.m&-CrlBlo<.fH.Mi>TJ-IUSii.«llUi 
1q CaUrorala-Tbi* Yolo Ooootj LodgM-V«l8Ma» of tlio M«l«(. Wu-Ancleal Ord.t 
of tJniW Wotkaifin-KnighU ot Fytblu-8oD. of TMpaHtiw-Oood TempUri- 
Ofpiia.' Hoo.»-Obti.tlan AiMcl.lloa Oppowd lo Secret Socl.tlw-WMdbBd l«ro 

The Odd Fellows ia a secret benevolent and bonoficial 
association. It was first instituted in London, Englaml, m 
17-15. Later, Lodges were organized in Liverpool, and 
the societies of the two cities united in tho year 1800 umlor 
the name of the "London Order." Nino years after a mem- 
ber of one of the London Lodges removed to Manchester, 
and introduced Odd Fellowship into that city; this was 
the "little cloud like a man's band" that was OTODtaally 
to cover the whole earth. 

In 1814, the Lodges in Manchester and vicinity united, 
under the name of the " Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows of the Manchester Unity." Thus began *•'« '^J/* 
great (livisious of Odd Fellowship. The Manchester Unity 
proved to be the most successful, and between 1805 an^ 
187.^, they distributed in Europe for benefits and chari- 
ties 515,392,582, and it is from this branch that the Ameri- 
can Order has descended. There were, however, a few 
societies oigaijined in New York and other American cities 
as early as 1806, that had a brief existence. 

American Odd Fellowship dates from April 20th, ISU- 
when Thomas Wildey and others organized a Society a_ 
Baltimore, Md., calling it " Washington Lodge, No. 1- 
It was chartered by the Manchester Unity February Id, 
1820. In 1843, a final severance of all relations with tue 
Manchester Unity look place, and since then American 
Odd Fellowship has been an institution by itself, be- 
tween 1630 and 1875, there were initiated into the Or|ler 
in America 979,i28 persons, and during that time they 

Plate N? 30 

Plate N? 3t 



- b And fonoral benefits, an<l t!ie care of vidows 

is one iittribnle of the Creator, held in greater 

W ''"'/^ j,,„n ftijothor by raortaU, that one Ls charily. 

»<*" , -.„ and her sister mercy, holding the scepter. 

^''"" kin.l Ko""^"' '■*''" '''^'' ''"''^ """^^ P"'^**^* ^^" '"'''®'* 
^'^ Ti bv ttit-sfi divinities mc^ts hi« fellows strngf^linK 
m*"', • and reaches forth his hand to aid, mercy 
bj ''J^ uc/wing-. ttU'l wafted to the throne of Deity. 
jprt*d8 King! ho wan created in Tliiue own image. 

*^'*' -nullo t'l the grave, that which elevates man and 
^'T \ln better than a aavago, is the toadiing of that 
■ ^ I to belli the "unfortunate;" and he who having 
'"^"'"''ntible heart listens to its promptings, gains most 
**'^ \eciot his fellows. Yi^n may bare the head to 
*'"'ltl"'biity«"'' '"""'^ '^'" '^° "nc'vored lo the generous. 
. „vflr« a "miiUiludeof siiiK," and they who prac- 

If there »m erer a time in the umds of mlserr whrr, 
a power was ae^ed stronger than the j^-erTg":, ' hT^ 

that conid come hke the tempest, or. "a «liU small roi«.- 
and cheek them >n their por^aitot wealth, to listen to the that would awaken again the instinct* of hu- 
manity, the To>ce of nature cried ont for that influence lo 
come and stay the tide. 

At such a time there were those who. remeTnI>oring that 
m the past, in the far off country where th.^ir home., were. 
they had Ie.imcd of the love that bound David to Jona- 
than; and like the stUl small voice, they heard the 
*j.^ _» # . .. . 


'"*!!("•' coverri a " iiuiUilude of siiiK," and they who prac 
*^ ■(' Miflsess the roHpeet of all niiiiikind, us thoy deseiTe, 

I valley unparalleled in that of any other locality in 
I"l' republic', probably the wo.ld-a time when neither 
ilv or inimauity seemed, withm it. to have an abiding 
U WHS in 181^' ^^■''^" '^ treo'/y seemed to have 
l''f ^; J,,,, neople of uU countries, to reach, by some 
*""'*'« till- I'ueilic const, whore, in a few weeks or montlis, 
"Inia 1)0 wrested from the etrearas and gulches of Cali- 
flruiii, tlie virgin gold that would place them m a position 
of fiflhience for life. 

The little savintjs of years that had beeu carefuly laid 
Mvuv lo tniard against penury in old age, was saf,rificed; 
|„i,i warrants were to give future homes in the west 
,mo .lisnf'Bed of, or money borrowed on homes mort- 
cn^cl lo ho swallowed up in getting an outBt and pur- 
.Imsinp « passage, possibly in the steerage, to be landed 
„n tlK^ uukiiown shove, often sick and penniless. Ships 
;vcro clinvlored in both foreign and American ports aud 
lonJod The ocean was dotted with the sails of vessels, 
coming from every country, and in them the anxious and 
exoiU'il each helping to make tho other more wild in his 
l,o|..'3 Luut desires, until all other feelings became subser- 
vic'ul to the ono intense desire, to acquire sudden and 
grout wenltli. 

Ill- John F. Morse, in his history of Sacramento, pub- 
linhod in 1853, says: "From the first of August, 1849, the 
" .Wuging tides of immigvatiou began to roll into the city 
" of San Praucisco their huudreds and tlmasauds daily ; not 
I " raeu made robust and healthy by a sea voyage, but poor, 
I " misorable beings, so famished and filthy, so saturated 
" with scorbutic diseases, or so depressed aud despondent 
" in spirils, as to make them tho easy prey to disease and 
" diiiilli. * * * For months nine-tenths of these im- 
" meiliuloly took passage for Sacramento. * * * But 
" these wore not the only sources of difficulty in 18i9, for 
" lit tlie siiino time that tbo scurvy ridden subjects of the 
" oceau begun to concentrate among us, there was a more 
" Ivrriblo train of scorbutic sufYerers coming in from the 
" overland roads, so exhausted in strength and so worn out 
" with calamities of the journey, as to be barely able to 
" reach this the "Valley City." 

" From these sources Sacramento became a perfect lazar 
"house of disease, suffering and death." * \^ 

" proportion as these scenes began to accumulate, just in 
■' suck a pvoporlion did men seem to gi'ow indifferent to the 
" apimk of siiffWing and lo the dictates of benevolence. The 
" more urgent and importunate became the cries and be- 
" seeching miseries of the sick and destitute, the more ob- 
" durate, despotic and terrible became the reigu of cupid- 
" ity. Everything seemed vocal with the assurance that 
" men came to CaU/oniiu to make moneif, not to devote them- 
" fdm to a useless icanle of itme in aiding the desfitntc. in 
" n'al.:hi»g icHh or caring for the sick, or in burying the dead. 
"* * * If men had not allowed themselves to become 

" tho tempomry vassals of cupidity— an old grey-haired 
" fiither ueiuly famished by a tedious Cape Horn voyage 
" and Ifindiug on our levee in the last stages of disorganize 
" iog scurvy, could never have been abandoned hij a son and 
" other relatives who were dependent upon him for the 
" lueiins of coming to tho country, and yet sncJi an old inan 
" 'm h/t alone npon the unfrequented banks of the slough to 
"""'•ail the coming of the' onhj friend that could give hvn 
" Tdief—dcath and the grave." 

_^ "Iq the mouth of July, 1849, these subjects of distress 
" aud the appeals of misery became so common that men 
*' coald not escape them and if there bad been the utmost 
" attention paid to the exercise of charity and protection, it 
'' i^oaU have been impossible to have met the demand of 
.| the destitute, sick and dying as a commensurate sym- 
pathy would have dictated under such circumstances. 

nig arrow, the messenger of a fraternity's devotion 
General A. M. "Winn was the first to respond, leading of. 
in the path of humanity towards an organi/A-d effort for 
the relief of the unfortunate. In tho morninR of Vueust 

U....1.1. i^ii.iv UTi^iiiu^ ill lliC BlUlU Oi H Kill, 

A goodly number answered to the call, and tho General, 
OS chairman, being called upon to explain the objects of 
tlie meeting, said: 

" BnoTHERS: — Ton are assembled mider most extraor- 
" dinary circumstances — we have not the power to work 
" as a Lodge, and yet the immense amount of suffering 
"among the members of the Order, retpures our most 
"active benevolence in carrying out tho great principle^t 
" taught U3 at the altar of Odd Fellowship. Wo have 
" met for the purpose of finding out who of our citizens 
" are Odd Fellows, and to form an association for the rc- 
" lief of sick and distressed brothers. 

"A dreadful calamity has overtaken us — hundreds are 
" lyiug sick, rolled iu their filthy blankets, without wife, 
"children or friends to nuise them while sick or bury 
" thorn when dead. We who have health and means 
" should be liberal to those in distress, as long as in oar 
" power. Lot us do all we can, witliout a violation of tho 
" principles of the Order." 

At the close of the General's speech Daniel McLaren 
was chosen Secretary and the following resolutions intro- 
duced byB. F. Hastings were adopted: 

"Ist. licsolved, That we will form an Association of Odd 
" Fellows in Saciamonto City, for the relief of the dis- 
" tressed members of the Order. 

"2d. Eesolved, That a committee of three bo appointed 
" to draft rules and regulations for our goveimaeut. 

" 3d. Resolved, That a Committee of Kelief bo now ap- 
" pointed, whose duty it shall bo to collect by voluntary 
" contributions from members of the Order an amount 
<■ sufficient to rebeve the distressed and bui-y the dead, 
" until further provisions are made by the association." 

A Committee of Belief was appointed, consisting of E, 
K Gallup Dennis Kidout, Isaac H. Nonis, Samuel Mc- 
Nulty and James B. Cunningham, and the meeting ad- 
iourncd until the 24th instant, after having appointed a 
committee to draft rules aud regulations for the govern- 
rn^of the Order. On the 24th A. M. ^nin became 
President, Edw. E. Hunter Vice President. D.-iniel Mc- 
T ^n Secretarv and E. K. Gallup Treasurer, of the per- 
^rut ^^raSti^nthat was christened Uie " Sacramento 
Odd Fellows' Association. ,.,.., . i„,v 

dishessed, a„d ^"^ *» j"^^'^ „, ^ii Eellows w. append, 
TUe names of ftat -= "^ "™ .„i ,„ a,„ „.!«, pnde, 

that ttair ''M'i™ ''f '"'^ee " of Charitv ia Oalif.nma. 
as the a.-3t organized Pionee =0 ^^__.^^ ^^_ 

A. M. Winn, P«'="i;"g'™"°geal. SurgMnU. S. A.; 
Laren, San Francsco, ^ , f'"' ^'^'..h,:,, g.n Fran- 

- f;. 5t!Mm:,r rt;^co. L. ... BOO., OaUand. 

Pui-diu, E. E. Huner ^ ^^^^^ p. p'. A^bciaft, Bobert 
TliomasBannister,M.S.Hd _, ^ ^^^^^„„^^ c. J- 
Haminett. He«ty E. Eobin , 

Kendricke. Captain J. O- ^e^^^' ^ p„„aer, A. Bar- 

E. Crowell, Dr. Jas. A.. Kee^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ j^,.^,, p. 

ker, John Ledger, W i_ Dei^, -^_ g. Brown 

Smith. Epbrtm Vartio. H. R. Brmdwar. lUniel B. EU- 
worth. 8*nj. Cart*!!, Charlw E. Wwwa. Noblf V. Can- 

niBcrhatn M'.^.ll...... \(--i 1? U U.ii k ■> IV.i 

B•to^ Captain Isaac H. Norris. H. S. Merrill. 

with an organisnl a)i«vialion onci* iu oiMiratioD, tho 
wotkccucd lo W an cxolaniw effort of llip O^ld Fidlowit, for 
th« Ma.«ons atou«' joinpi,! thotn.and lhi> \nWn w.vt iM-ffomu^vl 
jointly, all working t>>>;rthor an a !tiD>:lo )>aud of brothcn 
in hnmnoity. Each momlK'r ^Mid wi>«kly fivo dollan into 
tlie tre.'wury a* n rvHi-f fond, •*orap giving much more, and 
in addition, volunteering; their own«vrvio«swhoDrvHpur«Hl. 
Sicklier incrvat*^^! so rapidly lliat it was inipomiblo (or 
tho aMiocintion to nioet nil tlii< demands lundo Hi>on thu 
society. Iu this omorgoncy the idoa of cstabUtdiiug n 
hospital under tho luanogouient of Inwtet'* from both 
Onlers was conceived. Aoctmlingly \. M, Wirm, Dr. 
Jno. F. Morse and N. ('. Cunningham wcru appointed on 
tho jiatt of tho Odd Fellow* Aswociatiou, iind W. M. 
Doughty. S. C. Ilftfttingr. and Dr. 8. M. MiK-.h by tho 
Masons. The six elected Dp. W. Orovo Doal, President, 
who was a moiubcr of both Onler«. Tho boanl wen' all 
active iu tho diBchargo of their arduouii dulieo, aud 
thus iHiiintained a hospital, and wn-sled from tho dark 
angel many n poop soul, that oImo had found bi» rosling- 
plftco iu the cemetery of that city; together tho nooitilies 
uumed tho sick, togothcr tlioy helped the uafoitunati-, t«'- 
gethcr they buried the doad. together they remain ill the 
memoricH of those still living wli<i rocidved bi-ni'fit* at 
th.-ir hands; and the historian in lii» reconl of their gen- 
erous deodrt. cannot well soparato them. Fourteen iiioullw 
after the call of Gou. Wina Wiw i«iucd to organic thin 
iissociation, tho first victim iu Sacramento, of tho eholora, 
died on tho lovco of that city ; ho wiw a stranger, a pasRon- 
gor just arrived, and when discovered on th.> morning of 
October 20th, 1850, was iu tho hwt st«g<-« of tliu di«oa«e. 
No pen can depiot tho «ccn.!S that f.dlowod for a month. 
Nobly, side by side tho Masons and ()»ld Fellows Htcmniod 
the tide of death. They formed in commitloti* of tlio 
whole, and those who had escaped became uurscH for tlio 
unfortunates that tlio terrible di«oaae bad siewd upon; 
many to^'k tho infection wliile in the performan.'.. .,f those 
acts of humanity, became victims " in this slaughter house 
of death," ant] followed across tho -aihmt water, close m 
the wake of those they had sliiven in vain to save. But 
wl.v dwell upon such scenes? Is it not rnonKh, as far as 
tliJsc orders are concerned, to know tlmt they wore ried 
as bv fire, weighed iu the balance aud not fouml wanting. 
It was those and like ads that hav<. made them o„ tins 
coast the powerful organiz-dions they have become. 1 lo 
Odd Fellows had organized up to Dec. M. im, m ,ali- 
fornia, 278 subordinate and 44 Bebekah Decree Lodges, 
,1,0 former having 21,203 members, '"'\"»^ '""^T ,'' ' ' 
and they together paid during the year for benefits and 
cbaritable ,, i^m^^^ 20. The properly of the 
order in this State is valued at il,(3H,l.lo.Jl- 


Capay En-campme-it, No. 02, 1. 0. 0- F. 

Bv a dispensation from the Ilight Worthy Grand Pat- 
nar h of the juHsdiction of California certain e. .ze„« of 
?oo County were initiated, advanced, and exalted the 
same evening bv the Solano Center Enrampmont, No. 41, 
a Suisun in Sobno County. Immediately after Ihe.r ex- 

.Sr Ihcy withdrew and petitioned ;;;e^-f Encamp 

""^ tirtlf^^^aZln.'^ P-fected on the 28th day of 
ir J87ttirf:.lowing bei^g ^e «ames of the organ 
,„d first officers: J-^mes McHenr^. C.P^, E_^^_ 
Perkias, HI-, J;- '-^^ A Lang, Treas. At present 

tbe second and third Tuesday of each month. 


T..n.rv 17th 1863, there was ins lilnted in Woodland 
January l-ti^.i members were 

« Lodge of Oad Felons. ^^^^^,G.;Manville 
Elias Peterson >.GG.J^ Treasurer; John 



hen. Petmon ud Ainutroiiff. At the preaent limo the 
offic-r« Me J. J. B-iwmati. N- G : R. H. B<»in«^r, V. G.; 
B. Ptt*r««. K. S.: J W. T>Uri. P. S ; tnJ C Barr. 
Treft-arer. Th« Tn«l.-r* »n> D. M. B<iro«. E. J- Atkio- 
•oo. »ii<l J. W. Gyin. Tbr^v hst.. IfJ m.-inlu-P. «t ibin 
Utac, «iul Bfri«r «t one linii> haw- h-i.l to ti.- -il Il*.>. Tti"' 
prnpcrtjof theI».lKoi» (-.tiron-l In U i.orth St..VX' 
>nj It b»- ili«lnt>ot«Hl in tx-iM-riw ■n.l clinritnblp oI>j«tH 
mian iU orHSoiatioti io 18C3. Ilir -am of *i;.4ftn 25 up to 
H«;3<>11>. 1M79. The onlpr idm-U cverr SntonUy ©Tcn- 
iog at itn hall iu WoolUntl. 

Cju-ai Lodoe. So. 230. I.O.O.F. 

Tlio Capay Loflgo wiw orgnniz«d on Uip 13th of Mnrcli. 
1875. with, for ch«rt.«T member*: Uobcrt Manltn*, N-G.; 
L. L. Walton. \.(i.; CL«rIcH It. Clark. SwrtUiry: O. 
Ilo,Iol|.Ii. Tr.-.vinnT; Wm. IUyiii"ii«l. W. H. Troop, H. 
Fein.-. M. Eiton an.l .laino-* MeH.iin. Tlicir pr.«iit 
otBf-n iiro T. Cmig. NG.: A. Appl'by. V.O.: G. L. 
Pnrk<^r, Hcc-TOtary; K-l. K, P.rkiii>. I'.rr. >-.roU>r,v: ftu'l 
E. U. Al.lri«li,Tn'.^Hnrflr. Tlu-y nt on.- tinK- sixty-seven 
n«-ml.f P*. nt pwwnt llii'v li:ivn lifty-fonr. Tim properly of 
tht- I>Hlg»'in«-i.".Lin, ami tlu-y Imve .lislrilmU-.l 
for clmritablo ptiTows MiKl. Tlie Lo.lge inc^ls twry 
HataMay uigtit at Long^'ille. 

WlSTEM LODQE, No. 243. I.O.O.F. 

Tliis I^i!j,'e was orgiiiiiw.l at Winters*, on tlio lOtti of 
April, IS7(t. (VMil.^iinial y»!ar. Tlic llrst nffii-ers and flmr- 
t^.rnR-mlj.Ts w.Tf J. O. Miixw.ll, N.G.; H. -T. Wliilney. 
V.(i.; F. II. Kll.eraoii.Sci'retary: 11. M. Hord, Treasurer; 
.Tuliii A. Itrowu, Wm. B. 13aU, anil W. D. Boweu. At 
prr.Hfiit tlio iilli.-ers avo .T. \i. Gregory, N.G. ; R. S- 
S|.aukiinK, V.tJ.; Wm. Jt. liall. Sfciclary; W. D. H..won, 
Tioasurur. Home tinn- in Hie [iiiat lliis Lo.lge hail fliirly- 
Iwo nu^inbors; tlioy liavL- four loss at tltis time. The 
Lo.lgo property is vulutil at SIOU. tliL-y have $2i!l) on huncl 
antl liavy iliHtribateil in benefits and charities $100— a 
^'o(t(l Hhowiny for so young an organization. 

M>nn lUU^ b*ck 

River Txu.qk, No. 256, I.O.O.F. 

This Lodge was organizod at Knights Laiuling April 
'20Ui, 1H77. The first oflicei-s and charter members being 
A. Fiisbie, N.Cr.; J. A. Itliick.; Donald Crane, 
Kixrordiiig Secretary; B. Hiinly, Per. Secretary; W. O. B. 
(ittinn, Treasurer. Oflicers at present (ire Dr. H. M. 
Kier, N.G.; A. Kness, V. G.; T. J. Goin, Recording and 
l*er. Seoretaiy; J. C. Taylor, Treasurer It has at present 
forty momboi-s. The property of the Lodge is valued at 
$500, aud the organization has distributed in benefits and 
charities $400. It meets at Knight's Lauding Thursday 

ToLO Lodge, No. 169, 1. O. O. F. 

This Lodge was instituted at Diivisville, Yolo county, 
April rith, 1870, ■nith the following first officers aud fonr- 
teen charter members: Jacob Horning, N. G. ; F. Moult- 
ncr, Y. G.; E. C- Hurtman, Rec. aud Per. Secretary; M. 
Wiueberger, Trejisurer; J. D. Ford, J. L. Morgan, J. 
Bradley, John Gumper, -I. E. Fleegal, J. Roberts, M. 
IJriiikulter, J. H. Clark, Byrou, Benham and Geo. \V. 
Pierce. There remains now but one of those persons as 
nu active member of the Lodge, Geo. W. Pierce. Four 
of them have since died and the balance hiive withdrawn. 
The present officers are Geo. Soger, N. G; A. L. Hawk, 
V. G-; Eugene Melvin, Rec. Secretary; D. D. Reed, Per. 
Secretary; R. Shelton, Treasnrer; and O. D. E^ed, J. P. 
Collins ond Frederick Ross, Trustees. At present there 
there are forty raembeis that constitute the organization. 
The Lodge properly is valued at §3,000, aud there has 
been paiil out for chiirilies, benefits, etc., about SOOO. 
Their kill was built in 1876, at a cost of $3,000; it is of 
brick aud ihoniughly fire proof, 90 by 30 feet inside, with 
uece3S;irv aute-rooms, finely furnished aud all in modern 

IL^Disos LocCE, No. 2S7, I. O. O. F. 

Was organized at Madison, .fanu-iry 24th, 1S30, by Grand 
MiLstcr Geo. A. C:v3e and utliers. The charter membei-s 
were J. S. Norton, Fred. N. Heinrichs, Peter Saling, Wm. 
H. Troop. John E. Wootten, Jusepii .Y. Deeriug. Their 
officers for the first year are J. H. Norton, N. G. : .John 
E. Wootten, V. G-; Fred. N. Heiurichs, Seeretjiry; Wm. 
H. Troop, Treasurer; J. J, McKeuny, K. S. of N. G. ; 
Stephen B. Holton, L. S. of N. G.; L.W. Hilliker, K. S. of 
V. G.; F. A. Freunde, L. S. of Y. G.; J. A. Dearing, 
Warden; Arthur Scott, Conductor; James Grafton, R. S. 
S.; M. il, Taylor, L. S. S. There were eiglit new mem- 
bers added under dispensation of Grand Master. 


>,i,eoa4v Mippo«Kl Uiat the onler of Ma- 
,k to ih.' Imildiug of Solomon's Temple, mu 
,l.«t the St. John. «.r.. members of thi. J^'^tY"'!'.!™ 
F.ndol. in bi« " Hi^torj of Fn-ema^onr.-." •'»';;^7"^''^'^: 
,.,1 lh.> f.dlacT of iho^v lh..>nes bv .bowing that the fil^ 
or.;erorlo<lBe of Speculative Masons, mi. convened m 
r«ndo„ iu 1717. The onlor from which the P'-^-* ;- 
B«ni«it.on i« the din'ct descendant, dates fnuu the bmld- 
f.g of the Cathedral at Mag-Ieburg, A. T>. SM., ,u Ger- 
many. Frt-m 870 to 1717. Miusonry. as a society, was a 
Bocn-t school for nrcliitects and builder., wher.. the great- 
est peifeetlou in thes«. bmnches of seienco eonld be ob- 
tained. and kept from the uniuiti-aod. The dark mantio 
was being raised from tlie horizon of the middle ago.-*; Ibo 
worM was emerging fnuo the gloom that had obscme.1 
mantiml for genenUioim and held them iu ignorance; the 
two great <-iviliiWr^. the Clinreli and the Architect, were 
working «ide bv side. The Church wanted cathedrals. 
abbev>* and edific.-s in which to worship, aud the Ma.sons 
bnilt'theni. Tho two, joined hand in band, civilized and 
edncatc.l the masses. Together they covered Gevnmny 
aud enteied France, passed over Britain, aud found their 
way into the S.otlish Highlands. Tlien caino the Refor- 
mation and the Thirty Years War, when the building of 
Charches cciised, ami Masonry fell into a decline; there 
was no longer work for either architect or builder. Tho 
burning of I^niilon gave tho order a temporary revival, 
after which it would have fallen into final ileeay and 
passed from tho stjige, had it not reorganized and made 
its siinctuin accessible to all crafts— a universal instead of 
au exclusive body. 

On St. John's day, June 24th, 1717, in London, was or- 
ganized the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Masona, the 
ru-dor that now eNisls. and tho celebration of this day is in 
memory of that event. The now or ju-esent organization 
of SiieculativQ Mjisous hold llio same relation to the old 
operative order that man's spirit, disembodied, holds to 
the body it has left. The old had tanght tho scienco of 
buildiiigatullieaiittfyiiig mechanical structures. The now 
toiches mankind how to erect a house not built with hands. 
How to eoiiHtruct a universal brotherhood. How to erect 
a moral edifice that makes at tho mortal a more porfocfc man. 
Tho ancient Masons built the chun^li where man could 
worship tho Grand Architect of tho univorao; their off- 
spring, the specnlativo order, teaches man how to venerate 
and comprehend tho works of that Architect. To have 
been au honored ancient Mason, was to bo an Iioncst, skill- 
ful builder. To be a worthy member of the present order, 
is to possess and cultivate all of the virtues aud no vices. 
There is in tho world now over 3,000,000 Masons, 600,000 
of whom belong to the order in America. 

A convention of the Masonic Order of California first 
met at Sacramento, April 17th, 1830, aud completed the 
organization of the first Grand Lodge of this State on tlie 
lOtli of the same month. There were but .six Lodges rep- 
resented at tlie time on this coast. In November, 1878, 
there were carried upon the rolls of the Grand Lodge of 
California 251 Lodges. There was distributed for charit- 
able purposes in San Francisco, between 1856 and 1877, 
5140,601.46 to needy members aud to the widows aud 
orphans. What has been disbui-sed for charitable pur- 
poses outside of that city iu the State, we have no means 
at hand of ascertaining. 


CiRArros Tx>DOB, No. 141, F. and A. M, 
This Lodge, at Knigbfs Landing, was tho aocondiu Ihp 
county to oi-gixniM, the date being Octobt-r 13th, 18511. 
Thet« were eight charter moinbei-s as tolh)WR: .Tnhn 
N. Baldwin. W. M.; I. H. Harrold. S. W.; Godfi-oy Ro- 
dolph. J. W.; A. Hntchins. Treasurer; W. S, Hiiinllton, 

Secrotrtry; P. Gibson, S.D.; Henry P , J. lX;\Vil. 

Ham Ledfoi\l, Tyler; and of these none are now nctivo 
mombei-s of tho Lodge. The present ollicers are Pcfpr 
Gutchcr, W. M.; Isaac J. Fly. S. W.; Adolph Meter, J, 
W. ; H. M. Kiev, S. D.; John A. LoaHioi-s. J. D.; ,T. \\\ 
Snowball, Seerotary; C- O. Coin>. Tyler. The highest 
iiumbor of membors at any ouo time in the past was thirty- 
six, at present they have thirty-one, and their properly U 
valuetl at $1,000. Their time of meeting is on Saturday 
uight, ou or alter tho full moon, at Knight's Landing, 

WooiiMND Lonnr, No. 156, F. and A. M. 
In 1362, August 16th. the Woodland Trftdgo was orgiui- 
ized. There seems to have been but three charter iiiuiii- 
bers— Isaac Davis, T. V. Pockman, and E. It. I'nilaii, he. 
ing those three; but tlioiv first ollieers included two nunc, 
and ranked as follows: Isaac Davis, W. M.; T. C. Pock- 
man, S. W.; E. R. Pullaii. J. W.; Monroe Snyder, Trenw- 
urcr; and F. S. Freeman, Socrotavy. At present tlioir 
officers are F. E. Bakev, W. M.; Humprey Hicks, 8. \V.; 
O. C. Grimes, J. W.; T. P. Magoo, Tioasmor; and J. K. 
Smith, Secretary. Thoy have now eighty-lWe inombcrH, 
and at one timo had ninety. Tho properly of the Ijoilgo 
is estimated to be worth §1,2011, and thi^y incet I'rJdiiy 
GVOningH, on ov before tho fall moon, at Woodland. 

Atiibss Lodoe, No. 223, F. and A, M. 
Next in order of time cornea tho organization of flio 
above Tjodge, at Davisvillo, on tho 10th of May, 187:t. 
The charter membors, eleven of thorn, being E. F. Banc, 
W. M. ; H. Hamel, H. W.; L. Furst, J. W.; J. A. Hillur, 
Treasurer; W. S. Williams, Secretary; F. M. Wilson, H. 
D.; O. D. Rood, J. D. ; T. Foster, Tyler; W. H. Mar- 
don, J. K. Terrill and M. Gardner. The firsLofficovHWciri! 
as given above. Tho ollicora at present aro F. Clays, 8. 
W. acting, W. M. ; E. W. Urown, J. W. ; W. H. Williaiim, 
Treasurer; Jos. Philliber, Sncretary; H. HainnI, S. ]).; \V. 
G. Billiard, J. D.; W. B. Hart, Tyler. At one timo llioy 
had thirty-seveu members ; now thoro aro hut twouty- 
sevou. Their property is estimated to bo worth $4,500, 
aud what speaks volumes for that organization is tliat they 
havo distributed, thongh yet a young onler, §600 fur 
charitable purposes. They meet Saturday ovcuiiigH on or 
before the full moon, at Davisville. 

LANDMAnii Lodge, No.——, F. and A. M. 
On the 8th of March, 1S70, a Lodge of Masoim was 
organized at Madison. This is tho youngest moiiihor of 
tho order in this county. As yet it Ims no number. Tlio 
chai-ter members are D. Q. Adams, Newell CorbJn, T. 
Craig, J. M. Dutton, Thomas Hall, N. F. Hildtibrand, W. 
D. HolcoHi, E. K. Howard, D. B. Hurlbut, H. B. John- 
son, W. Levy, J. J. McKenoa, W. F. Sponcor, E. Tad- 
lock, R. G. Tadlock, George Tandy, J. A. Tntt, U. 
Rodolph, J. S. Tutt, M. R. York and S. Wootten From 
among those gentlemen there were selected for the first 
officers, M. R. York, W. M. ; G, Rodolph, S. W.; J- S. 
Tutt, J. W.; W. D. Holcom, Treasurer; J. A. Tutt, Sec; 
Thomas Hall, 8. D.; J. J. McKenna, J. D.; and Geo. 
Tandy, Tyler. They have twenty-three mi mhera, and 
meet at Madison, on or after full moon. 

Yolo Lodge, No. 81, F. and A. M. 

On the 27th day of January, 1855, the first Masonic 
Lodge was organized in Yolo county, at Cacheville, with 
the following fifteen gentlemen as charter members: F. 
G. Grey, Charles Traver, Q. C. Tebbs, E. Giddings, J. T. 
Booue, Conrad Gotwall.s, J. L. Forman, H. C. Riggs, C. 
D. Davis. William Isbell, W. F. Anderson, Nicholas 
Wyckoif, G. F. Brown, G. E. Simp-sonand B. Hambright, 
none of whom are at present active members of the 
Yolo Lodge. The first officers were F. G. Grey, W. M.; 
Q C. Tebbs, S. W.; Charles Traver, J. W.: D. Schiu- 
dler. Treasurer; E. Giddings, Secretary; W. F. Anderson, 
S. D., and C. D. Davis, J. D. At present the offi- 
cers are Abraham Griffith, W. M.; L. Cramer, S. W.; W. 
W. Hannum, J. W.; J. M. Pockman, Treasurer; E. S. 
Markell, Secretary; C. H. Bork, S. D.; A. M. Ayers, 
J. D.; P. Leminx, Tyler; D. P. Diggs. Marshal. At one 
lime they had as high as forty-five membors, but at jires- 
ent they have thirty-two, aud their Lodge property is 
ued at ?3,yOO- They meet at Cacheville, Saturday, on or 
before each full moon. 


But few survive (about 9,000) of the Army of the Re- 
public, whose valor, in the struggle between our Uni"" 
aud Mexico, challenged the respect of tho world for tlic 
milit-iry power of a nation of yeomen, and its admiration 
for the meu who, comparatively but a handfull, witlifitoud 
the shock of the combined iiower of Mexico. 

When the war was over, the spirit of unrest engendered 
by the brief contest had been tlioroughly developed iu ''''^ 
soldiers of that array. The tame life of' ordinary pursuits 
that tlie soldier had become accustomed to before enter- 
ing the service, was irksome when he again became a pri- 
vate citizen. The excitement that had been his voiceless 
companion through camp and field, no longer chai-nied 
away the monotony of ordinary events, but from afar beck- 
oned Lira away from tlie early home to people the wihls 
the West; and answering to the call, many of them at "U 
early day sought adventure on the Pacific slope or excite- 
ment in the Eldorado their prowess had added to the 
eoimtn''s domain. Thus we find iu California the greater 

Plate N*32 



urn w .- c-allOv,-. 

Plate N?33 


,i,orj of Mexican War Veteronii, Texas standiDg «ec- 
' ',] UliooiH third in the list. 

,f. ., by act aathorized tlie U. S. Mint to cast (rum 

' 'i.j,. i caunoD taken from Mexico. lacdals, that were 

■ !| i„ tlio poMCiuiion of the Sntioiml Association at 

trtun. to ho given to those who could prove stnice 

^ .-riitiT of that army; and the evidviice of uiembcr^hip 

"" 'i ' . rtiition, is possession of one of those medals. 

In Yolo County 

rantii of lliu order are being gradually thimied, as lU 

1 « nnkwer one by one, to the roll-cull of the Great 

. n What remains of that organ lUJiti an ik maile op 

r'' en a potlion of whom have served the country ofS- 

^- II ■■ others ino (.■ft])itali8ta; wome are farmers; a few are 

^^ ' mid sevend iiro the victims of infirmities eonlracled 

Mli'e Ht-ni'"-*; *"'* "" "'''^'' "'"** justly proud of the record 

'"( tli«ir army, and congratulate themselves for having 

l(^.a of t!i"se who helped to avenge the "Ahimo" aud 

Mttle tlie Texas <iuestion. 

Tliey meet on the Fourth of July, and onco m every threo 
DiflDtljn, for the purpose of transacting association busi- 
„(•«; ftiiil wl'^D iwaein^'ed, "fight their b.ittlcs o'er again." 
y' ,ni,v their memory keep warm a place in the hearts 
u( tlifii omiiitrym^n, for had it nut beoii for them, England 
ffoiiUl have uidde of California a second Canada. 

The Yolo Codsty Association 
Of Veterans of the Mexican War was organized at a meot- 
ii,K held ill Woodliind, Juno 30th, 1877. 
I'rfsitlout, Hon. Jiison Watkius, 2d Regiment Missouri 

Vicei'resideni, CamilluH Nelson, of same regiment. 
TrooHUier, Ji'lin Hollingswortli, of snino regiment. 
Mftralial, Jolm Jii<nbs, of 2d U. H. Infiintry. 
Scciotaiy. Sam'l Ruland, 1st Missouri Infantry. 


Abrom Runics 2d Missouri Cnvnlry. 

Viiioont Banies ..- 2d Missouri Cuvahy. 

«ei)igo W. Davis 2d Missouri Cavalry, 

Alfrnl House Texas Eaugers. 

IVriliimnilSehloimau Texas Riingers. 

ll«ii. .loliii M. Kelloy 2d Missouri Cavalry. 

Wiirroii 0. Keith 12tli U. S. Iiifiiulry. 

Tlmmas D. Kirk 2d Missouri Cuvahy. 

Simon H. Lotlner 7tli U. S. Infantry. 

Will. N. McClaia 12th V. S. Infantry. 

Aiiihew McUlovy 2d Maryland Infantry. 

John AA' . Rosebraugh 2ii Missouri Cavalry. 

Nicholns Schardin Ordnance Deimrtraent. 

John W. Tillcy Santa Fe Cavalry. 

Win, Ciuroll Thomas Powell's Oregon Batallion, 

recruited in Missouri. 

Will. Uiu'aou Wright 4th Missouri Cavalry. 

Snrsliel 0. Wolfskin. 1st Missouri Cavalry. 

Wio. H. M. Lewis 2d Missouri Cavalry. 

Joliii D. Stephens Missouri Cooper Co. Infan- 
try, iinattaehed. 

l^rauk Buckner 2d Missouri Cavalry. 

The regiments above referred to were commanded as 
follows : 
First Missouri lufantry, by Col. Alton R. Easton. 
Fii-st Missouri Cavalry, by Col. A. W- Doniphan. 
Secoud Missouri Cavalry, by Col. Sterling Price. 
Fourth Missouri Cavalry, Col. John Ralls. 
Bonnet Riley, Col. Second U. S. Infantry. 

The founder of this Order was J. J. Upehurch, its first 
orgauiziition having been inaugurated at Meadville, in 
Peiiusylviinia. its chief aim is to provide a fund by 
means of which (he sum of S2000 may be paid on the 
Jeiilh of each member to whomsoever he may have desig- 
nnted while living. This fund is created by the payment 
of oue ttollai- by each member when he joins the Order, 
m\ is maiiitaiiied by assessments of one dollar each, on 
die membership, so often as it becomes necessary, to meet 
die losses incurred by death. Statistics show that the 
average of these assessments amount to about $lo per 

. I'or the drst dve Tears after the Order was established 
Its progress was very slow; it had entered an unb-ied heM 
and the public were inclined to look upon it with distnist. 
Since 187 i its growth has been verv r.ipid, increasing 
|fom about 2,0U0 to fiO.OOO members. It was lutroducert 

its growth has been very r.ipid, increasing 
;--u ..uout 2,0U0 to fiO.OOO members. It was lutroclucea 
"ito Ciibfonda in 1875 by H. G. Pratt, one of the oldest 
''lembers of the Society, the first Lodge being organized 

a Gr?nd iX Tu!LTT1''" ^«-- ""-n^-^i^ 

heirs of c ecea,^ed memleni. has been .Ircn-lr 

ben. and their famii.e.. who suffered from the vellow f.vor 
scourge «G/>25..5», in Iho «inler of 1S78-0. ' 

Yolo Loixje, No. 22. 
This Lodge dates from February 4th, 1878, and orenn- 
ized with the follouiLg «« charter luembers: Robert B. 
Mo^by. M. W,; A. Stamp, F.ireiunu: W. W. Porter O ■ 
G. W. Jfyrick, G.; S. M. Grigg«, Recorder; N. Hooig* 
tinancier; Thomas Ros.*, Receiver; M. H. Torreneo, L 
W.; F. J. Rroderick. O.W.; A. Alexander, B. F. 
Harlan, S. G. Harper, Allen Pool, T. M. Prior, J. K. 
Smith, J. W. Overbaugh and others. Their present offi- 
cers me Theophilis Beaizk-y, M. W.; R. W. Megowan, 
Foreman; John Mali, O.; li. F. Harlan, G.; S. M. Griggs, 
Financier; Samnel Peudegast, Receiver; J. K. Smith, 
Recorder; L. Zirker, T. G. ; M. Tobias, O. G. Their present 
membership reaches sixty-five, and thoy meet on Tuesday 
evoniuge at Odd Fellows Hall, in Woodland. 

In ly<U, at Washington, D. C.. on llio Utli of Febrnary, 
the first Lodge of the Knightsof Pythias was instituted. 
It was not in the minds (if the projectors timt the Older 
they were evoking wnulil, within fourteen yeaiH frum its 
inception, reckon among it.s members a hundred thousand 
men; yet to-day they exci'ed thjit number, and their ban- 
ner, on which is inscribed, Friendship, Charity and Broth- 
erhood, can be found on the walls of their Lodges in 
America, in Canada and the Sandwich Islands. Mr. 
Rathbono, the projector and author of the origlnul ritual, 
together with the Aaron Glee Club, of Washington, or- 
ganized the first Lodge. The original design only con- 
templated a society for mutual protection and assistance, 
in which the Washington Government clerks could act in 
unison for their mufniil iidvautiigc; but they had builded 
better thun they knew. They had taken for the foundn- 
tion of their structure the sentiment called Fiumhhip, thid 
neither power can bind nor wealth can buy. They had 
resurrected the Pythagorean principle that had furnished 
to antitniily its most beautiful picture of devotion, its 
most devoted act of heroism. Who, of all the world, 
does uot long for friends? How universal the desire! 
how shadowy the realization! and when a society was 
found that took for its star in tlio East that beautiful and 
tragic tale of friendship, stronger than the love of life, 
an act of devotion that brought a haughty pagan prince 
(Dionysius) down from his throne to the scaff"old, to ask the 
privilerre of becoming a brother of the condemned Pythias 
and hi^ friend Damon; can it be wondered at that the 
snreiul of the Order should overleap the original concep- 
tion of its projectors-/ Of the strength or history of the 
Order ou this coast, we have not at our command any data 
from which to record the facts, and must, perforce, con- 
fine the matter to YoLO Cousiv. 

Damocles Loboe.No. 33, K. of P., of Wiste«s. 

„l,avtPrinembei-sweie J.l^- D-'shtu, 

-a T Seelv E. A. Humphrey, U. u. i^ou.u».... ■ • -."■-^. 

^'i'-^ i'^? n Harln- James WorJen, J. L. Sea- 
G. W. Hi 1, M. O Hailin ^^^^ ^ ^j^_^_ ^ ^. 

,ell and 1 . Leach^ Th tin ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

J. E. H«^5"' '^\?\it ris prelate; Wm. Sims, M. at A.; 
Woraack, \-C.: \--^''J.^'!^,l'^^^^^ ^j F.- J. L. Sea- 
Ed. Wolfskin, M. E. ;^ ■ ■ ^-^ ^^^^^^^ ^g^,^ „,, 

Fn- wi:."'^'^ "-^^-^ "■ ^^-5- ^- ? — "' 

y. c 


B. Ha- 

G Their greatest 

present they have t^7;j>"-";';-^/^;^i;tri0ated for charitable 
I ..ined at f^^ ^ ^hey meet at Pythiaa 
purposes ami lor u 
Castle, AVinters. 

ne. The property of tUe Lodge 

Prraux UnMz, No, 43. K. or P . Woom »hp 

The organiotion of this orvler. ,a 

M«y 3,), 1877. Tlw followiBg . „ :h« 

charU't uemben: D. M. Ituio*. A. n C. M, 

Cwler. C. BimeT. A. t*. Kr*ii. E. IE ttOtfr. 

H. B PenJtgMt. W. M. DeWiH, J ; J. A. 

Brown. W. T. Lucav U. F. Wdch. J - i ■ 

soph Comfort. L. Marhofort, B. E Li>.>uiis K. I 

more, J. W. Goin. N. Wxcioff. T. J. G..i«. J. W . 

U. M. Coin. E. J. Haight. Jam«i View, H. Hick*. AU 

except B. E. Lfwmiii. J<>M>)>h Comf"'-' ' '- '. '' 

W. M. DeWilt. N. Wyck.iff. E. J. H* 
membt>rs. Tbo first o&<^r.n wcrw A. t n.. »,. i « . i- 
M. Bums, C. C; H. B. PcnJpga*!, V. C; J. L. Siiopjon. 
P.; A. Xickolsburg, K. of U. »nd S.; E. It. Bu^h, M. of 
F.; C. B.imoy. M. of E.; W. T. I.iit^. M. nl A.; J.^rph 
Comfort, I.G.; I'. M.Ciu.!cr, O. <i. At pn-nml ibeir ofB- 
eum are A. Niekelsburg, P. C; W. T. Lucn^. 0. C.; H. 
Hicks, V. C. : A. C. Keiin, P. ; O. 0. Fii.ko. K. of R. And 
S.; F. E. Bakor, M. of F. ; H. B. PendcgMt, M. olE.; 
John W. Goin, M. nt A.; Jason Watkiiiii, I. (I.; K. R. 
Bush, O. G. Twenty-six iudividtiaU connlituto thoir 
present mombcmhip, and twenty-eight 1iil4 been their 
liighest number. The Uidge is out of debt, Iho 
finances are in a healthy condition, and thoir pro)H<rty in 
estimated to be worth about two hundred dollnrn. Tho 
following named mcmbon* aru entitled lu P, C certifioatca, 
having paiiscd through the Cluiir* and received the iHinom 
of the Lodge: A. C. Kuan, I>. M. Hunifi, J. L. Sim]Mon, 
John Kcnucdy, H. 1). Pcndo^ii-il, Jason Watkiim and L. 
Mnchefert. The Lodge, rdlhough nninboriitg n Hmnll 
membership, it« in activo working order, mid biilM fair to 
increase in numbers and i)ro»iperily in the future, Thoy 
meet at Pythian Castle, in Wnoilhoid, "u 'MnndayovoBingi, 



Early in the history of thin county thn Tuniperancn 
cause was sustained by an organized clTort. In tlin Fall 
of ISoi, there was instituted a diviaion of tho Order known 
lis the Sons of Temperance at the Scliool-hon<40 cloao to 
and north of where Woodland now standa. It was n con- 
tomporaneoua movement with that of tho organiwdion of 
the Cliriatain Church, and considerable feeling watt aroused 
among the pooplo, because of tho stand taken by that do- 
nomination against the temperance organization becauso 
of its being a secret order. On tho 8lh of tho following 
January, tho "Yolo Division," No. lOH, of tho " Sons of 
Temperance," organized at the G. W. Itocd SchooMiouBO, 
near where tha residence of A. W. Morris now standH, mid 
its records show that it was in esihleiicc a« hile 118 May 
8th, 1857. At Cottonwood a third division was added to 
the number and the organization had become a forniidablo 
one in the county, F. C. Rugglcs, now living near Wood- 
land, being their Grand Worthy Patriarch. Ah lato uh 
January 20th, 18G0, a division of the Order wan organiw;d 
at Knight's Landing under the name and nnmbtar of Graf- 
ton Division, No. ItJ. At one time they had thirty-two 
members, but it was doomed to a brief existence, and 
probably did not last two years. In 185-1. the division 
near Woodland attached an addition to tlio Hchool-houso 
near that place, to enable them to hold their meetings 
there. In 18-5G they were joined by the Mnsons in tho or- 
pense of putting a second story on the new School-house 
erected that year, where their meetings were held until 
the final disbandment of the divi.sion. To-day their old 
assembly room is being used as sleeping aparlineiitH under 
which is a hotel called the Traveler's ileal, whore n Imck- 
slidingSon of Temperance, or any other son, can get us 
drunk as a lord for half a dollar. 

In time the Order in Yolo county yielded to the march 
of a more advanced idea of the effective temperance work. 
, As embodied in the orgacization known as the Good Tem- 
1 plars, who admit into its ranks the young and the old, the 
\ female as well as the male, which enlists as an adjunct the 
I social qualities to aid in its philanthropic design. Tlio 
I old divisions all passed from the stage, but there («.'em» in 
\ the last few years to have been an effort pat forth to re- 
vive the Order in the county, and their present organiza- 
tions are given below. 

Davistille Dmsios, No. 105. Soss OF TEMPEniSCB. 

i A division of the Order of 8on9 of Temperance was 

organized at Davisville ou the seventeenth of Febrnary, 

1873. The Charter members that were the first officers 

■ are: W. H. Hampton, W. P-; Esther Hampton, W. A.; 


E. 1^ i.arer; Wm. »•»?- 

.W ;'.*;^. ,, T,.,,. u,k.r. I>opnty 

too. i > , ' ' nii-niWrs. 

O. W P- 1 , , . I'hiUibtfr. 

BuV '• "-^^. j,,^^ J. I. SUler. 

Jobii W-iJ . 1 . n W. Kernoch". R- ^^ • 

the dcaJ. 

r..u«n.u,,os, So. WJ, So« or Te-pbi^cb 
r^'° ;"^''t'v.l'leu"::M McclX,., E. n. cook, J. 

„„„, s. D. ^'•^■^^^;:^^^L. A. fi. S. M. I 
0„„. F. «.; J. M «-^.^.^U. ^J^ •^;;,„;,„,, ! 

Siituraay ovenings, at Pl.nnhoM. 

Yoi,o DIVISION, Ko. 28C, Sos« of Tehpebanoe. 

Tl.i« DiviHiou ^v«s organized a«a hoM. its at 

W. in. to. Furllier coucerning it tban t .c nan,es ol its 

Mto aSKivcu below, W6 Imve been unable to 



C:;itor; '^1 Hoag-ana A C; ^.■. AV M 3,ee. 
Chaplain; Alice Fuurnass, T. S.; ^\ ■ M- L^«. «- S- J- ^• 
Lucas, P. W. P. 


Tl.i- Onler originated in cential New York, in 1851. 
„,.lttntt cS o£ the late war in the TTnitcd SUtes. 
Zl o y obtained n membership ut about 5 1,0 0. Imme- 
ilTy 'pou the close of hostilities cause,, by the surren- 
der otC-noval Lee. this Order sprang .no new b(c, and 
[u 1807 a little less than a quai-ter of a mUhon were num- 
bered in iU vauU. In 1S75 its banner hud been planted 
in " The T.les of the Paeific. Great Br.tian and he Coul. 
Lt of Europe;" and there answered to the ro I cm Us 
^yriadof Lodges, 750.000 templars. The number n 18,9 
Riven partly bv estimate, for the world is 3S3.161. The 
fi,^t T.muiar Lodge to organize in Cahtorn.a, was at Santa 
Cnl: February -Al. 18o5, and there was anoHjer u..t. 
tulcd at Sacramento in the following year. Maj 29th. 
1860. theGran.1 Lodge of the State came into existence 
representing 579 templars, ami has held annual meeting. 
S e. The^umber of Lodges in the State .n 1.. re- 
ported in October, were 230. a membership of 1U^9- 
Trom Grand Lodge reports of Oetober. 18,9. we take the 
follol^■ing statistics perUdning to California: 

,r , 6,297 

Mute Members ^ g^^ 

i Female " '__^ 

11 1S9 
Total membership 

Number of Lodges in the State,.- 230 

aiueor^' ^r."^rr^^f '"?.^":. :::.:.. ::£2i.372 m 

""* " Kegidias. Furnitore, etc 26,793 £0 

Cash oo hand, with Lodges '^■^'^ ^ 

Total valQeoipK.perty S'^g It 

Expense ot Grand Lodge . . . . ^ ; ■ ■ ■ ■*"' „ 

OfVhis amount the Orph-ms' Home leceiTed. . 10,o40 20 


„aw« open*.! October It. 1 ^^,^ ^,„iit lo shel- 

tho« mtle hom« «a.r« tM it* ^^ ^^^^^ .^ .^^ .; 

ter. lo October 1^9. t^« ^f '»,,,, „„„,ber there 
Bov.. 61;GirU. 3*- V^r J ..^K^.rphans s.neuly-s.x. 
„;. (an on.ban. --'^^J ^^ J, homes had been 
During .be je« pnor ^^.^^^f^l^ ,( 0.0.0 in eharg.- of 
foanaf-rsixchddren. I»\' **'" ;;,%,,u nnfortunate .-bd- 
tbe institution to Uko a. gnj^-^,^^^^^.,^ ,„,, ,ondit,on 
dren a* ha^e no homes, or » ^ ^ oompassion, j 

^ to render tho possessor nn ob .ct o^ ^_^^^^,^ ^^ 

even though .hey --"j^l---^^ ^,„ ,,,Us of 
mother r»ay neither of » '^ '^'^ ^.j Tompbu-. to givo 
i„tempemnco or « '^^'^^"-''^X it. proteetiou audeave; 
.hoiroffspriug the open ---;;^;J^^i^ ,,ia eonttol and , 

but they mu«t ,^- 1>.1'^{, ;; rff L h'-o -— ^"« 1 
guarJiunsbip of their httlooms.i ,j „,o | 

^tiro expense. After J'"*^'" »^;'';, f hey aro fifteen ! 
instructed by the best of ^^^'^^ ^ '^ eilizon hns 
I yenr. of age. unless a home «.th^^^^^^^^ ^^ j 

^ Lcn found for them '" ^^^^^^^^ .,„ ^oney paid by 

o.,to.-tuo«l«oftl.oB»fon..ilUI»sse>, (,,,j ire||o„,, 

The f, Ilowing was received by us m answer to a loiter 
,1 Tn \ D Wood, late editor ot The Rescue, the 

SCoto^ i--i "' '^»"'°™- -^'"^ '" ^ '^'^' 

I history of 

The Local Option Contest in this State. 

.-For some years previous to 1873. ^he fnem s of tem- 
.'perance in California bad been earnestly ag. tat ng the 
"question ot affording this State an opportunity to ava 
"Lit of themonU and fiuaneial advantages of a local 
" option law. under which tho townships and counties 
.. wbieh so desired could, by a majority vole, suspend or 
"abolish the reUil sale of liquor ^vithm their limits 
" The Good Templars presented to the legislature of 
" 1871-2 numerously signed petitions in favor ot such a 
■' liw and a bill was drafted and introduced by a member 
■■ of the Assembly from Yuba County; but by a * /"otion 
"of the previous question,' its discussion was shut off, 
■' und it was indefinitely postponed by vote ot a large ma- 
" jority. 

" lu the Spring of 1873 the Executive ofBcers of the 
" Grand Lodge of the I. O. G. T. called a convention of 
•= the friends ot temperance ot all denominations in San 
■' Francisco, and a Slate Temperance Alliance was there 
" formed with a view of unity of action in procuring tem- 
" perauce legislation. At the annual session (October, 
" 1873) of tbo Grand Lodge, I. 0. G. T., it was deter- 
'■ mined with much enthusiasm to make a strenuous effort 
' " to procure at Ihe nest session of the State Legislature 
" the passage of a Local Option Law. 

" In pursuance ot this action of the Grand Lodge peti- ^ 
■' tions carefully prepared, and with forms of endorsement j 
" attesting their genuineness, were sent for signatures to 
" every Lodge and other temperance organization in the 
" State, and to many individuals and members of religious 
" bodies, with a request to return them as numerously 
" signed as possible by a given date. 

" In that vear a serious bolting epidemic bad broken 
"out in the political camps; a third, or independent, 
" party was organized for the purpose of correcting or 
" limiting the exorbitant tariff of the Central Pacific 
" Railroad Company. This party had a large majority in 
" the Assembly, and the majority in both bodies were 
" ftivorablr disposed to reformatory legislation in the 
" direction of temperance, as well as of other reforms. 
! " The draft ot a Local Option Act was framed by a 
*' committee of Ukiah Lodge, No. 396, I. 0. G. T.; and 
" through the Hon.W. W. Pendegast was introduced into 

•• the State Senate, and was supported by tho volitions of 
•• about thirteen thousjHid pei-sous, mostly, it not all. vol- 
.. ers It should long bo i-emembored to tho L-rcdit of 
- that Le.'islaturo. that the Aot was i«usod wiUi Htllo 
.' opposition in tbo Senate, on the Hlh ot March. 187^, 
" bv ft vote ot 23 to 11; and on the 14th, m the .Uscmbly, 
" by ft voto ot 52 to 19: and in due time tocoWod tli« np- 
" nroval of Governor Booth. 

,. The frionds of temperanoa weto jubilaul, and wout 
*• vitiovouslv to work to secure, the nceeplauco ot (lio W 
•' ami iU provisions bv the people. Tompcrauee U'ftuu>, 
" wuro delivered and teiiiporance litoraturo .listvibiitfa 
" broadcast, and the W,*„.. organ of the 1. 0. C. T., 11,p 
" Yolo lAii? the Santa Ctwt. Enta-pmr, thi< Lo« Anp.-U'. 
" Mivn>r tho Oakland .Vrtw cm,./ T.amn-irt. the Ihu.UiUI 
■' ao(Hl 7i<li>"js, tho Sail Jose mUpcutlr„t ,i,i.I vl-n <.„f(i.r- 
" hi and various other country papers batllod maaUilly 
I .. (or tho Local Oi>tiou Law. The San Frnii.'ifico Ma. 
\ " Wine Dealers- Uir^eltc, Sacramento Vnm>, San Joso Mcv- 
•' ntru etc., opposed it savagely, and tho other Inrgo 
" daily papers about all were entirely «ilout, save the Saa 
1 " Francisco Post, then a Denmcratio paper, which favor- 

I " ed it. 

1 ..Elections were held in all diveetiona throughout tho 

i .'Stat^ the localities having been a.dively caavasm.1 by 
" both parlies. About seven-ninlhs of nearly ""t- hiuahml 
" district., towns and townships volcd no lieonse hy mauo- 

' "times slim, but more fre-iuently sweeping mujorjtios 
-Tho most aetiv.-lycontestud eloL-li.m waa at Oakl«nJ, 
" ^vhere a number of .lorKymeu and other prou.nient ad- 
" voeates ot temperance, and a host ,.f .xcelleut ChnMmi, 
.. uud benevolent women canvassed and reasone.l will. I h. 
" voters all day. to persuade them io do Iheir n !,. 
■■ ballot box. The day was won by Ihe retomei-a, wilh n 
" minority of about 200 in a total vote ot i,.m. 

.. Woodland had its election preeipitatea hy tla- iidKm 
.. of tho liquor men. who petitioned for it be tore llimr 
" adversaries had become prepared, but the latter won iLo 

" diiv bv two votes. , , ... . 

' Whil every prospect was favorable for the r-adnnee of 
" thlgrealovil, a liquor seller in Contra Costa comity .«« 
..fined $50 tor continuing his bus.noss contrary to i.« 
" Refusing to pay he was admitted to bail during an app«« 
" othoSripreneConvtoftlieStale. The liquor so ler«o 
" San Fmncisco and elsewhere made no Hecre ol havmR 
" deposited to the credit of -Tohn B. IV-lton tl.oir attoruoy, 
.U umotSlO.OOO. payable, ,...;./.n.oshouMp^^^^^^^^^^^ 
.. decision of the Supreme Courtdeclarnigthe L-K^^^n^^^^^^^^^ 
" Law unconstitntional. ^o succchs, no pay. Jndgo h.. 
"de son wasemidoycd by the friends of temperanco to 
.. tflZ leir ease before the Supremo Court. wh.hUo 
.. didTu masterly style. Aftera delay of abont two month 
"?ie m Pi^yot the Judges, WaUace. McKiuslry .,.1 
.. Si-eraflirmed the unconstitutionaldy of the hiw, w 
.. Crockett and Rhodes dissented. It was -"«»!" '" 
.. U.e jnd-es did not pronounce against the law on any ol 
.. theioiuts urged by Messrs. Felton and l''^tlerBOU. 

" Tbns the people ot California, by the -'^t!"«; j^ 
■^ one man. were iyrannieally and unjustly deprived of the 
benefits of a moat wholesome and benehciont law. 

As early as 1801 the order ot Good Templars commcacc.l 
to organize in this county. Covenant Lodge, >"■',■ 
instituted that year at ti-^^-';;^^f ^r'^.^%'^"l « , 
No.46,CobnVater, No. 50, ^'^^f f ■ ^"^ p^irie >. ^ 
Lodge at Buckeye, and later in April, «^^' f ' ^..a ! 
87, was organized at Prairie Seminary, ihe "=^"e «^ 
with twentV-ven charter members, and the >'^'"«;»^ ^''"^" 
changed to "Resolute." Their first officers ..^e A ^ 

Robinson. W. C.T.; Mrs.P. A. ^"I'-no". ^^;^\- YV- 

S. Hamilton, W. 9.; T. Rice. AV. F- J = ^ R-O- i 

J. H. Cunningham. W. M.; Mrs. C. J. ^"^^l-' ] . '„,i. 

I and W. Cole, W. O. G. Its last --;^'"S;va^ J^^ ^l" d- 

I 1.5th of April, 1871. M. C. Winchester of ^^^f"^^.^ 

ine informs us that Cold Water Lodge, >o. -^w. 
I o?med tbere on the 7th ot May, 1«63 This mas 1 
I been a resurrection, as the Grand Lodge Seer »>"> 

I it was organized December 0th. IS^^^.O'^ '^\,T^lih 
October,'866. Woodland Lodge, No. <org^^^^-^wi^^ 

ninety-three charter members, and in 1S,0 tl e "« ^^^^ ^ 
1 increased to ono hundred and nineteen, y"'.^ . jj. 
; bnildiog in which their meetings were f"f^"'7.\„ ex- 
It cost Si.OOO, and ran the society in debt t« s"Cii • 
tent that they eventually lost the pvoperlj% tbe^^^ ^j^ 
afterwards disorganizing. lu August, 1^'"; ir,,i,.bl8 
. Lodges in this county at Woodland, l^;^;''^^'"^' ..Tst.. 
I Landing and CacheviUe, but not one of them now ■ 

Plate N? 34 




Th«re if bat one t6ro|>craDce orgaDization in the coanty 

- '^rit was organized prerions to the time of the 

. coute«t io the State io 187'!, and tbit U the 

J>>i;,'0 of Good Templars nt KiiighLi LaodiDg. 

:„ten\ a\Ktu the qaestion ol Liccu»« or No License 

i-onot)', was iuitiatt'd in Woodlanil. the t-k-ction 

j.Uce on May 8lh, 1871, There were :i80 votes 

ihe count showing a majority of two against ^p-aut- 

ji.i-nMj to Hcll li<inor*. On tlio loth of the same 

Biyntli, Cachu Croek and Graftou townshii^ Tottd upon 

the (jaodion, foHowL-d by I'utab, Fairview, Cottonwood 

and KncUyo, on the Gth of the following June, with ro- 

solts a'' <""'■"■' 



Vlllip of Wuodbni) 
C*tb« C'rr*k. . - 





i CdCllCTillB 


j iKinI UnifUiri . 
— J Wnt iJnid'iu. 

j iKiiiii C'lilliiriwtiod . 

( IWriil L'tjllf-nnooi] 

(IScirtli GtJifloii... 
i H'lilriiew 

(iS'iiflli I'nliili 

(jSniitll t'lituU 


ToiiiU 951 










" I 





















Tlie Supreme Coort of the State decided that the law 
uii(h>r wliich tlio vote wiih taken ivas unconstitu'ional, and 
llioroftTo iiml no effuct, except to show the views euter- 
tuiiiml by tlx- lieople in tbo county. 

At a meeting of the DiKtrict Ltxl^e lield at Knight's 
Liiniliiig, Soptembt'i- fitb, 1870, tho ftillowiug district offi- 
cers were elected and appointed: li. F. Luomis, D. D. 
U. W. C. T.; L. A. ISnkor, M'iutois, D. K. H. S.; S. E. 
Wright, WooiUuiid, D. L. H. S.; Mrs. D. A. Jackson, 
Woo.ihiiul, D. V. T.; M. C. Winchestei-, D. S.; James 
McHcnrv, D. A. S.; B. H. Hoag, 1). F. S.; C. Covell, 
D. T.; Ella Duraerou, D. M,; H. E. Faircbikl, D. D. H.; 
8. J. Norton, D. I. G.; J. H. Norton, D. 0- G.; L. 0. 
Riisaell, Davisville, D. C. Tho number of niembors re- 
ported by tlicui !is in good standing, September 1st, ]879, 
ill Yolo eoiiuly, was 3G2. The reports received by us, a 
part bi'foro fiud some aftev tbiit ditto, gives the total 
tociiiborfiliip lis 102. The following are the present organ- 
izulioii.s iu tlie county; 

SuccRss Lodge, Mo. 300, 1. O. G. T. 

Wns orj-auized January 28th, 187i, at Kniglit'-^ Landing, 
tlio iihiiiler members and first officers being as follows: 

John Easllinm, "^. C. T.; Mrs. S. A. Black, W. V. T.; 
S. J, Fiyntt, ^y. S.; Mrs. M. S. Sbunuou, \V. A. S-; M. 
P. Slmiiiioii. W. F. S.; Sarah Fryatt, W. T.; Thomas 
Smilli. W. R. H. S.; Fred. Menander, W. L. H. S.; W 

D. Y,)nng, W. M.; M'm. Eodgers, "W. D. M.; Harry Wil- 
iiiims.W. I. G.; D. C. Hemlerson, W. O. G-; John Black, 
P. W. C. T.; AVm. Harding and N. M. Elton. Of these, 
f>:i)v Mr. and Mrs. Black and S.J. Fryatt remain active 
ini'iid-ci-rt of the Loilgc. The present officers aro W. H. 
Masters, \V. 0. T.; Addie Eastliara, AV. V. T.; Ella Dam- 
erou.W. S.; Maw Easaiam, W. A. S. ; M. C.Winchesler, 
■\V. F. S.; \V. Ellis, "^^^ T.; H. E. Fairchilds, W. M.; 

E. DiimerDn, AY. D. M.; S. J. Fryatt, W. I. G.; Edgar 
Jolnisoii, W. 0. G.; Andrew Simons, W. C; Etta Mc- 
Dowell, organist. The greatest uurabor of members that 
this society has had at any one time has been sixty; 
at present tliev number forty-seven. The property of the 
loilyo is valued at $2U0, and they report having distributed 
ftboutthe sumo amount in benefits and for charitable pur- 
poses. Their piftco of meeting is in Masonic Hall, at 
Eiiight's Ltruding, on Wednesday evenings. 

j\_\TELorE Lodge, No. 115, I. O. G. T. 
'ft'as organized at Duunigan's Station, on January 31st, 
lS7o. There were eighteen charter members, and the 
society soon became a flourishing one. The number of 
members being at one time one hundred and fourffen, and 
in their piiluiy days they purchased an org.m. At present 
their membership is thirty. Their charter members and 
first olficers were T. K. Cook, W. C. T.; Mrs. M. P- 
t:ook,AY. Y. T.; J. D. Reid. W. S.; L. J- Hoflfman, W. 
A.- S.; H. E. Cook, W. F. S.; Mrs. C. Dunnigao, W. T. ; 
H. C. Elsev, W. M.; Mi-s. A. Cook, AY. D- M.; Dennis 
Brilzms, A\-. C; Mrs. A. Reid, A^^ E. H. S.; Mrs. M. J. 
Hoffmrto, AY. L. H. S.; Miss Lizzie Dunnigan, AY. I. G.; 
J- 0. Walkev, A\\ O. G.; Mrs. Silva Arnold, P. AY. C.T.; 
James AvnoUl, Felix Green, B. Davis and W. H. H- Copp. 

Of this oomber Uim Li-ri. n ■ 
actite member tT DoDBigia oe! 

CvPAT Vallet Lodoe, Xo. 419, 1. O. G. T. 

90n''^«"'^r' '*'*^?°*^* '^""l''''"' ^'^^'rom Febnwr. 
™, 1810. Im„.g been iruititDted at t)mt time io Udr- 
vdle, with the following orticer«. who were charter mom- 
be«: E. H. McCnty. V.'. C. T.; Mr.. J. M. E>.on. W. 
V. 1.; K. A. Stevens. Chaplain; C. X. Marders. Secre- 
tory; Sellers. A. S. ; Mrs. M. McCr.v. Trea«ur*r; Z. 
F. I-owIer, W. M.; Hannah Ko«.. \Y. L 6.: F. H. Fow- 
ler, \\. O. G.; Annie Gordon, AV. R. H. S.; Alice Tre- 
gaakis, AV. L. H. S.; G. M. Eaton. P. AY. C. T. In ad- 
dition to those who were elected officcn* Nhi>uld be aihled 
the following names to make complete the list of charter 
members: G. A. Eaton, G. M. Tregaski«, E. L. Clark. 
C. A. Hoffmaster, Marion Millsap, Mrs. Earnest Kotherj] 
Albert Wood, M. P. BulTuin, B. M. Kothery, B. G. Gordon 
and Henry Cook-y. Of tho original numbers only E. L. 
Clark and M. P. B-,ift'um rem.tin active momhore. 
The present officers aro Snmnel Mungor. AV. C. T.; Mra. 
S.J. Norton, W. R. H. S,; Jennie Benham.AV. L. H. S.; 
Eslella Nash, AV. V. T.; Jesse StolliuH, W. S.; Oscnr 
AVyatt. W. A. S.; W. AV. Norton. W. F. S.; J. H. Con- 
nor. W. T.; E. D. Hughes, W. M.; Ella Wyatt. W. D. 
M.; Emma Norton, W. I. G.; A.. Chinn,AY. O. G.; E. L. 
Clark, W. C; J. H. Norton, P. W. 0. T. Their present 
members number forty-eight, and they had at one tiico 
sixty-three. The financial conJition is gooil, and they 
have disbursed for charity, etc., about $l.jl). 

Winters Lodoe, No. 105, 1. 0. G. T., 

Was organized on May2(;tli, 1876. The charter members 
and first officers wero Wra. Sims, W. C. T; L. A. Sira«, 
W. V. T.; Ed. Bean, W. S ; T. J. Maxw-dl. AV. F. S.; 
Faunie Maxwell, AV. T.; Edwin Markwick, AV. M.; Mary 
Garner, W.I G.; Alex. Craig, W.O. G. ; B. J. Humilton, 
W. C; and Ed. Ferguson, P. \Y. C. T. Tho charter 
members that were not first officers, were Emeritt Max- 
well, George Sims, M. F. Hctoii, E. A. Moody, H. Allisfjn, 
Puris Allen, Warren Hord, and A, F. Walker. Of this 
number the only active members at present arc AVm. Sims, 
L, A. Sims, A. Craig aud E. A. Moody. The present 
officers are AYm. Pior.W. C. T.; Mattio Irekmd.W. A'. T.; 
Alice Wilson.AY. S.; V. Morris,W. F. S.; Nannie Morris, 
W. T.; John Jones, W. M.; Bettie Mori is, AV. I. G.; 
FraiikHodge, W. O. G.; H. Smith, W. C; and L. A. 
Sims, P. W. C T. The Lodge had at one time fourteen 
more'members than at present. They now number eighty- 
seven. The propertv of the society is valued at about ?100, 
nud thev meet at Pythian Castle, Winters. They have a 
juvenile" Lodge connected with this society. Its object is 
to surround the children as they grow up with such influ- 
ences as will impress upon their minds, by their associa- 
tions and companionship, the pledge they have taken to 
abstain from intoxicating drinks, the use of tobacco and 
to speak always the truth. There are about eighty children 

iu this Lodge. 

Occidental Lodge. No. 198, L O. G. T. 

In Cipav A'allev there was a Lodge of Templars orgon- 

i.ed June i7th, 1S77, with the following fi|.t offi-rs, w ho 

.vera charter members: E- J. McKinney, . C- T.. Mr. 

B M Johnson,W. E. H. S.; Mary Mocroft W^L. H. h 

T^ := W V T ■ J B. Everett, A\. S.; Lizzie 

T^: leUoo Ke.v.oKU, P. W- C. I.; Br„w„. 

'fr'tf.rrJamesB« Betsy B„ne., P. C. Dennis, 
the first term^Jame.'^^ ^^.^^^ ^.^^^^ 

rj'^k rrow:?:^ c'-ziioa B. M .... 

1 W i. D- At present tUey hare twelre n>en,ter=- 

lue, at ih* ImmI of Capaj VaUvv. 

■■■ n. 

CunoioLn LoDOB. No. 310. 1, o. o. T. 

Thi» LoJgtN wi \ it^th, 

' .iber». werr: t.i. W . AKonl. W.l'.T.; Xlrx K 

1 • ■>. AV. R. H. S ; Augu-u HngglM. W. L. H. 

S.: Jlisi MiUic Uol.tDAOD. W. V. T.; V. H. Siblry. AV 

C; E. M. IWach. A>. S,; Aradin PwhiT. W. A. S.;*0 A. 

Brown. AV. F. S.; ElU Purler, AV. T.; Kalo M.n.rt.. \V. 

M.; Frank Hoiimv, Ji. D. M.; Letlic UrdtoK, \\. HJ.; 
I nod A. B. Sertrn, W. O. G. Tin' Charlrr mrmbrr* who 
! did not hold office van: J. J. lk>wmau. F, AV. H.'«oli. U. 
' P. Daridiinn, B. F. Jackson, James Buchniuin, Elln Coii- 
I grsTtf, B. 8. DenuiK, Mnrr Koau. D. A. Jnek»tin, Mr*. 
: C. S. Juck»on, Mr». H. M. Jnckkuu, J. 1). Fwrj^ivou, Mr*. 

Ella Fisher, E. M. Dnvidkon, P. U. Haggle*, Jr., A. l>. 

Davidson. I>:>ui)( Schvto. 1.Awruuru UuriiH. Mm. P. H. 

Sihhy. MfH. C. P. Spraguo. H. l>. AVIiile. and \V. F. 

Warren. The present officer* are: C. A. Itrunn, W. V. 
\ T.; Mn*. P. L. Pool. AV. II. H. S.; MiN* S. Wright. W. 
i L. H. S.; Mrs. E. David-wn. W. V. T.; H. M. Goin. W. 
1 S.; Minnie Cro»a, W. A. S.; Mm. D. A. Juoknuii, AV. P. 
' S.; Fmnk Houfte. W. M.; Alioo Greene, W. D. M.; 
i Amelia Fisher. AV. I. 0.; LouU Schyte, W. O. G.; Mm. 
I H. P. Martin, AV. C; and Geo. Air.i.l. P.W.C.T. Tlio 
I I.Mdgo nt prcFient hoH a membciHhip of tiovonty, tho 

higliast nninbcr Ihey have over hiut ut any one tirno. 
I Tlioir property is valued at one hiindrrd dullam, ood ttioy 

meet at Odd FuUuwa' Hall, in Wuodland. 

was organized November sistli, 187H, Tho fimt officers 
and Charter niembors were: J. E. Wooden, W. U. T.; 
Mary Wootten. AV. A'. T.; J. Au-htt, W. H.: H. Gill. W. 
F. S.; Nellie Cote, AV. T.; G. K. HolmcH, W. M.; O. T. 
Smith, AV. L G.; W. W. AVootten, AV. O. G.; I>. A'. Colo. 
P. W. C. T.; John Frank, A. Audett, N. Milen, Mrs. 
Shorman, Miss A. Eice, MitiH N. Colo, F. Lower, nnd B. 
Howell. The proHcnt officers are: J. Audett, AV. 0. T.; 
Ada Rice, W. \. '£., B. Howell, W. 8., G. T. Smith, W. 
F. S.; A. Audett, AV. T.; E. Howard, AV. M.; John 
Brown, W. I. G.; — Kon-, W. O. G.; E. Archer, W. <;., 
iuid J. E. AVootten, P. AV. C. T. The Society has thidy- 
two members, no property, owe forty doIlurM, and have 
tho rent of hall paid twenty-two montim in advance from 
July lat, 1879. They moot at HaincH' Hull, in Madison, 
on Monday evenings. 

AViLLOW Spitiso Lodoe, No. 270, I. O. O. T. 

Tho last Society organized in tho connty wan nt AVilloir 
Spring SchooldiouBo on the twelfth of July, 1879. Tho 
nninbcr of Charter niemborH were twenty-five, and tho 
first and present officers are: D. 8. Denni-*, W. C, T., 
Lizzie Beaming, AV. V. T.; W. L. Bubeii, W. S.; H, 
Slat'.T, AV. F. S ; F. Cotton. WT.; L. Flinn, W M; E. 
Ludiic, AV. I. 0.; L. Fisher, AV. O. G.; Owen FHnn, P, 
W. C. T. and L. D. Tlioir time and place of meeting is 
AVillow Spring School-house, on Saturday evenings. 

Onios Lodge, No. 224. I. 0. G. T. 
At Davisville, on (he 7lh of May, 187!), tho above- 
named and numbered Lodge was inslitnted. The first 
officers wero W. H. Bradshaw, AV. C. T.; Mrs. W. H. 
Marden. W. V. T.; Miss Kate Moore, W. E. H. S.; MIm 
Marv Rossell, W. L. H. S.; Mr». M. Dickeou, AV, C; 
A. Nethercotl, Sr., P. AV. C. T.: Geo. Emery, \V. T.; 
Fuller P. McClure, \V. F. S.; N. Sulttbur^-. W. O. G.; 
Jennie Hunt, AV. L G.; Dr. T. B. Peoree, AV. M.; Mrs. 
Russell, \A". D. M. Tlid followingwercaUo chartorniom- 
hers; B- H. Hoag, W. E Murden, Nellie Marden. AV. B. 
Hart Mrs. W, B, Hart, Grant Maiden, Chas. Pearce, A, 
Netb'ercott, Jr.. Jo-ieph N«,-tbercott, Geo. Nelheicott, 
Geo. Mount, AV. Wilder, G. B. AVeir, Chaft. Hoag; 
H T and Mis. H. T. Johnson, S. O. and Mrs, S. O, 
and B B. Baker. The present officers are ns follows: AV. 
H Bradshaw, W. C. T.; Mrs. Dickson, W. L. H, 8.; 
Miss Ada Winters, W. E- H. S.; Grant JIarden, W. F. S,; 
Marv Boiisell, W. T,; A. Nethercott, Sr,. P, AV. C. T.; 
Mrs W. H. Marden, W. V. T.; Mr», Bu«stll, AV. C; W. 
E Marden. W. M.; Kate Moore. W. D. M.; Nettie Mar- 
den W. S.': Fuller P. SleCIare, AY. F. S.; A. Wfailebrea-I, 
W O G.:Chas.Pearce,W. I.G. ITiey meet in Masonic 
HiU in Davisville, on Wednesday ereningof each week. 




TL^ Ut. repotted to w oo o«mb«r ol »«»*»«^J^* 

U-m v-c r J report. poW-fcrf Ibi^ gi« tb« oimber »■- 


In Ortohef. 1870. tb« fiM Lodge o( tb« Order «»«- 

J, , - - ' t!,DOgh oaliOMl. i» ; 

I ,,' . ti... *..iM letter through "lU 

' '"",, , ,' . ■ ; T.:tDper«ac« »D«J 0<kk1 Tempi*™ 

. iL. ».,mc ro-1. The Sow b*ii.g a re- 

( ,„ , , , I ,^,1 ,h- T*mpUn* UkiDg • step in «.l- 
««c.. n.i«.a IL... . 1 «^i.ti..D in their Iodg«. 

of the .colh«n. u. . ^. »1'0 soffcr n.OH from the 

effect of iDtc.m:-:r»cc... l;al tha«- bo.!ie,. 5re only r^fonn- 
»U>n. The ci.smpion. of the lUA Cvo^ go farther nml 
orga'niz^ » lK.n.fic.«rA- a. well M a rcformatorj .T.iem. 
Their mc-mWm ma,t abstain from lh« ««o of Hkohohc 
drink* u >, total iiV«lincncc Wing » con.l.tion 
prcce.lentton.embervbip. Th. Sodoly *.-*k« «l^o to re- 
form thedrunkanl a,ul hold book the temptc-a from mdol- 
genco. covering both the «tn>e fi..-ia n« th. Templars «nd 
th« Sons ^.1 in nddition thereto have a system o pocan- 
iury bonofiUfor iU membom, vi-rj- 8im.h>r to the Odd tel- 
owaand kindred secret wcietieH. 

SiLVEii Stab EscvMriiEST. No. 67, of >Udisos. 

An ort.«ni«.tio» of an Encampment of tho on er known 
n. Cl.anM.ions of the Ited CroH« took place at M'jd..on on 
th« -M J December, 187S. Tho following are th. nam « 
of tho.e who constituted the charter meml.ors. «. h ank 
held bv each as the On^t officers af that E"K-.;mpmcnt : J. K. 
Wnntlen. Com.; Annie Lower, J. Com ; J. J. McKenna. 
R S ■ 1-. N. Henrich. h. S.; D. Treasurer. J. 
AudeU. Capt. of H. un.l Pi^trict Deputy; Arthur hcoU. 
Chaplain ; 0. U. Adam.. Vast Con..: L. Francisco, Cham- 
pion of U. C: Mary A. Woottcn. Mistress of Ceren.on.^; 
A.„.ie Au.ktt. Comp.; E. B. Hughes. 0- G.; W. M Lo«- 
er 1 G ■ F A. Buiton. Thomas Montgomery and Henry 
Olle.' At present their officers are J. J. Mol^-"' ^«™^ = 
Famne A. Mclvenna, J. Com.; E. H. Archer. K. S.; F.N. 
llwui.l.. l\ S.; Maviah Henrich. Treusurer; A. Scott C 
of H.; iVunio Audett. C. of R. C; .\.Uxe R.ce. Lndj , J 
H. Connor. Gont.; John Franlyn L G.; B.rgo U.-». 
O a ■ .1 E. Wootten. P. Com.; H. Troop, Cl.ap. The 
Onlei'iK in a pro.pero«« condition; it h,^foi.ty.four m..«- 
bers. n.ver having had move than that number u any one 
Une sin.-e its org-Tnizalion. As tl.o d,ite shows, thoy are a 
"^.g order and" have accumulatea but little .n property 
or funds, but have all they ne.d for the present, however 
They miel at the Haines Hall, in Maa.son. on every 
M'utlnesilfty night. 


^,^,... I'-thattimonntathepn^.;^*:^^ 

of .b.t » Mt -f ^^^ They h*vc s Ate 

»n orK*n called ti nhm PounsjUamft. \\ »*- 

»«ociation. in IHi->'- Il'l"""" ^ i Conn^tirot- Add to 

con,un. I»... ^*---^*^'^^l^"^t^T^i« to » large 
thU the 6»llV>:* member* of cW-^^^^^ ^^ 

' '°^-T':;rir;;"';:;r'.« 

! tions wMiwrfected December I. 111. !■»' • ,-.„(«„,,„: 

' I M PalmerandlU^v.A. Mnsslemnnaro^lco-Pre•»KUnt3. 

Tame" of tl!irly-thrcepor«o,« appeared upon tho>r soc.etj- 
books as membop*. _ , 

In Cauav vnlley. March -2711.. IS79. a constitution and 
bvL^T^ic eovernment.wa..^^^^^^^^^ 
lliilm of their object, in maintaining the 
the thiid HOcliou rca.U as follows: 


O.UlFdlow* ^ 

Tarn VarwB ••■1 



40O 00 
SOS 00 

3^000 00 


» [ tw.oi6 w 

OTvl>*a'a ilotkm. 



iii 111 

'NDWO'**! ■ 

11 V All 

ur^*i* .,. 

liV. " 1 

ii>n> . ■ ■ 

1ft. o,-. 

1 l.-ul»l 

■Jill ''i 

si ?r » 

1 Uj I'- 

< 1 5 11 Jl 

s u lo! I 

2 1 » 3« 

10' u i:< ic 

■.-3 mrj »■( ti 0. l'|_f 


i: IS 

5l j«i. j.^Tas.l...J«]r-'l"innlii«>i»- 
i-jii' i: tjspio'I'i-. 't'»i'T- 

■;i U»r so T!- M>ilii.~l«> W.udlani. 
«1 Jl.T l.-PJ W.Jii'»il") PimvlUc, 
» Jjiii. IS. "• WrJnvdA) Urtlfn 

»(» ■ - 


TololGondTBniplnrs - ■•--• ,^ 

AiUSoiisTenipemuceiitD..vis»ille ^^ 

■• Pbinfirlii ; ■ 

AddCh«mrion9 0tlheRrfC.o*s(««. __ 

T,>. J OTEaniwd l«ui*m»ce f«t« in U.= conniy ■'-'-' 

Cam^AS ASSOCUTIO.S- OrrosEo to SzcmT SoaETiEs- 
1-re Strexgth is Tolo Cousty. 

. Iv -.ttenae^l and the feeling, to a cert;u« extent. 
'''''^T'^Ia M- J.Blanchard. of ^Leatou Illinois. 
X ^Uiled ToWnnty this year, was the soul of the or- 

..Theb«sinc.a and obje.t of ^^^ As.ocmt.on si all be 
.. to oppose, wilhstan.1 and remove the «v.l« of oret so 
.■cieties. Free-Masonry in particular. ^f^^^l^^J^^ 
.. CbriBtian movements, in order to save the t • "' ^^^« °^ 
.< Christ from being dopvaved. to reacem tho '^^^^ 
" tion of justice from perversion, and our Republ.t-an 
" government from corruption." 

Frederich L. Jahn. familiarly known by bis followers as 
Father Jahn, was ti.e founder, at Berlin, m l;"- "^ '^ 
8y.stem of muscular developments that has made of Ger- 
many a ruling factor in the balance of power in Lurope. 
The students up to h'.s lime studied and clevelop..! the 
brain, drank beer, and nnnervo.l the boJy. Ja ni con- 
ceived tlie idea that the muscles as well as the miud should 
be improved, and npcncl a gymnasium for students where 
they wore tangbL the nso of arm., how to acquiro physical 
stnmgth, and to love liberty. In 1814, under his leader- 
ship, a regiment of his pupils entered Pans, and by tho.r 
braveryattractedthoattcntionoE the government, Imme- 
diately after the Turner societies began to spnng up 
tbrongh Germany; but thoy were the nurseries ofliberty 
aud the hot-beds of treason and insurrection, and in lOlB 
the founder was thrown into prison, where he remained 
nntil 1825, and was then released upon condition that he 
slopped in no town where there was aunivenuty. He lived 
to seo his pupils rival tlm proudest acts of the ancient 
Greek Three regiments of them joined the German army 
iu llie war against Denmark in ISW, and but nine of them 
survived the shock of baltlcs to return again to their homes 
as examples of «hat it meant to bo a patriot and a T'lruer. 
On October 15th. 1352, Father Jahn died, bnt he had left 
his impress upon the age. aud the order that he had 
founded continued and increased until it now covers 
Germanr, America, and exists where Ihe Teuton i« found 

over the world. _ , «r n i 

The German population in the vicinity of ^Noodlantl 
1 followed the example set by their counlrjmen all over the 
' United States, bv organizing. February 8th. 1S71, a Turn 
Vereiu society, and erected a hall-buildiog, south of and 
faoin" the eourt-bouse stpiare, at a cost of $3,000. They 
meet°on the first Wednesday of each month, and have a 
membership of twenty-five at the present time. Their 
eharter members were E. Hoernleio. President; P. Hum- 
mel. Secretarv; Otto Schluer, Treasurer; H. Hulin, Turn 
Leader; Christ Sieber, Janitor; P- Krellenberg, J. H. 
Arnold, and Anton Miller, Trustees; John Scbnerley, S. 
Kiufman, Clans Sievers, W. Knox, W. Hummel, W. Kel- 
ler S. Sebardin, G. -ftirlb, D. Sebindler. G. teller, M. 
Bemmerlv, and IJ. Furrer. present officers are K- 
Scbardin', President; Christ Sieber, Secretary; P. Krel- 
1 leuberg. Treasurer; T. Kuhn. Turn Leader; H. Kuhn, 
I Janitor; and John Schnerley, E. Hoernlein, and H. Kuhn, 
1 Trustees. 

Schools of Yolo County. 

ili;« 8chMl-W<wlUnd School - Hotpof l»o C*Uoe»- 

Tho first school was taught in Yolo county by Mr. Tylor, 
, and wo have been unabh. to leavn anything concerning the 
mailer, except that Ihoro was some k.nd of a stmctuvo 
■ about one milo up Oacbo creek, fvoin Gordon «, in tho 
Spring of 1847, when and wliero liiis pmneer toadiev iii- 
Htracted eight pnpiU., Tho second school was at 1-rmnoiit. 
in a frame building erected by Jonas Kpeet, ^v "■"'.>» 
184'.l Miss Matilda Mcduid, formerly of iilooiaington, llli- 
„oi9. commenced to tea.h Iho children of those who were 
stopping for llie Fall an.l Winter in tlmt v. lago. ihore 
was a privatu sclmnl at Wasbington at an curly dale, and it 
was probaldv the third in tho county. Mr. Whcaton now ,j 
hiwver in San Francisco, having had chavgo of it. W chud 
among our notes taken several months Imek, the 
Tliero was one school in the county in 1851, and sevenly- 
fivo children between four iind .Mgbteen years of age. Ui 
lasa, there were two seliools and one huiidied and for .V- '- 
three children reported between tho r.gos of four and Mglit- 
oeu- but us the number of eUitdren in IHoli is identical 
with that reported in 1852, it would seu-m that the fornior 
years statistics were ft copy of those of 1H52. and not reli- 
ublo data. Unforlunatoly wc failed to note the soin.'o of 
this information, and Iind It impossible to recall unyUimg 
regarding it; consequently we are now forced to record 
the naked facts as noted, without being certain of the io- 
calion of the school in 1851, bul snpposo it must liavobeoii 
atAVashington. If tliis conclusion is coneet, it follows 
tlmt the two schools in 1853 were at Washington and Y o o 
City, now Woodland. Tlio latter is frequently referred to 
by old residents as having been tlie iirst in the county, 
although it was in fact the fourth; bnt it is ihelJrst regard- 
ing which we have been able to obtaiD definite knowledge, 
which is as folloivs: 

In the early part of 1H53, tho peoj-le living south of 
Cache creek who had cliildren needing school facilities 
erected a building on the land later owned by H. L. 
Beamer, within four rods of the south line of his place, 
aud where Fourth street would iuter.seet it if continued far 
enough north. The building wa.'. 16 by 20 feet, the frame, 
floor, window and door casings being of sawed oak liim- 
ber, while the roof and sides were covered with oak shakes. 
There were four windows, two on either side, and a door 
in the west end. The furniture consisted of seats eight 
feet long, made from two-inch plauks, by inserting puis 
into them for legs, the desk being a seat witli longer legs- 
The lumber was all hand-sawed by Joseph German. J- 
C. Welch was the first teacher, and he informed us that 
be was paid SlOO per month by the school patrons. Jolm 
Morris. Robert AVelch, F. C. Kuggles, Mrs. High. J. M. 
Harbin, George McConnell, Wm. G Belcher. John Cops, 
Wm. Gorden, the WolfskiUs and Hop. Works of Gordon 
valley. The books used were such as each family hap- 
pened- to possess. There were Bay's, Smith's and Smdeys 

Plate H? 35 

Plate N° 36 


^f p.. 

-■* CO -°JJa 

prr^^^^-^^^-^^^^rTF^^i^^lTERRY^o'n voLO co.,cal. 

7- S^ i.l.Oi'/-'* <. i ' '"■" 3 ^- 



ttoDeticR, seteral kin'U of readers, and three scholars 

■aJiwi Sfuitb'n grammar. The school was taught fire 

** ,^j, I,j Mr. Welch, commencing in April or Jlay, ami 

ibe ittt-ndJiuce averaged about twenty papiU. Ho «a« suc- 

^(j [,v Joseph Ocrman, followed by L, li. Itngglog. 

It «u i» *'"** bnildiug tbat tlie Sons of Temperance 
Srti organ'**' "" tbis county, and the bnilding was after- 
9tpi* gi*^*^" ^ *'"^ pnblic, and in it was taught the finit 
blic whoolby Bev. J, N. Pcodegast, in District Xo. 1. 
Some tiiufi'l'»''inH IHij-'I, a scIkjoI house wua built on the 
luwl DOW owned by A.W. Morris, north of Cache Creek, and 
aMliiP school ceDsas reports of 1851 show but three scliools 
in ilie connty, they most have been in the Woodland. 
iEfC'l iiD«l WailiingtoM buildings. 

Ill 1855, L. M. Mering was elected County School Sa- 
CTiuteuiUiit. Previous fo tliis the County ^Vsaessor had 
iicld ill lli«t capacity, and fortunately Muring's re- 
iiort for tiint year regarding school matters in Yolo be- 
camo a pi""' "f *''** f^t'it^ records and was preserved. It 
nnpenrs from it that in 1855, Cache Creek District No. 2, 
incloiling tiie Heed school hnuso, was north of the creek. 
It iiIho Biif'iua tiiat there was n school in the Cottonwood 
Dislriot, llic building being on what is now known as the 
UurHt riuioh. Afterwards it was moved about one mile 
Hontli to where the road now leads from Woodland to Madi- 
(«Hi. It was enlarged to a two-story building in about 
1858, ami (he nami- Cottonwood Academy given to it. The 
following is Superintendent Mering's report: 


Ther«wa«one tier of «...u around .be room ^iU. . 
ro«ghl, ,„t „p de.k in front of it. Thi. was f« larg^ 

;; Beats for small children. The number of ^holars were 
about weUe.,e^;(faiK^ u, 

^ gct.n.t.aU., Thedi.lricteilcndedrr,.mKmghf«I^ad. 
>ng to the foothills and from Ciu:he Cr.-«k t.. Duanigans 
After a new housv wo^ built it took the name of Prairie 

^ Seminary. The present building is a splendid country 
school baddiug, costing close to $->.00O. well sapplicil 

" witli apparatus, patent desks, maps, charts. bUckboanl 
* clock, good library, etc. Number of scholars enrolled, 

" sixty. The school building bos a pleius,'ii.l Ii..-ation. nn,i 

" has been built about five years." 
In one paiticular Mr. Dingle has Ite^^n miMnfonucd. 

The district that he gives the boundaries of was No. 2, and 

when the schoolhonse described by him was bnilt it was 

divided, and two districts formed, the diviston taking place 

after the above report of Supt. Mering had been mudo. 


L. 31. MERING, Soperintesdest. 

NAIIK 01" SCiroflL. 












An ^ 






Total Elpinilltara for 

SrliouU kJUiId each 






OipIioCrwli.DI-trictNo 1 
No- 2 

( 276 
' 04 





100 00 

80 UO 
8(1 00 
62 7r, 

$500 00 

ino 00 

C:('2 50 
251 00 

¥HJ UUjc. D.TiblioUs ,, 
Im. a. WhcQlon 


7C 80 
lU 00 

tao 00 

W. C Wrigbl. r. Crowikr, J. 0. Dower 
[ HG-Grimib.J.M.Hong.E.aTuylor 
Mttura. AndcnoD, Blcplien^ 


2f)3J 20[ $621 40 

$00 00 

91,613 SO 

?817 00|Fi¥e Teoohera. 

I» 18M. Mr S. W«kot l»<«: .p,riat««U«t. 

«a be -Utr,a«t»b«» he««ou sol tfa^ofiMv 

««TP w^re MX ichooU in the o.ootT, tb« ittw nkW to 
Ibo^ ol 1S55 Uin« id Mcmil. »Wt« ihi-r* «u abont 
twtlv* schoUrs. Tb« l^rwMt fc-h.K)l in ihc conolv thai 
Jew wu at W(K)dI«»,t. thcrr. Wing aboni usIt Be'fauUrw 
under on^ I.Arhpr. Ui» C*rri« T*mpl«|,.«. 

In about lf<;7. th." i^,pl« of Uic w-unty Wgtn to Ulte a 
gnater iutorvst in cduralional uiatlcr»,'aDd Ibr pniolic« 
preTionnlt iu«ugiirat«>.l, of haotU)* cvtoi|wtiliio titeratj 
enlprt«inmeiiti bclvt-c'n diBfeimt M-hoiiU. b^^auo quitV 
iwpular. Among the moct imjv.TliUit of ttissc. writcM «no 
who i^rticipatcd. " wms a Mny-day Htrrarj ootilP.). h«Kl 
" ntw CichcTille, about lS.i7. in which all Uio Mh<HiU in 
" the county iwrticipatod, and a jitiLl cihiltilioii couImI 
'• between thoCottODwootl Aoulomv and ihf I'niou 8oh<H)l 
" of llnokeje, hold on Mr. Damo'rou'» ranch. May lOlli, 
•• I84B. 

'• At Iho Utter of Ui«m conteata, the schohin of each 
" school wore clauiticd by a roumiltiw, and they con- 
*' tended for some thirty book piiiw, valuiHl at about 
'• iloO, which were purcha-wd bv apiuopriatiiiUH fnim the 
" school funds and by subscriplioiiH ia llm two diatricla. 
" Tlio tcaehwra wore J. 51. Covington, of the Cotlouw.Kid 

i " Academy, and Kirkw.Hid, of tlio Union School. 

" The L-xamining and awanliiig committwo conniHtod of 
"County Supt. H. Oaddis, Elder J. N. Poudtfgiwt, and 
. " John Q. Lisle, Emi. 

" Tlio Cottonwood Academy suocvtKlod in carrying away 
" a majority of the pri/cs." 
j The advaucouiont miuht in educalioiiat matters from 
, 1S57 until the present tiait' could bu given no way no com- 
pletely as by the following Ntnliftlical tabli', compiled from 
( the reports made by the different School HiipitrintondontH, 
I On page 70 will ho found an important table, giving 
; names of the present distnets and uterkt thereof, location 
of solioot -houses, value of itame, with lots, libraries and 
school apparatus. We would like to make to the parents 
a suggestion :— Would not those fibu'ational honu-t for 
your chihlrcQ bo bettor adapt^td to the purpose for which 
thoy wore built if each oonlained a generous growth of 
shade trees ? 


Froni the Iltpori of \ht County .Scliwil Suptrinltntlmlt, 1854 lo 1870, tnrfiwlM. 

NiiinliiT ii( DislriolB 

Niiiiilii t ijI Sphijols 

Niiiiil" r ijf Si'liool tloiisL'H. 
No. of Sotiixil HniiHi.>ti built 

Ni'.iif lat gmiSi; Schools 
Kn. nt Miilo TciicLers. 
S.ilnrj' " '■ av. 

Nil. ol Foiunle " 

f'llnry " " uv. 

Vjil.HoHBo.Furaituro. tla 

" I.ibmry 

" Aiipiinitiis 

Tutiil Vnl. of I'roiiotty .... 
I'liid tor>ili"i, biiililiug. etc. 

" " Lilirnry 

" " A|i|iariilllB 

Tiilnl Ex]!iiurea 

Avr.|,in,, >;n. Muulhs in nil 

^'i.i'tii'iurj; iiriv.-ile suhoo)*! 

''liiUniniii.lrT four ! .. 

"I'.VB Iwt. lour mill citibtecii j 334 
C.irls " •' '■ 

TolnlChiUlreiibct 1 & 18 t 11331 

CbitilrpD bom ill Califoruift 

Atlciiiliiig Scliciol 

ATi;rnj;e daily jiCcudiiuoQ. . 

hoi'onul^nijcufs Siilnrj'., . 


llifie 11118 ono Scliool in 1851 and Ivfo in 1853. 


I85I. one IiundreJ and totty-thtce in 1S53, ftml one hnn.lied ■nd forty-ilitw) In IMS. 

On the Virginia ranch there was in early days a frame 
l>uilding owneil by Parish and Tyler that bad been 
lirought aionud Cape Horn from the Eastern Stiites. It 
was used by those gentleman as a residence, and was 
located on the old Indian mound or lancberia about one 
Imudrea vards np the creek from where A. Griffith now 
'i^es. Mr. Griffith thinks that iu 1856 it was converted 
into a si^hool building, and became the first schoolhouse 
iuCadieviUe: it is now the property of, and used as a 
woodshed bv the informant. This bnildiug was suc- 
ceeded by the structure nsed as a Court-house, that 
Ijeing abandoned by the county as a seat of justice was 
appropriated bv the people of the district as a seat of 
l^«niiag. I« 1S74, their present fine two story budding 
If as erected at a cost of $6,000; the furniture lor the 
same costing $600 additional. The building (iUustration 

\ There iroro seventyfive children m^een tie nges ot fonr and eight ocd Iu 


t-rom 18CG to 1873 inclo^ve. the m.mber Inken was of girls between five and Bfleen, after 1873, between 
Wtween five and Bcvenleen years. 

Of which see) is 30 x 56 feet, with an L 25 feet square. 
The second story is used by the Masons as a hal . it ib 
the finest school bnildiug outside of Woodland m the 

connty. _ 


It had been determined by the T-^^'«f,,fPPfi^.,f 
zue conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
"1859 o establish aniustitntion for educational purposes 
on the Pacific coast in such county m Cahfomn, as sub- 
scribed the most money to faciUb>te the enterprise. At a 
meeting of those Trustees, held at Sacramento, November 
^Itb of that year, they located the proposed Pacihc Meth.v 
dUt Cole^e at CachevUle, in this couuty- There was 
i 10 subiribed to procure this result, the subscnpt.on 
$S,110 subsenijea TO P^ ^_ ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^_^ foUowed by 

Then came 


H. and C. R. Hoppin $300, J. D. Stephens, Wm. Gordon, 
D. N. Hershey ?250 each, A. Griffith, Chat. Coil, S. N, 
Mering, C. Nelson, H. C. Ycrby being liberal subscribora. 
The location was transferred to Vjicaville because J. A. 
Button could or wonld not give a warrantee deed to the 
land, and the failure to retain this institution at Cocheville 
was one of the principal causes which led lo the return of 
the connty seat to Washington. 


list being headed by W. G. Hunt with $5(X>, folio 

The first school-house at Knight's Landing was erected 
in 1857, and the first school there was tanght in that budd- 
in" during the foUowing year by — Crane, who was suc- 
ceeded in three months by the since notorions Geo. M. 
Pinuev. who in Uter years became a defaulter and ab- 
ded but erentoally returned to San Francisco, but 

J. A. Hu»on with S500 and ten «"^^ ?,^,,^"^-^ J?"? ^^ ' the precentors faded to convict him of any crime. 
1?. R Trf^we with a promise to pay toOO, succeeded by d- . f . 





'- i- 


lUtL i'lt.J. W. Si»o«UlIutilC«pt.rpde«rafl' 

- «id lb* »~ "- - -^t fl.OOO. C. F. 

) 1.4, th* . -oibfri 1H(10, »n.l 

\' ' ' -' c;; toOO. ttuitronltl B'»t 

i.« rtniclon" »a« "oM to 
I , ? I >i, sD J « 11 it-*tori ImiM- 

..( tuwn. at K coKt of J3.500. 
J;, - , 1-UiI iiii;; in tt eoiniinM!ii>OH 
tli. .ii-u.i.:- >ii.u- iU erection tbo 
I iatu l»o department*, tlic lii>;tuT 
luocd gTBii*-, the fin«.t ami wcoml 
• \\\ f.non oj ill'- Lr-l tinulr. and fiiH|<)i*ui&n of llio -a-ool*! 
t;riJi.-. 'In tJie primary dipartnit-nt nre l«nghl all iho 
)-.«.r u'U'i'-^- In the aclioul libnirv thctt* lire iilx>ul "J^W 
Vij|DiiJ<'«. Tbf lioildiog in well jirnTnle'l willi lilitokUoanla, 
ti\u\M-*, tu.-i|j«, etc., and the groniidH arc sufticifntly hirgo, wtthoat tre«s or other orramentalioii. I'or several 
yoam aflfr the dlstric-t wiw organizj'il, t\wy lind only frt»ni 
three Uf ttix months of wboni anDually. Sinco lifl'-i they 
havo addwl to tho time, makiug the yearly tonus iii- 
fludw from nine to It-n moDtlm. Thf present tiUBteos are 
C. F. Reed, IV. P. Shannon and E, Oyer. Tlio teachers 
nro T. J. Ooin, astiiKtcd hy Mtxit L. ILtgen. 


The first term of school iu Davisville. waa tuuglit l>y Mr. 
A. Jones in 186^-9, iu a small building near the himbiT- 
yanl on Woodland street. Tlierc wero more soholiira than 
room in the houHO, and when a cIosk wuh reciting the bul- 
imco of tho school took a recess and studied mischief 
oatdoors. Protiatdy wiion it rained they hilddleil iirnkT tho 
diminntivc wheller like ehiekeus under the niaterunl wing. 
Their c i re imi scribed limits for monta! espauaion wore 
HUccecdeil by a more eommodionw ronm on Oak street, 
whore Miss Oillilard beciuiio the teacher, followed by Mr. 
ShcllhouKO. In January, IfiTt', the Hcliool wad graded, and 
Mias K. Kelly became the teacher of the primary depart- 
ment. In a i^hort time the sohool finids gavo out, and 
the Hchool, in sympatliy, did likewise; bot tho triisteea, 
who seem to have been men who were not easily daunted, 
raisetl money by subscription, and a six montLs' lease of 
life wan obtained, with Miss U. Kelly and Miss How for 
teachers. The next change in tlio seiioliiatic kaleidoHcope 
of Davisville was iuaugiirated iu Soptomber, 1870, when 
a grocery store was transformed into a schoolroom, with 
Miss II. Kelly as iirincipal and Miss K. Kelly for assist- 
ant. For ono month Hcrenity seemed to have folded her 
wings in rest around tho place where the money changer 
hatl given way to tho reign of the pedagogue, when one 
morning the Kchoolma'am came to the place and found that 
tlio glory had [deportcil out of Israel, the Philistines liav- 
ing captured her ark. The building had been sold, and 
was to be immediately removed. The Trustees secured 
Clark's Hall, and the pupils carried tho furniture from the 
old grocery into the new liall, where it remained until the 
present two story building was nompleted for aeliool pur- 
poses in December, 1870, at a cost of about §2,.500. 
There was no change in teachers until 1872, when Bruce 
Pondegflst was employed as principal. He served until 
1K74 with signal credit to himself and advantage to the 
scholars, the school having attained its highest grade 
under his instruction. He has since served one term as 
County Superintendent in a manner that proved the 
wisdom of tho people of tho county in selecting him for 
the position. The present teachers at Davisville, are 
Oeorge Banks, priucipal, and Miss K. Kelly, assistant. 


The successor to the school-house of 1853 was erected in 
1856, near the present depot, and the upper story 
was used as a Masonic Hull. It was built on land not 
belonging to the district, and resulted in an expensive liti- 
gation in after years. C. W. Crocker, who owned the 
land on which it was built, failed to make either a deed to 
the district or reserve it when he sold the farm, and the 
pivperty, after passing through seveml hands, was finally 
puvehjised by W. L. Messenger and Geo. D. Fiske, who 
offered to sell the same to the district for $250. A vote 
was ta!.en, and by a majority of three a tax was authorized 
to furnish the requisite amount for Messenger and Fiske; 
also S300 to pay the Masons for their interest, and 
$300 for teachers* salaries. The collection of the tax 
w."is contested, and went throngU all the intennediates to 
the Supreme Court of the State, alwavs being decided in 
favor of the lai: but a rehearing was obtained, and the 
ground was to be fought over again, when Messenger and 
Fiske decided, .as the lot had increased in the meantime 
until it was wortli four times the amount of their Srst offer. 

th*t thev wooKl not seU it for «50. and the Irostocs proso- 
rotea them in the courts for a year or two. in a vani ellort 
to for« an acceptance of the offer. The building was 
finally Jecidea lo be the prT>perty of»grr a"^ l-'^^o. 
A |«1 of which is DOW doing aervice as a hot«l. cftllo<I the 
"TrmTelen*' Rest," near ila ancient mooring. 

The district being without a scho<d-house. a vote was 
taken to see if the people would nothori/oa tax to build 
one. and the vote said no. At tho Umo a lot was offered for 
school purposes at $400. and to sociiro it twenty live men 
subseribetl twenty dolhir* each, and after havmg pur- 
ohaft.^.1 it offcreil it to tho district as a gift, provided a 
whool-hoose w.« built on it. Another election wan 
called and the proposition received but seventeen nogn- 
tive votes. Tho following are most of the names of those 
who presented the lot to tho district: Clark Elliot, 
Nathan EUiot, K- B- Blowers, D. A. Jackson, Dr. Geo. 
H. Jackson. J. G. A. Ovorshiner, C. P. Spnigue, Geo. D. 
Fiske, Jas. Asborry, A. C. Buggies, F. C. Buggies, F. S. 
Free m.nn.L. F. Craft, O. E. Sill, J. M. Garoulte, O, B. 
Woscott, A. S. House, D. M. White, \V. L. Mesaouger 
and others. 

The Tmstoos procnred plans ami specifications, and m 
August, 1871, commenced to eieet the structure tliat is 
now a credit to the place, and cost the taxpayers nearly 
$10,000. In March. 1872, tho Legislature passed a special 
Act authorizing the levying of taxes and issuing of bonds 

(1come«1 sufficient for Uio entorpriso, a largo proportion of 
the amount being subscribed at the mccthig. On t|,(j 
27th of tho S)*mo month tho stockholders mot and an- 
pointed a building Committoo, consisting of Professor 
O. I-. Matthews. Pun. .1. N. Pcudegast and Mr. N. Wyck- 
off, who weiv instructed to prticuie plans and iwccrttiin 
the probable expense of a building forty by sixty fcpl nml 
three stories high. Ten acres of land wore donated to tlio 
enterprise by T. M, Harris, one-half of it to the fidioot, 
tho other anil cast half to Professor O. L. Matthews, who 
^vfts tho moving spirit in the cntiir|>risi', and was to ho tho 
Professor and the head of the institution v hen in con- 
dition for busines-s. 

Tho $5000 that had been subscribed was in the form of 
advance payraenta for scholarships or tuition, and tliu 
stockholdei-s had entered into an agreement with tho Pro. 
fessor, binding themselves to eroet the buildinj^, and iit 
tho end of five years to give liiin a det'd to the entire 
property pi-ovided he had. at the evpiintion of thuttime, 
rodeomod, by toaching, tiioso ccrlilicatrs eutilling suh- 
soribers to scholarshipa. When llm building conuiiilhto 
submitted their report and jdans. it was fnuiul thai Un- 
building would cost twice the lunount thai had been iin- 
ticipatod; but as they had become thorongldy iiiibucd 
with the 8))irit of education, tliey conclinlml to pnuli on 
and raise the necessary funds, and al tho eiirlicKt opjun- 
tune moment convert tlio school into u legultu' Collegiate 


HAUE OP DiarnioT. 


Uncbnoan ■. 






Cnuhe Creek 














Linboo , 



Moant I'lensaDt 




North Gra'ton 




FinD Grove 

Plcnmiut Prnirie 



SpriiiR Luke 

^'iicmmeuto Kiver 




Wf.sLinglon .', 

Woodlniid Prairie 

Willow Sloosh 

Willon- Spring 




J. O. Maiwell..... 

A. W. Morrie 

J. S.Tiitl 

J. U. Lowe 

Joel Wooda 

T. FiHlibook 


Hi'ory Fisher 

S. N. Meriog 

Lv'vy Athiuia 

D. N. Uershoy 

H. U. Knapiio . ... 

Adnm StiDcr 

It. M. Ilennelt 

J. W. Baudy 

C. F. Hoed ,. 

J. J. Slopboiis. ... 

J. If. Niion 

JeaBp McFudden... 

G. L. Purkor 

W. W. Hniiunra... 

JoBcph Miller 

G. L. Luddington , 
U. W. Wttllaco . . . , 

U. P. Merrill 

J. B. Wynlt 

Geo. Shiir|)D(ick ... 

K. F. UtBlur 

G, U, Lewis 

D. C. Itumacy 

Wflrren Cole 

ThoB. A. BInrlin ,, 
L. F. Cnniurbnry ., 

Johu Winters 

G. B. Cbnndlor .. 

W.K. Wright 

Diinl. Fisher 

M. Laokon. 

T. W, Giilhria 

W. W. Joseph 

ThoH. Deiicr 

W. D. Freemtin . . . 
H. P. Mcrriit ... 
C. M. Uiddliaon... 

Carey Lndoo 

Jumcii O'Ntal 





















Coarttatid. tJaonimeutD Cu. 












Block'a (jlntiou 





Culirornia QnickHilver &f ine 











S. E. 
S. E. 










S. E, 

.S. E, 



I Can 

I Can 




'b Ln 







rrt . , . , 










ada du 

adi> du 









adu dt) 




2 K. 


1 w. 

1 E. 

1 E. 

2 E. 
1 E. 


1 E. 




1 £. 
i E, 
3 E, 
3 E, 
1 E. 

1 K. 
i E. 

1 1^, 

;j E. 


-1 E. 
1 W, 
a £. 

2 E. 

2 E 





e ' 






t 100 

9 IGi) 

9 '16 























































































































































'1 00 




to enable ■Woodland district to complete the building and 
pay np the debts already incui-red, which was eventually 
done. The building is of brick, two and a half stories above 
the basement, the main structure being twenty-sis by fifty 
feet, and the wing twenty-four by thirty-sis. The number 
of scholars attending school during 1879, is Hve hundred 
and nine. The names of the present teachers are J. W. 
Coin, Principal, Mrs. Theo. Beaizley, Vice-Principal; J. 
I. McConnell, First Assi.stant; Mrs. T. .J. Dexter, Second 
Assistant; Mrs. Sue E. Grant, Third Assistant; Miss 
Genoa Lawson, Fourth Assistant; Mrs, A. A. De Long, 
Priucipal Primary Department; Miss Maggie Kean, Ae^ 
sUtaat; and aU are thoroughly competent for the positions 
they fill. 

In the spring of 1860, the people in the ricinity of 
Woodland commenced to agitate the question of having a 
high grade school located in iheir town. The result was 
a public meeting in the old Union Church, at the cemetery 
in June of that year, when a plan of operation, was de- 
cided upon that inclnded the erection of a building by a 
stock company. In accordance with the plan $5,000 was 

Institute, wJierea.s, in the start only an academy had been 
contemplated. In October, 18G0, the building was com- 
menced, and the last brick was laid on the 18th of the 
following December. At a meeting of the stockholders 
held on the 8th of January, 18G1, a temporarj' hoard of 
five trustees was elected to have supervision and control of 
the enterprise. The parties cho.sen were Joshua Laweou, 
R. L. Beamer, H, M. Fiske, James F. Morris, and J. C. 
Welch . At their first meeting Joshua Lawson was elected 
President, and H. M. Fisko, Secretary of the Board. On 
the same day the stockholders decided by a resolution to 
make application for a chai-ter creatingaperraaneut board 
of Trustees clothed with powers necessary for the per^iet- 
uation of their own body, and the organization of a regular 
Collegiate Institution, and that three-fourths of the trustees 
should be members in good standing of tho religious body 
known as the Christian Church. At a previous meeting 
it was decided that the institution should be known as 
"Hesperian College." 

On the minutes of that meeting on the 8th of Janu- 
ary appears the first indication of a desire f<ir a change iu 
the original plan regarding the interests of Prof. Mulhews, 

DEPU£& CO-t^d-Sf- 



^HUrOH 4 ^EV, UTHQ. S.F- 



^ ft committee was appointed to confer with that gentle- 
and aBcertnin on what tenns he wooM yield his ac- 

oiretl righU. It all ecded in the FrofesKorMgiTing up his 
''un» '*"" *^'^' ""^ becoming the principal under a salaij, 
Lyl oD tlie 4th of March, 1861, the school wag opened br 
bim, a»i«t**l by Miss M. A. Dancan, in the old Union 
C'harcb.wbcru it wan continued for one week and then tiaoH- 
/trrod to the nevf building. 

Ho« the inatitutiuD wa« completed and soatnined daring 
the next two or throe years is a myxtery. Many of those 
bolJing certilicfltes for HchoiarBhips canceled theto, and tlje 
^„pl,. at largo gave liberally, and it lived. Eventually 
Prof. J- ^- '^^'^*° assumed control under a contract with 
tlio TruBtcea, and he inaugurated succeiw and the collegi- 
ate gnulo iu the school. 

In AoynHt, 1800, the institution was incorporated under 
lliogenoral hiwa of the State, and at the first meeting of 
tlio Boiinl, consisting of tweuty-four Trastees, the follow- 
ing nntncJ gentlemen were elected aa the officers: Itev. 
J, N. Penii«ga»t, TreHident— a jiosition that he held for 
gevonloen years, under the combined old and new regime; 
F. 8, Freeman, Treasurer, and B. C. Law.son, Secretary. 

Iu 1870, the citizous subscribed §30,000 for the benefit 
of Ibo collcye, on condition that no portion of the amount 
hIiuhM bo used excejit as a loan on good security. The 
inturortt accruing to be si)ont for tlio benefit of the institu- 
tion. The officers and faculty of the college have been: 

Prmknts.—O. L. Matthews, one year; H. M. Atkinson, 
oboat one year; J. W. Anderson, one year; J. M. Martin, 
eight years; J. N. Pendegast, one year; J. M, Martin, two 
youra; B. H. Smith, three years; A. M. Elstou, two years. 

Pfoftmm of Sficrcd Literature. — J. M. Martin, eight 
yours; J. N. Peiulegast, one year; B. H. Smith, three 
yours; A. M. Elston, two years. 

Pw/fssora of Laiigtiages.—J. M. Martin, eight years; A. 
M. Klflton, flight years. 

Prii/essors of iV(Uhematic8.—J. L. Simpson, J. I. McCou- 
noll, Soldon Sturgea, R. A. Grant. . 

Professor uf Eiujlish Literature. — F. A. Pedlcr, four 


Mmic Teachers — Mrs. Mary Dayton, Miss Lena Fike, 
Win. Walleo, Miss Florence Johnson, Mrs. S. H. Carroll, 
Mrs. M. E. Edwards, Miss Elma Edwards, Miss S. M. 

Hesiterian College is now free from debt. It is ably 
conducted by a corps of talented Pi-ofessors, who rank 
high as educators, and possess to au eminent degree that 
rare faculty which enables them to both teach and control. 

The institution stands clothed in beauty among the 
shiiilows of primitive oaks in a rural inland village— half 
tiity— that surrounds this temple of learning with influences 
and associations such as careful parents seek for their 
childiou far away from those strong temptations that hang 
BO oaresaingly around the neck of youth. It stands iu a 
locality that, bathed in atmospheric purity, has never 
kuown a well authenticated case of malarial poison; well 
suited for furnishing tuition at reasonable rates, with direct 
raihoad and telegraphic communication with all parts; 
Me can see no reason why this institution should not in 
the iioai- future become one of the most favored, as it is 
favorable, seats of learning on the Pacific coast. 




Towns, Settlements and County Seat Contests. 

Q9>EfailMrlaae-Dapiij-Cottonw»iana Hadlson-Backoye and Wmtera-DniiBiEan's 
Blick'i-Saigbt'iLmiinp-OadiflTillB-Wooakjid— DfttiBTiUfl-Wailiingtoii. 

Forty-nine miles, as measured by a roadometer by the 
road h-om Woodland, in the north-western corner of Tolo 
County, there was an extensive quicksilver mine dis- 
covered by Chas. F. Reed, who is now one of the princi- 
pal owners. There is a ledge of serjientine rock from 800 
o 1200 feet wide running from south-east to north-west 
Uruugii that portion of the county, and leaning towards 
west it rests apon sandstone. Sandwiched in between 


charged with 


fifteen toon^ holi^^^t^^""* 1 *^'^^ *>' *^ 
» ieet. and U.IS I. ibc qaifkMiI.« ».;„ 

^^^S iu f^t wall iTIZk , "T**-"'^''"-^- 
gonge. T,rTing from on« l« r , "^ nagD^iom *Uy 
tbe h«ging wol ?. ?"* »^ '««" '«t io thicb««. o; 

««d soft hutS :' ptk^i r:^;*^''''^ ''^^^ 

I--lg« has bee^^k .7 ""^ '""" **"> *'"**^ ""^ 

cnTfor h^.nft^^^'o^''^^" *'*""'^"- «r« «ffi.i- 

and U.e mine ,s more di.po«..d to coufini its .callh ti 

tZS: '"^^ ""'"]' ^°^ •^"->' P-"-"*- ot aUver to ti: 
ton taking poor with the rich. 

Therearefivosop,ir,»techimnoy«of orenowopeaod; the 

13 called "black meUl " cinnabar, that when pure yiel.U 95 
per cent. .lu.cksilver. Pure snlphnreta. that which has a 
red color. yieUls but 7(5 per cent. The deeper down they 
go without an oiception they improve iu quantity and 
quality. Eleven tunnels have been mode on tho Icdgo 
aggregating 13,300 feet, the longest of which is H50 leot! 
The mine is tapped by one of them, 820 feet down from its 
highest puint; anutlier is projected that wilt strike tho 
ledge 85 feet farther down, and this is the lowoat point 
that a tunnel can be run on u level from the surface and 
reach the ledge. The coaipauy claims 1-1,280 f^'ot. aud 
liavo a United States patent for n,2U0 feet of it. Thev 
have about 3,000 acres of grazing ami agricnltural laud. 
If the mine was to ho worked to its full capacity 150 men 
could be employed, and could take out about IfJO tons of 
ore per day. At the present time there are places whore 
the ventilation has to be extremely good, becanso of tho 
gases constantly generating from tho sulphur. Tho pre- 
sent facilities of the company for reducing tho ore consists 
of four furnaces; Two for coarse ore; one for fine ore; one 
for sutt. 

No. 1 has one brick, six iron and sis wood condensers 
of the Knox patent. 

No. 2 has one brick, seven iron and seven wood con- 
densers of the Knox patent- 
No. 3 has eight iron and five brick condensers. 
No. 4 has nine brick and eight iron condensers. 
Nos. 3 and 4 are fiue dirt burners, designed and Imill 
by R. G. Hart. 

A sutt furnaoo in place of old .style retorts for burning 
sutt. It is more economical, does not wear out, and is 
built on the roverbertory plan. 


Alor." in the uorth-wostorn part of the county is one of 
those beautiful mountain-locked valley.-! that are so 
nnmerous in California. It is called Capay, after tho 
ludian word "Capi," meaning creek, and is about twenty 
miles in length, having an average width of about one and 
a half miles. At its head, where Cache creek comes out 
from the mountains, lives Captain D. C. Rumsey, who 
gives "ood cheer to the tnivcler and makes his homo a 
place °one is loath to leave. The elevation above 
the sea at Rumsey's is 400 feet, while at tho summit 
beyond the quicksilver mine an altitude of 18o0 feet is 
attained As one passes down the valley to its mouth, 
iwenty miles away, where the village of Langville stands 
he finds a still lower altitude, that place being only loO 
feet above the sea level. , i » 

The little town of LangvUle rests there a ham et 
hetweea the hiUs, at the entrance of ';B-irle.v-d..he the 
Indian garden of Eden, where ''Ca-teach their Adam 
Uved who was transformed into a god and the 
ruler of " Mooky " (Heaven), becairse of h.s haying been 
Sl^lea by the red man's devil, called " Ta-keer. ' 

Tn 1S57 the firm of Empyre and Munch erected a two- 
. K -LI. at Sat place where a blacksmith shop had 
story bmiding a^^^at^P ,, and as two buildings had been 

already been estaMisne.^ the "place was at 

constractedmproximi J to .^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

'^''.f ''"li?- aSed The front part of MmichWUe 

..^itha^-Jle attached ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^jie 

^asusedforastore. the rear pat ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

„pper story as a U ;^^^^^^^^^" All 

■; °^''' *° Tsetn^ yoa fer about one year, when an 
f^lbLrjateTr-d S. Arnold, bought thevdlageoae 

ictsilrer Mine, ia ^^^ C<jantr, 

is bombleiia; that of Oi^ ^-^ "^ 

d«y ukd mond it oat to hU ruK-h Aft.»r !ht« f^n four 

J*M1 th« COToto bt>wIod hU di«i V 

plMt of MnikhriH*. oDttl E. E i 
•nd tneimi a dw«Uu»g hovm wbotv eaUrUiumrui «u 
R»^ tho pitf^nns that chanced to pui ih.u way. AU^ul 
IWi, Aiottt \Ve«iBg, who wcentlt, it is .uid, c\mituitt*s» 
■oieule «t Wuhingtoo. to thia ooaiitr. and Hwirf UhMm 
bQilt a slow th«rF io mixxt in now known aa tho AMrich 
Ad^UUon. Before tho Mon waa o|>cn»>l. howoTcr. Uior 
di^oUe,! parlnrnhip. aud J. A Uuk. puicKa^^l tho prop- 
erty an.l nioYp.1 n to iU pry-^nt lo^-^lum wLorv it wkiionu 
a« tho Parkor or Applrhy Hoaw. W. U^y txvcUfA m 
bmldiog and comniencp,! morchaudUinK in 1S73. ami the 
following year Morris Krnt » h bU<-k>tmith nliop. iho 
boilding h«iing owucl at pr^wut l.ji J. W. Aldrirh. Th« 
Aame year Uu' OraugcM orwjt«» thrit fino hall building, J. 
>V Aldrich having hocomo tho principal owner, now occu- 
pio.1 by Pracniai and ariiu<^. who ko<>p a g.'notal inowhao- 
di«o«torp. In 1874. J. A. Uag put up a building lo bo 
used for saloon purpouM by himself, and a hArav>«< ahup 
for J. T. I^wia. Jamc* McHcnry caiao in 187*. and 
started in SopU'mbor a lino of «t:ig<>!i bt<lwo«n Woo<lland 
aud the Toaug town. On tho aUt of Dwembir of that 
year, jnst upon thu thre«IioId of a change from Ihn 
new lo tho old. tho town plat waa fiU-d fur record, and 
lAiigvillo wiu) tirxt known among her aintor vilhi^iiM on tho 
first morning of tlio new ywir 1S75. During the Spring of 
1S7j5. MiUenry built tho stable* now owned by 11. C. 
Duncan, who hon become tho propriutor siiiro ISil of tho 
Blage lino that wu-s exlendtd, lir»t to tho gniekNilver Mine 
in 1876, and again to Ivower Ijiko, in I^iko county, in July, 
1S79, making a totil lunglh of sixtyflvo mih'H of ittagiii({, 
twonty-fivo miles of which isovor inountaina which preM'ut 
views rarely aurpiuwod for scenic grmidour. Tho town of 
I^ugrillo now couMiMts of about tweuty-ftve dwelling 
houses, two hotels, one, the Ahbieh House, being a de- 
sirablo place to atop, can bo seen by roferriiig to phito 
iiumbor thirty of tho illustrations in this work. Thu other 
is known as the Parker H<iU90. There aro also two gen- 
eral merchandise stores, one drug htore, two meat markota, 
two livery stables, one harness shop, one ahoo ahop, tliruo 
saloons, one barber shop, n hall, postollluu and school 


Tn 1875, tho Vaca Valloy and Clear Lake RailroatI was 
was built thronghas far as Winter's, and the question when 
ilKliuo would bo extended fuithcr north beciimo n seriouH 
one, but was solved by huch men as Ceo. W. Scott, Henj, 
Ely and D.B. Hurlbut, of thiscoiiiily, whoHubscrihod lib- 
enilly for its extension. The fonner gentleman graded the 
road from Winter's to Madison, ami piencnted tite ronipiiiiy 
with the work. The latter gave one tlioiisaiid •lollarn, tho 
right of way through his land, luid the town hIIo of Afadi- 
son. The point on the lino whcro the termiiius was de- 
cided upon would noces-sarily b» a pluco of inoro or less 
importance, and for a time it was hoped that (.'ottonwood 
would be tho lucky selection, but the company decided (o 
e:£tend the lino a mile further, and when this intention 
became known there uccurred sueh a stampede from tlio 
time-honored village of biiildingH ttml people (o the new 
locality OS has had no parallel, modern or aneieut, unlcHs 
when tho Israelites startetl off with Stones en inruw out of 
Egrat for the land of Cauaan, after borrowing from their 
neighbors every movable thing that they oould lay thoir 
hands upon. Tho terminus of tho railroad waH Called 
Madison, its town plat bi;ing filed for record at tho county 
seat on tho 22d day of January, 1S77, and the first passen- 
ger train steamed into its limits on the 0th of Slay of Iho 
same year. Madison luid become a sort of future esiHt- 
ence for the dead Cottonwood. Wo woiihl not ho under- 
stood as implying that for one to visit tho former place 
wastlie same as going to heaven or the other place, but 
that there was only a change of location; that the people 
and buildings of tho now town cimo from the old; that 
Cottonwood was the pollywog stjite of the M;i.Ii»on exist- 
ence. Because of this fact it haa been thooght best to com- 
bine the history of the two villages and commence with 

*'"'' °^ COTTONWOOD. 

In about 1852, Charles Henrich, of Sacramento, ostah- 
Habed a trading post or store iu Yolo connty, at the point 
that later became known as Cottoawood. Angustiw Hoff- 
man was placed in charge and condacted the basinesH 
until about 1858, when he visited Europe, and Chas, 
Zimmermaker took his place. Later, Mr. Hoffman returned 
and opened a store on his own accoont, bat finally re- 
moved in 1876, to Bakersfield. About the time of the 
establishment of the first store, a race track was laid out, 


hTstorv o7^^Z^^^tv rKOMlS^BjO^ 

.^. .•« up* t^^'- :. -":irw:s*r:^'"D^..i 

?^ rtvtiNi bUek.......... ;:-« « »862. ana cnUoaeJ 

^^t^^«STa». .!«« be .oM ool to Morr^y. he 

»^ j- ,o.l tb«» ai»*.-'W«» i«rtn.-rihip. 

"b.^G,li i-.^ .:i- n- ..u.MiDK.«aColtODW^Hl l.^ui two 
^om- lt..lh ol tbe« K«aU«o« •« ■«.« pUmg th...r t.>«.. 
tion in«>n. Keller f*mov.-d to tl.« new to*n in Apnl. 
^V Uku.. . .th bin, hu Im.Uiog.. ct.. Oill .M not n.o« 
iu .L.p but baUt . aew «n. in M«ii«>n, fn>»UDg on 
Itailrtwl «tr«!l, in 1**71». 

M-rtir. Hua*.D «« t(.- pn>,,n..t,.r of « hotoUn.l «i1oon 

lidiment «•• •b.orb^l by the H«.t.r- Bn.- In IH'?. th. 
.lore .n.l hot«l were mo...\ U. M.,li.on. -'-- '^. .»;';'7 
opene.1 a .toc-k uf goo.1. on Main -tn-ot. »» ^«''^'.l';^'; 
Jove.1 to hi. new nton,. known ^iU Ham.. H» 
builciipK. a fim. wooclcn Htruet-m- 2^ by 00 feet. «ml 
iwo .urri«* hmh. Ho orcnpies tl.o lower story with a 
.lock of genonil n.L.rchaDdi«% an.l the hpiht 8tory .« aj«.l 
w a hall for Iho meotinRS of the .liffofent «oc.«tu-H. Ibo 

M a tiu-hop by .1. An<l«tt. whore oar broml-Hhonl.lcro.l 
frien.l. «ith a nmU. on hi« fn.-.e, f..rnishc« Im customers 
with anvlhiug they rnay wish in th. of tin from a 
«hi8tl« to a w-Uer-tonk. There wan aUo a harness shop 
aoil a boot ami nhoe 09tab)iHhm...nt in the ancient towD. 
tbo former having beon starU-l in 1809 by (5«orgo lamly. 
the h.ttc.rby A. Oo»ti.k, and both of tu-m are now fol- 
owing lheir'trn.le. in Madison. Vr.-l. N- ^.arte. 
the butcher buninoHs in Cottonwoo.! .n 1873, an, opened 
ft market in Madison in 1877. He moved t«^ dwelling. 
hou808 from the former to the latter place, and .s now .lo- 
i„B an e^to««ivo business in Madison, T^ngv.lle, and the 
surrounding country. Hiram MoConley started the old 
Cottonwood saloon in 187.1, and opened in Ma.bflon Aprd 
24th 1877 in his now bnihliag. known as the ' 1 louoer 
Saloon." it being the fir.t structure pnt up in that town; 
others were there earlier, but had come on wheel.. Mm. 
Johnson, who is conducting a wagon repair shop in Madi- 
son, was formerly in the same business in Cottonwood. 

L \V Hilliker was formeilv a resident of Iho ancient 
town, wiierc lie commenced hotel-keeping in May. 1873. 
When the fiat had gone fortli that Cottonwood s chief ad- 
vantage lav in the facilities afforded by her level sur- 
roundings 'for ownei^ to move what baildi"gs they pos- 
ses.sed to some other place, Mr. Hilliker attached 
wheels to his house and started for the new Mecca, and 
arrived at his destination after six days, having fed from 
forty to sixty boarders while in transit. That old hotel 
now serves as a kitchen for his new building, erected 
in Madison in 1877, and known as the Hilliker House, 
that has a frontage of 47 feet on Mam street. It is 
two stoiics high contains seventeen bed-rooms, and. 
taken as a whole, with its present management, is one of 
the first-class points for the accommodation of travelers 
in the county, an illnslnitiou of which appears on plate 
numbered 23 in this work. 

Wolf Levy, who was in business first in Dogtowii, 
and then from IS7;J to 1877 in L-mgviUe, put up a atora 
on the corner of Riilro-id and Main streets, and opened 
in May of 1877. lU size is -IS by 80 feet, and an under- 
standing of iU general appearance can be best obtained 
by reference to the accomp.iiiying view on plate numbered 
03 It is filled with a stock of general merchandise that 
possibly is too hirge for the present ccnsaming cnpacity of 
the country. We are informed that the California Quick- 
silver Mining Company obtain their supplies from Mr. 
Lew and we observed when visiting his store that agri- 
, cnltuml implements entered largely into bis business. 
I That he is one of the energetic men of the county was 
demonstrated bv his furnishing money to the Western 
Union Telegraph Company to bnilii a telegraph line from 
' Winters to LangvUle in 1S7G. He w:ls to have one-half 
of all income from messages passing over his line, and his 
income was about tweutv-five dollars per month nntil 
I be *uid his interest in the divisiou between Madison 
' ;md Winters for $l,-25J to Mansfield and Theodore. 
When be left LangTUIe be had no further use for the 
line and turned it over to the company, and it has since 
been abandoned. 

\t present there is npon the old town ate of Cotton- 
,«i>d only the blacksmith shop of Henry GiU and seven 
habitations occupied by families, including a solitary 

■ :,*e\t h« better *' go wd get "^n^ "'^ *" 
1 nambcrs. 
l"bo pre»enl Tillage o( 

u«n. ia .-.7;. .....e.. .0 'f • »- ■,;7:„*",v-.„tt 

'Ziko mlcor .tor»gc i.™v..„t.y c-U V- "■" '^ ^° 
I „.^„. B».i,k.sll.e l»os«ner»l«lorc.. ...l.I«,m.n . nd 
:r.l,..-». «. »l.ov« a,.,.,ilK.a .h..c ,, H, .1,0 -. o 

„„«„„ .1,0,., one l,»r„o^^ »l,o|>. one m'^;' '"»'''''■ °'" 

b.r «hop. tour B.loo„,. l«o„ly-bvo A«Mmg l,o.».», 
.wcnty-l t»milu.,, « ,»». offico, oxpros., oflico »u,l , Iq.ot 
The imnortaocoot M.,.li»on ». n ,l„l.r'"6 1""°'.»'» ^ 
bo^,»„,l.r-too,lbya 6l,u,e.. al tl,. following ,l„p.nonUs 
ainco the opening of the radroad. in 1877: 

Tons shipped between May. 1877. and Docombor 
3l9t. 1877 -io ■ " V V " ' 

Tons shipped butwoon January 1st, 1878, and Au- ^ ^^^^ 
gust ilth. 1S78. ■ * ■ * ' ' 

Ton* shipped between August 11th. 1878, and Oo- ^^ ^^^ 
tober lal, 1870 ' 


There is a dry channel oxtonding from tho foot-hills 
down into tho valley, that becomes in the rainy season 
sometimes a creek. Along its banks, in the high land near 
its source, are nnmerous buckeye bushes, that have given 
to the channel the name of Uuckeyo creek, and tho creek, 
in turn, to the littlti bnrg that once fiounshed near its 
course, about two miles cast ol where tho Vaca \aUey 
Railroad now runs, and near where tho residence of Beuj. 
Ely now stamh.. In 1806, J. P. Chailes was appointed 
Postmaster of tho Buckeye post-offico, which was first kept 
in a private house. J. O. Maxwell arrived in tho vicinity 
in April of that year, and built a house on the site now 
occupied by Mr. Ely's residence. The next year he erected 
a store and filled it with general merchandise, and it was 
known OS tho Buc^koye Store. Mr. Charles soon moved 
away and tho office was transferred to Maxwell's store, 
who, in the meantime, became of age and was appointed 
Postmu-ster. In 1800, Ut. Maxwell sold his store and 
stock to Charles Zimraerraaker, who continued the busi- 
ness and succeeded Maxwell as deputy Postmaster, under 
K. C. Briggs. Next came Benj. Ely, as Postmaster, and 
then, R. A. Daniel, in 1875, when the oflice was discon- 
tinued. That old first store is still there, having been 
converted into a dwelling. In 1801, Jaeobaon and 
Craner opened a store at the place and cootimied business 
until 1804, when they removed to Nevada. John Ford 
commenced blacksmithing there in 1801. In the Fall of 
the same year, the Good Templars organized at the place 
and flourished. The Masonic Hall, at Winters, waa boit 
at Buckeye for the use of the organization. 

.■i. saloon was opened about the time tho IJodge was in- 
stituted by Zimmermaker, and the town, prior to the 
great dronth of 1864, consisted of two stores, a black- 
smith shop, a saloon and post office. In the Spring 
of 1805, John Troutinan commenced merchandising and 
sold during the next year to York and Harling, and 
from that time until the latter moved to Winters there 
were numerous changes of partnership. A harness maker 
started business there in 1867, continuing till 1871, 
j when he started for the East, but killed himself on the 
! cars when passing Cheyenne. It is generally supposed 
that he was laboring under a temporary hallncination, as 
I no other tlieory but in.sanity would account for a man 
' committing suicide after getting so far from Buckeye. In 
j 1809, P. J. Dorney started the busines-s of shoemaking, 
and the same year the Hunt Brothers opened a hotel. A 
I blacksmith shop was opened in 1872 by — Brown, and 
; the same bnilding is still standing, and is the property of 
J. H. Moody. The next year J. D. Gregory opened a 
1 drug store, and gradually, year by year, the place was 
i becoming one of importance, when the scheme of rnnning 
I a railroad through the western part of the connty ended 
! its prospects, and the residents removed, some to Winters 
. and others to Madison, leaving Buckeye a village only in 

moiQOrr. A* pn>sent thcro lives wtioro tho town was. 
Beni Ely and J. H. Moody, tho latter being tho prot.rii-- 
tor of the bhu-ksmith shop, the former one of tho wealtliy 
and GUPrgotio farmers of the connty. n view of whoso n.a- 
idenc« and surroundings nppoai-s on plate 39 in this work. 


Tho town of tho above nnnio is aitunted near tho north 

bank of Pulo creek, in this connty, and dates from M«y 

"•'d 1S7'> the timo wiioii the town-plat was mcrmled. Tho 

building of the Vaoa Valley Uailioud to that point roHult.-.! 

in the gi-owth of a vilh^o there. Tho sito was dmmtod lo 

tho town bv Theodore Wintors and P. P. Edwards. oacU 

giving (ortV aon>s. Tim storo .m tho soiithoast coriior 

of Main and Railroad streets, by Ulmu and Company, the 

one on tho northeast corner of tho Hiimo stieot»>. by Mans- 

fiold and Theodore, and Iho salo.m of A. 11. Rice, wove 

Iho throo first bnilding« orectcd in tlio phioo. Tho tirxl- 

nnnod is 40 by 100 feet iu sizo.witli a basomont story, ami 

is now oooui^ied by SpauhUng and Harlan. Tho Mans- 

field and Thoodoro storo is now oocupiod by Hmis ami 

KaulTmnn; the two being tho prinoipal places of businoRS 

in town F. B. Cluiiidlor, who hu-atod thoio in 187r., 1ms 

an extensive lumber yard. Tliero are ihvoo hotels in tho 

ntace The Parkov Hoimo was finished in (IcU.bor. 1H75. 

It has thirty bed-rooms; fronts flovouly-Hv.. foot on Ruilroiul 

street; is painted white, and J. F. Purkor is its proprietor. 

Tho Occidental, we learned, was put up tho Hiimo year ami 

finished in 1W77. U is a two-story l.iiihling fro,,l« on 

Railroad street, and is owned ami conducted by 1). I . 

Edwards, who also owns the Parker H.-use propi^rly. Uio 

W^intors Hotel ia a Hmall two-story building on Miuu stroot. 

There has boon throe additions to tlio town. J0I111 A. 

Abbey's, on tho east, whero a number of hita have bftoii 

sold- the Tlionms Cox addition on tho north, iind Unit of 

1) P Edwards on the. west. Two churchen, tho Kchool- 

house, and a largo proportion of tho village is ni Hub 

last addition. 

Iu March. 1875, '■ tho BucUoyo Orungors' WavohoiisLi 
Association," incorporated with a capital of $25,U()() will. 
William Sims, as President; D. V. Edwards Viccl'io^.. 
dent- L. Moody. Treasurer; and Voiiablo Morns, Hecro 
tary and Manager; and the Baiue parlies still lill tlie posi- 
tions. In 1875, tliis asHOciation built a warubouso 04 by 
270 feet, and shipped 12,000 tons uf grain that flcamm. 
The next year they put up another building, 48 by l-H 
feet, alongside the first, and shipped during the seaHon 
14,000 tons of grain. During those first two years. Win- 
ters was the terminus of the V. V. and C. h. Eailrnml; 
but in 1877 it was continued to Madison, ami Iho ship- 
mODta of this wurehonso association since then have boon 
much less, and are placed by the Secretary at 2.0(JO tonH 
in 1877; 2,000 tons in 1878; 3,200 tons in 187i). Jhe.r 
rate for storage is seventy cents per ton, and the combined 
capacity of their buildings is 7,000 tons. 

In 1870, tho Hill Brothers put up a warohouso M by iw 
feet. They shipped 3,330i tons of grain the first year; 
3 0221 during tho second; 1,8831, in 1878; and 2,0221, in 
1879. In tho vicinity of this place some of the oarlieMt 
spring vegetables and fruit is raised; and after the gardens 
in tho vicinity of the foothills get well under way wi pro- 
ducing, three carloads of garden produce and fruit arc 
shipped daily from AVintors. 

The following letter from G. A, Stono, tho Secretary ol 
the V. V. and C. L. Railroad, speaks well for the produc- 
tiou south of Cache creek, in the western part of tlio 
connty: "From August 11th, 1878. to October Ist, 187.1, 
"we shipped from Yolo county 28,710 tons of grain. 

" From Ma*lison about 15,000 tons. 

"FromSeotts " 2,000 " 

"FromElys " 2.000 " 

"From Winters " ^JW " 

"The records have been destroyed and I am unable to 
obtain any information previous to August 11th, 1878. 
The pre.HentbusiDcss of Winters is embraced in the fol- 
lowing: two general merchandise stores, one drug store, 
three hotels, three grocery stores, one meat market, one 
butcher shop, two blacksmith shops, one extensive lumber 
yard, three warehouses, one harness shop, four saloons 
(the town contained thirteen at one time), two shoe shops, 
one tin shop, one graded school, a livery stable, post 
office, express office, telegraph office, three churches, de- 
pot, and two public halls. 


The first white settlers in the vicinity of the place now 
known by the above name were J. S. Copp and John 
Wilson. They were living, in 1852, east of there, near 

Of PV£ i Ce.Pv3- S.F 



^ ^w 


JB* *« I I •**«&■ M f J? 



BftlTTOHS-ftZY, U1H0-S.F. 




hot the ^ood drove Uiem oat lo the following 
tl*""^' , jijgy located close to aud north of that place. 
''"**;'!" same tim- Mr. Copp took a separate cUim from 
' ■ where h« afttrwarda built, abont one mUe farther 

ffilwof- *^fj^^"^ ^e^jijned on his claim for several years 
'*^'.t Tmove-d to Stony creek. As time moved on, with 

■ioa record of saccess, of failure aud of hope 1 

iU TBI) K^ CppHiill remained there until twenty-seven | 

'**''T 'r* Inv buried between him and the family he had 

; . in'C when he sought tLe Pacific coast. He is 

at eifilty years of age. living somewhere east of the 

nvmountinnfl. a'vealthyold man. traveling with the 

I of faU yoath, hand in hand, towards that countrj- 

where ago is left behind and yonth becomes perpetual. 

On Ihc I-'itl' o' October. 1853, A. "W. Duunigau, the 

after whom the village is named, settled there, 

""d witli l'"" ^'''''' ^'"^^^ '^^^ ^^°^^ ^''"''*'' '^^^ 
If whom aro now living hale and hearty old men. At the 
[me lliev Hime Uic nearest settlers wore Copp and Wilson, 
,]„.ir otiinr neighbors being Irving W. Brownell and his 
l.rotlier, William W., on the Buckeye ranch, who had 
lornfcd "tli'Tf in March of the same year; Isaac Rice, who 
koiit the Ohio bouse, iu Colusa county; D. T. Bird, at 
I/)noTiec; Hariy Porterfield, at Oathollow; and M. A. 
ItiJim, on tlie farm where he now lives. 

Aiiial Barker now spends hia winters at Dunoigau and 
BUininerH at his springs, in the mountains, that are becom- 
ing popular as n pleasure resort and pool of Siloam for 
tlio sick and iatiriii. 

Mr. BiiniiiyaiTHud H. Yarick became partners in farm- 
ing, blackmui thing, and in running a hotel. The latter 
i-t'atlemnii is now in company with Thomas Mitchell, con- 
ilucling 11 quite extensive blacksmith and wagon repair 
IiUHtiiess, iiv that town. 

In 185'), the hotel was built that became extensively 
known as "Diinnigans." In 1866, the first store was 
opened there by G. B. Lewis, who continued the same until 
ill 1879, when Wm. Earll became bis successor, A drug 
iiiiJ YiHikee notion store was the next business addition to 
tlio town, Z, J. Brown being the proprietor from 1874 until 
1S77, whou he emigrated to Texas and G. W. Gray fell heir 
to Ihe hiisinoss. In 1871), the railroad was completed to that 
place, the town pint being filed for record at the county- 
scut on tiiu 1st of November of that year. Soon after the 
completion of the milroad Z. Haines opened a stock of goods 
in tlio town, and later compromised with his creditors for 
fifty coats on tlie dollar; then continued, and in 1878 sold 
to Q. B, Lewis and Finley. Mr. Lewis built a ho- 
tel aiul livery stable the same year that the railroad 
was completed to that place, and conducts them both 
nt the present time. The hotel is a credit to the town, 
aud all trains pussiug stop to enable employe's of the road 
ami passcugers to get meals there. The freight shipments 
(mm DunnigauH, as per record iu the General Office of 
the Railroad Company at San Francisco was: 

In 187G-Grain, 3751 tons; Other Freight, 380i tons. 
„ 1877- Total „ 964* „ 

., 1878- „ 1830 „ Other „ 105J „ 

There is a large grain warehouso and con-all, owned by 
Will. EiuU, situated convenient to the road. A town hall 
is amoug the institutions of the place, where the I. O. 
G. T. and other societies meet, the building being owned 
by Mv. Dimuigau. The schoolhouse, however, we would 
not mention amoug the creditable buildings of the town. 

j Tbe railroad buildings are commodious, Avell-constructed,. 

i i»nd nifty be reckoned among the attractive features of the 

, place. 

I The following is a summary of the business houses of 
the town: "W'm. Earll, General Merchandise and Grain, and 
Agent N. R. R. Co. ; G. B. Lewis and Finley, General Mer- 
"Jiiiudise: G. E. Lewis, Hotel and Livery; G. W. Gray, 
I^rngs aud Notions; J. B. Gray, Saloon; Thomas Moran, 
Saloon; Mitchell aud Yarick, Blacksmith and Wagon Shop; 
Thomas Nugent, Meat Market; H. E. Cook, Lumber 
iftrtl; Jouas Clark, Physician and Surgeou; Wm. Latti- 
wev, Boot and Shoe Maker; James Donabo, Mechanic and 
Bolder; A, W. Dnnuigan. Postmaster. 

The following ataUment of grain shipments from DunniRon since ihe 

^«d was in operotioQ to ibat i.liice, received Oclober 13lb, 1879, from 

11. Earll, a graiu merchitnt at thiit place, does not eoirespood wilb the 

P«« "f amoonls received by na from the Kuilroad Office in San Francisco: 

1876 aud 7 — 2,8i.l tons of wheat, 

1877 and 8— 2.120 „ 
l(J78oud9-1.935 „ 

So fftt this seasoa— 2,210 tons of wheal. 
In yard and warehouse — 1400 tons yet to go. 


t^naeresof land for ...l^S. .r^^XlZZri 

Recorded at ^h '" *'"" ^ ^^^ ^'^' ^^ -<»« «^ 
ilZi '°'^*^ '"'^^ September 30ih. 1875. and 

2M VT \""^^J_"'^-^^'i April 2d. 1877. On the i 
23d uf September. 18,6. the station was opened for busi- 
ness by the Radroad Company. 


The first store was built there in 187G, by the Huston 
brothers. It in a one-story building. 20 by 80 feet, aud be- 
came the property of John D. Laugenour, this year. 

The first saloon was built in 1876, by James Root, who 
still owns the property and runs the business. Jacob 
Warzofi" also started in the saloon business there the same 
year, and still contiuues it. Thomas and Hunt erected a 
grain warehouse there in 1876, and added to it the next 
year. The hotel was built by A. C. Turner, in 1877, and 
is a two-story building, 18 by 30 feet, the owner having 
been the landlord from the first until the present time. A 
meat market was started iu 1877 by Thos. McMurry. The 
same year a second wareliouse was put up in the town, the 
Gable Brothers being the proprietors. Among the 
others building, there might be mentioned those of Hon. 
D. N. Hershey, built in 1878; Ed. Huston, George Glas- 
cock, J. J. Black and John Wolf, built in 1877. Dr. H. P, 
Miller uow occupies as an ofiice a small building erected, 
in 1877, by Ed. Black for a confectionery establishment. 

There is in the town, two blacksmith-shops, a post- 
office, telegraph and express-office, and 0. H. Smart, lias an 
iron lathe propelled by wind-power, his wind-mill costing 
him S500. This gentleman set the first fruit trees iu the 

Black's Station is a place of importance for the shipping 
of grain, the following being the amounts up to the begin- 
ning of 1879, of all kinds of freight shipped from that 

In 1876: Grain, 7,211.^ tons; other Freight, 131^ tons. 

In 1877 : Total Freights, 3, 1301 tons. 

In 1878: Grain, 3,192 tons; other Freight, G14i tons. 


At the junction of the lower Sycamore slough with the 
Sacramento river, a little town has grown up near the 
base of the old Indian " Todoy" mouod, that has become 
at certain times— because of its elevation— an Arrarat 
amid the floods. 

Formerly Cache creek, after winding its way through the 
countrvfrom the mouatains, mingled its waters with the Sac- 
ramento at the base of that mound. In the centuries that it 
flowed there its sediment settled in the channel, aud when 
the water overleaped its banks the earth contained in its 
current was deposited along the route until, in time, it had 
built the laud up through the tules, and established a 
high grade from the back country to the river. Then it 
broke out through its banks into the tules south, and 
sought no longer its ancient bed. Where this land was 
thus built, at the bauks of the Sacramento, the vdlage 
sprang into existence. 

The first settler there was Wra. Knight, who l^"' t J"! 
the mound in 1843. At the time of his death, in 1849, 
his wife was living there in charge of the place, and m the 
latter part of the year made mi arrangement through 
Stephen Cooper, with Wm. McDaniels to lay out a village 
and perfect the title to the Knight grant, or which ser- 
vices he was to have one league of the land. Ma or 
Cooper advanced §500 to pay expenses of laying out the 
yiuL and clear off the brush fiom the site. He a o 
signed a note as security for Mr. McDan.els. to enable 
Mm to buy a horse and vehicle with which to travel to the 
new t^wn when it was necessary for him to go there, as he 
was too heavy a man to ride on horseback. 
'The town was laid out in the FaUof If^^. -d-as called 
BALTmo«E. and several lots were sold; but the whole 
scheme came to grief because of the opposition of Mr 
Kendall, who had married Mr. Knight's eldest danghter, 

A fl,ft Maior had to refund the money advanced on lots, 
^l^tifa to ab,„t S70U, and then pay the S300 note 
^:^'::icurity for McDaniels. Eventually. McDamels 
p^id the Major S20 and they squared the ac^connt. 
^ Mr Knight was the first party to establish a ferry at 
bis place, and his successor was James Moiehead. In 

1853, J. W. Sooirball pnrchAse*) a half interest in it, and 
iu 1K55 the remaining half. Tho rstes for ft-rryiug vras 
ono duUar for a borsc and man aud five dollnri (or a team 
and wagoD. 

Id 1S50, S. R. Smith livetl iu a hoose alKtnt Ihret* hun- 
dred vanls ui-r(h of where D. W. Eilfton now n>sidfs. 
Mr. Smith's dwelling was near n largo sycamorv trve that 
now stand.s on the bank of Dry Creek. Ho acooniuio- 
dated travelers, and his place wn^ thu first hotel within what 
is now the villngu liotils. 

The commonccmvnt of the town, howovoi-, dates from 
1853. The flood of the proviouA wiutor and that of 1840 
had demonstrated tltf importaurvuf that plaoo an a Moam- 
boat landing and point of commuuiration botwoon tlio 
people east and west of the Saoramonto Hivor. [Soo 
chapter on flood, page G'2.| 

During that year Chas. F. Rood sorveyed and laid oft" a 
town site, that was given (he name of Knight's Landing. 
The same year, in Februaiy, J. W, Snuwball and J. J. 
Perkins put a $10,000 stock of g.iod« into a storo ou tlio 
monnd. This was followod in July by tho orocliou of a 
building opposite the ferry landing by Mr. Snowball, 
wht're W. G. Snely kept a hotiO, the sucrossor to the rail- 
pen (avorn on the mound. The next building was «1ho h 
hotel, put up by Capl. J. H. UpdograiV, and opened on 
the first of Jauuary, 185i, when a New Yuar's party was 
given, thopriuodf tlui tickets being tun dollars; and a steam- 
boat was run a special trip from Hacramonlo to that plnco 
to accommodate parties from that city who dewirod to attend. 
Later, Wm. Brown's hotel, that he moved up from Fre- 
mont, was purcliasod aud added as a wing to Iho IJpdo- 
gratV building, and as combined was railed the "Yolo 
House." The next hotel was a brick atructuro, erected by 
D. N. Hershey aud Geo. Glascock iu ISllO, and is the only 
one now being run as such iu the villago, tlio old Yolo 
House having been converted into a private residence. 

Iu 1854, a storehouse was put up at the landing by O. 
M. Keene, that Inter belonged to C. F. Reed; and tliis was 
followed by the John Koon Saloon the same year. After 
these were erected the blacksmith shop by Jolui Uensiiaw 
and the carpenter shop by S. R. Smith. 

In 1855, an attempt was made to make this place tlio 
county seat, a vote being taken at the general election of 
that year, under a special act authorizing the vote, but 
Washington was too strong and retained the seat of justice. 
The same year, J. H. Updegraft' became tho first Post- 
master at Knight's Landing, when a mail line was establish- 
ed between that place and Benicia. 

In the Spring of 1836, Warren and Lane put flouring- 
mill machinery into the 0. F. Roed warehouso, but their 
engine was not strong enough to drive properly tlio one 
run of stone. In 1857, they solil to Shannon, and he to 
Z. Gardner, in 1858, who immediately commenced erecting 
a new building, the property costing him, when done, 
S30.000. Robert Gardner, a son of the proprietor, had 
charge of tho milt, and it finally passed to him by inherit- 
ance, when his father was killed, August 2oth, 1861. by 
the explosion of the steamer J. A. McClellav, on whicJi he 
was a passenger. 

The accident occurred on the river opposite the Simmons 
ranch, about two miles below Knight's Landing; fifteen 
persons being killed and eleven injured. Robert Gard- 
ner was a strong Union man, and when news came that 
Sumter had been fired upon, he hoisted a Union flag, and 
received an anonymous letter iuforming him that unless he 
took it down the property would be burned. In conse- 
quence of which he kept the flag flying, and a watchman 
employed for three years. In 1864, he attended the National 
Convention as a Republican delegate from California, aud 
helped to nominate Lincoln for President. In 18G8, he 
sold the mill property to J. M. Rhodes, now of Woodland, 
and the next year was appointed Laud Register for the 
Humboldt Land District. In 1871, he resigned that position 
and was elected Sun-eyor-General of tUe State; was re- 
nominated by the Republican party four years later, and 
was defeated with the balance of the State ticket, and now 
resides in Oakland, 

In 1860, the floor manufactured at that mill took the 
premium Lt the State Fair, and its brand known as the 
"Eagle Steam Flouring Mills" would bring the highest 
price iu the market. In 1861, the State premium was 
awarded to Mr. Gardner, for having the best-made and 
most complete flouring establishment in Californui. In 
1864 the mill ran but tea days', the only grain coming to 
it wi from Cache Creek, where the people had been able 
to irrigate a little. The property is now owned by Arnold 
and Schroth, who purchased it in 1875. Its present ca- 
pacity is 120 barrels of flour per day. 



la 18C7, tb» Cnt aehoot-bocM wm bailt t&cre. ud to 

I 1818, Um ftnt acbool WM opM«d ia ii. 

I OatK ' v>39M«, 18S9, the int oambtr of th« 

Kmighi • . V(m «m immI— {^^ cbapb^r on Tolo 

Cooaljr B«v*itA(>iin)'-«ikd it maetiov th*t there are half- 

a-dontt Uon* m tbe ptaoe; umI ioaert* «jT«>rti2ein«Dt)) (ur 

J. Baldvio uid Ih0 Ann of GiImod anl I*Iiiloi> u ilcoling in 

g"Tier»I nnTTh»n<li», and J. C Ncff *> bciu;^ a fmit mcr- 

jini and eatnlvi Lan*.' and GlaA- 

ned as baling a moat market, Capt. 

t J ing the Yultf Hmuc. and D. L. Pickett 

•At i ' I'-r. 

Id IHCI, the Kn^gbt gnat waa rejectMl b; the U. S. 
Sopreme C'oort, and it then became eridcat that no one 
hid a title tu tbe );rupert; he ba<l parchaitml io the tiI- 
lige. For yeart tbU reEniine.l no oQMttlvJ qaestion, 
until CongTBM paK*fd a lair, Mftreh 2d, 1867, to iBcludo 
tach t:a««H, and a patent ytiut imUiMl ou tbe lOtb of Sep- 
tember, 16(i'J, for tbu town hite to thn judge of Yolo 
Coonty, in truot for the fiona /vU rtvttlom; and by bim tbo 
lota were coovutcmI to thu rightful onnxni; nnd thas the 
Tsxed question of rights to the ftettlent wan put at rei^t. 

In 18tf0, Kfhon Uie county Hcitt was movc-d back to 
WaabingtOD, Kiiigbt'ii Landtag again tried to procuro it^ 
l&fation irilhiii her limits, itnd again faiKtd, and in ISG'i 
its t'sLahliNhinoiit at Woodland wii<i a fatal blow to the 
continouH growth of tliat place. In 1801, it^ now«pupor re- 
moved to Woodland, and, in ISlW, it was connected by 
railroad with tbo main Central Pacific lino nt Davisvillc 

At prortenl, not includiug private residences, the town 
coosinlM uf one g^^uoral raercbaiiditio store, one dry gooilit 
fltorc, one grocery store, two drug sturoa, ono tinshop, 
one hotui, nix Malooii>), three ohurcbeii, ouo school, one 
flouring mill, flix warebout^os, one lumber yard, one ros- 
tanniiit, two blacksmiths, one blacksmith and wogou shop, 
one harness whop, ouo biirber shop, express and post- 
office, one doctor, ouo livery stablL-, one jeweler and gun- 
smith, one candy and fruit Htont, one butcher shop, two 
carpenters, six inHurance uguuLs, Lodges of I. O. O. F., 
I. O. O. T., F. and A. M. ; four grain buyers, sis brick 
busincHs buildiug!(. 

Knight's Lauding has been tbo scene of many an event, 
tragic and abaurd. Among the number that ha%'e boon 
related, wo call to mind thu trial befiiro Judge Samuel 
Patrick, that occurred on the 21fit of June, iJ'ofi. The 
squire was at tbo time an old man and as peculiar as ho 
was aged, but was quite thoroughly inculcated with Cali- 
fornia peculiarities, that as yet had not been subjected to 
tbo civilizing process that since has assimilated the people 
more to the Eastern modes of procedure. Tlie court had 
convoued in the open air, under the shade of those large 
sycamore trees that are still to be seen in front of J. W. 
Snowball's residence, in that place. The case hnd been 
called and tlie litigants, Noble Clurk vs. I. W. Jacobs, had 
submitted their evidence to the six jurors that had been 
called to decide matters of fact as between them, nheu 
Mr. Jacobs, acting as his owa attorney, was making his 
speech, he called in question tbe truthfulness of some of 
Clark's testimony. The words were not fairly out of bis 
moutb before a half-cocked revolver was under his ear, 
with Clark at the other end of it pumping away at the 
trigger in a vain effort to make it shoot. This was the 
signal for general hostilities — a kind of "make ready, 
take aim" condition, before the final oider is given to "fire 
at will." Twenty little guns and as m.iuy big knives leaped 
forth into the sunlight from pockets of spectators that 
had formed a circle around tbe conrt, disputants and 
jurors, as the case proceeded. This was too much. The 
justice bad not, neither had the jury, contracted for being 
made into pistol t^irgets, and tbe venerable court broke 
for timber, shouting to the jurymen, as be vanished, " run 
boys, run. or every devil of you'll be shot." The affair, 
bv the intervention of outsiders, was ended amicably and 
without bloodshed. When Squire Patrick emerged from 
the fastness of the out of range side of a sycamore, and 
assuming his vacated seat, smoothed bis disheveled hair, 
adjusted his disarranged spectacle.s, took a survey of the 
surroundings, and not-?d the absence of the late sis: 
*' Wall r said he, rising and scanning the crowd in vain 
search of any one of them, "hei-e's the court, now, where 
in hell's tbe jury," 

In the Fall of tbe same year, W. J. Clark, now of Coins 
county, vras being tried before the same justice, foras- 
saultiug a lawyer or as he expresses it, "for pntting an 
extension ou the head of a limb of the law" — and 
tbe case bad been going on for about one and a half days 
when the accused proposed to the court to go outside and 
fight the plaintiff and settle the whole thing that way, the 

party that got tfaruhed Io pay the costs and Ihft juilge 
to dL«ni» the case. " Tbals a fair pn>ix^tioD." said Uu' 
•qairv. and jumping op from bia Mat he tbn»w down his 
■p«ctaclea with the rwmark. that "if any one wants a 
•qoarvr proivwitJon than that ho*!* a daninetl cowAnl. 


[q August. 184". Jamci* McDowell moved frotu Sattor'jt 
Fort to Ibe place now knuwu as Washington, in Volu 
county, opposite Sacrumonto City, and across the river 
that gave to that city ila nam.'. He purchased of John 
Schaartz nix hundred acrvs, in the northeast corner of his 
aoppoMd grant. pt»ying twelve and a-half ccnt^* per 
acrw for it. Mr. McDowell feuccd in ono acto in the 
northoOMt corner of bia six hundred, whore be built 
a log houiio. Hia north lino fence was whore Ana or 
Itailroad street now is. 

In 1818, Kit and J. B. Chiles settled near his north line, 
and in connection with J. C. Davis, stjirtod the first ferry 
across tbu S.icramunto river nt tliat point, the same year. 
There soon nmso a contlict betwfon McDowell and these 
parties, a-s to thotitit- or division-line bolwoon their claims, 
tUat was very bitter, and the gln»st of tbat old war is not 
fully laid yet. 

Tbo death, from wonndft, of Mr. McDowell, in May, 
18-19. has already been noted. His widow afterwards 
married Dr. E. C. Taylor, and is still living at Washington. 
Slie is a woman that, it would seem, has soon more than 
her share of trouble and inisfortuno, but one who met it 
with a nt-rvo seldom ccjualed. by oven the sterner sex, 

.\ftc>r her husband's deatli, an attempt was mnde to make 
a aui-vey to establisU the disputed north line, and a parly 
entered bur acre iudo^ure with instruments for that pur- 
pose. She sent a man by tbo name of Coon, who was 
administrator of the cstato, to order tliem oH', but be was 
told by the invading party to travel himself, whicli he did. 
jMrs. McDowell, finding she was loft to defend what she 
believed to be her own and children's property, or lose it, 
seized an i\\ and camo down upon the enemy liko another 
Joan of Arc; and tbo surveyors — well, thoy had to either 
kill the woman, get made into kindling-wood by lier, or 
go out of there, and they went. 

.\t auollier time, sho found a cow belonging to Mr. 
Chiles in lier garden, eating up the vegetables; that wore u 
source of revenue to her, and recognizing it us one tbat 
had given her considerable trouble before, sho took down 
her husband's old rillo, aliot the animal, and then paid a 
negro an ounce of gold dust to throw the carcass into the 

Mrs McDowell caused a town site to bo laid out on the 
property claimed by her for horaelf and children, as the 
heirs of her deceased husband; that she named Washing- 
ton, and the plat was dated February, 1850. 

The first deed recorded by tbe first County Recorder of 
Tolo county was one in which Mrs. McDowell conveys lot 
No. 4, in block No. 4 of Washington, in consideration of 
SJOO. The lot was 83 feet by 80, and the purchasers were 
Wm. Bearbour and Jeremiah Callahan; tbe deed being 
dated April 4th, 185U. 

Tbat first town plat mysteriously disappeared from the 
Town Hall, bnt a copy had been previously t^iken, which 
we were permitted to see, and observed tbat it confaiued 
twenty-seven blocks, and that Andrew J. Binney was the 
one who made tbe survey and original map. It appears 
from this copy that the present Williaoi street was the 
north limits of tbe town, and tbat what is now Catherine 
was then James street. 

On tbe 3rd of June, 18-50, Mahlan T. Coon became ad- 
ministrator of tbe estate of the deceased McDowell, and 
on the 13th of the same month he entered a pre-emption 
claim to one bnndred and sixty acres of land, including the 
town site, for the u5e and benefit of the heirs. October 
Sth of the same year Coon's letters of administration were 
revoked, and F. Woodword was appointed to succeed him. 
Mr. Coon had been selling lots without an order of the 
Court, consequently we find that November 4tb, 1850, 
Freeman Niman, John Cooke, Brooks and Woodward, 
John Ledger and James Farrass petition the Court for 
deeds to lots that theyaffirm have been bought and paid for 
by them. In December of that year two lots were sold to 
E. V. Vausickle, on Levee street, for $1,100; one to Free- 
man Niman, lot 16, block 9, on Second street, $1,500; one 
to W. N. Brooks, lot 14, block 4, on Harriet street, for S.300. 
Harriet street was then the street now known as Mar- 

November 2'2nd, 1851, Dr. E. C. Taylor, the husband of 
James McDowell's widow, was appointed guardian of the 
children, and in September, 1862, another plat was made of 

the town, in which Jamosstroot appears nt tho top tustend of 
Ibe Vmltom of tho map: aud where Ihe original Jainos 
sirwl w,is thert' is no niimo. 

February IGlb, 18tt0, a plat was filed at tbe connty scat 
for roconl, by the nxiuest of E. C. Taylor, tluil appeare to 
be different from all tbo ivst, iw Catherine straot appears on 
its lower limits, where James sti-oot wasin the original map 
of February. lS.'t0, and below Catherine several streets not 
included in tho map i-einmled at his instiuii'c June'illth uf 
tbo same year. This plat, recorded in iluiie, 18lil>, in tlio 
one now recognized as the ono tbat controls, we aro in- 
formed, altboiigb tlie patent to E. 0. Taylnr from the State 
of California bears dati- February Urd, ISi'.K. this piitent 
being the first unquentiiuiod title (hat any private citizen 
over bad to any portion of tbo town site originally claimed 
by tbe McDowell lioira. 

Dr. Pre.sley Woleb and Col. J. H. Lewis settled in .Vii- 
gust, 1840, cloao to Waabiugton, and cleared a hnlf-milo 
square of land, joining tlio south lino cf tbo IIIO arroa 
owned by tbo heirs of StcDowell. On ttiii fith of 
December, 1^10. Job N. Peek moved across from Sjicra- 
mento with bis family of wife and child, uml pilebod liia 
tent on tin- Welcli and Lewis claim, lb- bad |inrel|[iHr!il a 
one-third interest from tlicni, and they three, us equal 
paitnors, proposed to start (ho dairy buHincss, having 
about fourteen cows to Htart with. A ulinke bouho was 
built a couple of blocks west uf where Mr. I'linimings now 
lives, and Mr. Punk tnovod into it on tho iitb of Jininary, 
1850. At that time, there was but ono othur liuusu in tlio 
place -tho log ono occupied by Mrs. McDowell. Kit 
Cliiles lived with bis family in a tout near thn baidi. idioiit 
where William street intersects the river. Tliu third 
house was a franiu building on tbe north sido of Harriot 
street, o|)posite wliat is now tlio old hotel culled tlio 
Olive Branoli, and was occupied by Mrs. Mdldwell iis a 
residence. Tbo fourtb was a ziuc house, near (lie cornor 
uf Sttciond and .\nn streets. Tbese wero sncueeded by tliu 
Olive Branch, built by — — Bryant, It wiis origiimlly '2'J 
feet by 32. ami was [luroliasod by Ainus Waring, who paid 
§0,000 for it. und took pussosaiou of Llio projiorty on tlio 
4tli of July, 1850. Dr. Heath, who died of cholera, lived 
nt first in a teut; then built u house wliuro the sliip-yard 
now is. His chiblren are now in WisoonHJu. Dr. Brown 
lived with his family on the street south (if and facing tliu 
old cemetery, whore his two children were buried, Tliuro 
wore seven deatlis from cliolera iu tho place in 1850, and in 
1852 the town was again visited by that scourge, but with 
less fatal results. Tbo house iu which now lives Mrs. 
Cumraiugs, formerly Mrs. Pock, was niocted in IHfiO, and 
was first occupied by Mr. J. N. Pock and family, in August 
of that year. In February of that year, I. N. Hoag iirst 
became a resident of Wtisliington. Previous to this, J. B. 
Chiles and J . 0. Davie liad been tho owners of a ferry on 
tho river, running between Hiicramento and that village. 
The legislature of the previous winter hud passed un Act 
authorizing the Courts of Session to license tho running 
of ferries, and Mr. Hong made application for one to run 
between those two places. Mr. Chiles and Davis not 
being up to all tiie " ways that are dark aud tricks that 
aro vain," also applied, but without suecess, their petition 
being rejected for want of formality — not having complied 
strictly with the requirements of the law in posting a no- 
tice of their intentions. Judge Hoag had j^uichased a 
scow in anticipation of success in his application, and he 
rigged it with two endless chain horse-power engines, that 
were powerless to move tbe ark of Ins hopes. Tiieso wero 
discarded and steam was substituted, and thrj new sieam 
ferry was called the "Alpha." He ran it during tho enin- 
iner and in tbe months of September, October and No- 
vember, his receipts for ferrying were §27,000. He was 
offered ^^40,000 for the property, accepted the proposition, 
and part of the money was counted out on the sale, when 
a question v/ raised as to the quantity of wood included 
in tbe bargain, and before it could bo settled tho pur- 
chasers backed out. Soon after this, oiiposition sprang 
up and tho business became profitless. 

Previous to the building of tbe railroad throngh the 
town, and by bridge across the river, thus transferring 
practically all business to Sacramento, Washington was an 
important point. In early days, all the travel from or to 
the country west of the river and the Shasta mines, that 
entered or left Sacramento, passed through Washington. 
Tbe amount of business transacted there was very large, 
and iu the early part of 1850, there were hopes entertained 
of rivaling Sacramento City itself, becanse of the inunda- 
tion of that place in that winter. It was this ambitious 
hope tbat caused the laying out of the south addition to 

ce -u-i ^ CO '- 


Piste N9 38 

n«hiDgton hy Presley Welch, tlifi plat beiOR certified to of oak shakes HoI«« 
• fore 8 jtwtice on the Htb of >L'i.v. It became expenxiTe ' - 


if) Bi»int«"n a 

oU-Jir title Vi Uie laricl, an it was twice nhad- wa4 

ei bv fe-mnti*. Firxt it cDRt «.0(KJ to get rid at the 
K^hwart'- «Ia"™' ""'^ *''^'''-- '" Octi^ihor, S'i.OOO to buy off the 
Je*eplia Martinez t;rant, that had be«D purchased by Geo. 
W IVlI. Milton Little and S. C. Hiistings, who paid 1250 
lown for it, tUo rest Ut be advauced when the title papers 
«cro ft" """'* complete, which was oeYCr done. The 
Mirtiuez grau* ***** '*''' ^^'^'^ square leugnes of land ex- 
toDilii't; "P '''" '^'^'^''' '^*"" ^^ *•»*>' "Bt*"" t'» near Fremoot. 

"Groen'it Hot-'l" was bailt in IHb'i, by Win. M. Greene, 
whore it no'^ »taiid«, occupied by thut gentleman, on the 
corner of Second anil Harriet streets. 

In 1S'>5, the sliip-yard was started there by the '■ Cali- 
fornia Steum Niivigiitiou Company" that now is owned by 
Ibe C P. It- I*- Coinpimy. No shipping is now repaired 
in tie yard except for tlie railroad company, and tlie em- 
Ij1ov'?'s uomber ftcconliiig to the amoant of work in pro- 
ffm, ranging from five to forty. 

Id 1855, C. W. Heed started the uursory biiKiness 
doBO to the Houtb part of that town, and continued the 
name until about 1873. He now has an orchard there of 
20 000 trees, covering I'lO acres, and baa been shipping 
(ruit to the east across the i)lainH, since the railroad was 
firsl "ponod, Chicago beiug his principal market. This 
HUinmer, 1879, he lias sent twenty-three car-loads of pears 
iinil sonic plums. 

In lBi)l. the county seat was moved from Fremont to 
WjiHtiington ; in 1857, it was removed to Cncbevillo; and 
tliofi rotui'iioil to Wusbington again in 1861 ; and tinully was 
whooled out of town to Woodlaud, io 1862, whore it is 
now lit liomo. The ])resenoe of tlie seat of justice had its 
inlbiimee iipon the business of the place, and its absence 
II eiivrcaponding doprension. 

At present, Wasliington is a village overshadowed by a 
oily, from wliicli it is separated only by a river. Its 
people atteod church in Sacramento, they go tlieve to buy 
mill to sell, tlioii- societies and public amusemeuts are 
tliiiro, and when dead tlieir remains are taken to the ceme- 
tery iu that city for burial. 

There is possibly one hundred resideuces iu the towii, 
two hotels, two groceries, one blacksmith shop, one boot 
mill shoo ropiiiv shop, oae meat market, one feed stable, 
ah saloons, and no depot, express or post office. 


Where the Northern Hailroad crosses Cache creek in 
this county, on the noitbwest Bank of that stream, is a 
village called Oacheville, with possibly two hundred and 
lifty iiihiibitunts. The name is one that, to the average 
American, bears a siguificent meaning, suggestive of a 
Hpooie basis of doing business, and possibly may have had 
ail iuilueiice in causing the annual burglariziug of Mr. 
Gritlith'a store. 

1h the last of September, 1849, Thomas Cochran camped 
ou the south side of a big tree that stands on the bank ot 
the crook iu Cacheville, on the north side of Sacramento 
street, wliore it intersects the stream. A store that fronts 
tiio present hotel kept by Leon Knight, stands between 
tlio tree and the main street. Ou the 2d of October, 1849, 
A. GriOilh, passiug through the country on bis way to the 
Sliiista mines, found Cochran there preparing to build a 
Iiouse, and stopped two days to help him, and tlien resumed 
liisjom-npy. This wns the first of Cacheville, thatforyears 
wis kuowil as "Cochran's Crossing," being the place where 
the road from Sacramento crossed the creek ou the route 
to the Shasta miuing country. , 

Iu December, Mr. Griffith returned from the mines and 
became Cochran's " stewaid;" that is, be fried the steaks, 
served up to the customers of the - Hotel de Cochran 
the dcliciicioB of the season, such as beef, when they hart 
it, coffee on similar occasions, and occasionally a stutted 
liawk, that some of the boarders believed to be turkey, 
«nd others didn't. , ., „ 

Mr. Cochran was a North Carolinian; he crossed the 
plains in 1S43, to Oregon; from thence he went, in I'^iJ, 
»« N'apH valley, and from the latter place to Cache creek 
"« before stated. He was a man fiUed with the milk ot 
^mm kindness, generous, slothful and skiUed m ignor- 
««<=e. He was corpulent and pompous, with a pecuu 
•'abit.wlien mentally disturbed, of catching 1;°'^ f ^'f 
<:oUar and jerking i't up toward his ears, first «>^ 
l">i>a and then wiU. the other, as though he seriously con 
t^^mpkted bringing the whole shirt out for "^P«f' **"■ ^^ 
Cochran Hotel wal about 20 by 30 feet, and coastructed by 
sellmg poles on end and covering the inclosurewitu a 

was hang oter th. big h^t^ i,."^ i"^' ' *''«^» 
eooogh for a floor. Jd Ih^T. fij^"**^. ^*^ ^ fooi 

bed on the fl^TtS .^''T '*>* 'T'' '-^« «"» ^ 

Stockton, a terwanls Sheriff of Hh«u county, . Uwrcibr 

he name of S.mdie. W. J. ,.>i«n.„. ,„a '. .-oj' «« 

named Major Cain Bowlia. ThU la.t-nan.ed ^^ theZ 

health. On hi* arrival he resembled nn escaped mummv 
or an animated skeleton cov«re.l wiih a human «kin. h«'- 
ing been reduced to that condition bv a »wclUag on Uio 

- - - -^japed to Onjgon, where lie 

lived among the Indians for some time. Eventunlly ho 
mode his aj.pearance iu a town, and being recognized w»s 
arrested. A deputy sheriff was bringing him in irons to 
California, but was lost overboanl. It waa supposed that 
Butler had managed in some way to shove him into thosoa 
from the dock of the steamer. Hu was taken to Nevada 
City and hung, under the name of David Uutler. 

Cochran's Hotel was at the time the only victualing sln- 
tion between Sacramento and the place kept by Chas. B. 
Stirling and Taylor, in Colusa county, miles 
north of Cache Creek, now owned by Hon. J. Boggs. 

The second building was put np by Cochran on the 
north side of the same tree, sometime during thut first win- 
ter, and was used for a sleeping department, being fitted 
up with rude bunks. In 1850, the same party erected a 
frame building for hotel purposos, 18 by 30 feet, and one 
story high. It was divided into three rooms, the bar in 
one end, the kitchen was iu the other, and the dining room 
was a compromise, a sort of neutral ground between tlie 
two, and the old log structures were used for sleeping 
apartments. In 1851, Cochran and William Hammack 
put up the fourth building. It was a frame structure one 
and a half stories high, in size 20 by 30 feet, aud became 
the northeast L of frame building number one. 

In the Fall of 1851, Cochran started off one day to visit 
Sacramento, and has never since seen the town of which 
he was a pioneer. In passing through Sacramento he 
handed his watch to a friend, saying to him that young 
Griffith would call for it. Ho met .lohn Morris at San 
Francisco and said to him, "Take what I have at the 
Crossing and pay yourself and ray other debts, and I am 
satisfied." and in that way they were all paid. Mr. GrilHtli 
becoming alarmed because of his protracted absence, and 
fearing some misfortune had befaUen the man, set out in 
search ot him. In Sacramento be called upon the party 
with whom the watch had been left to make inquiries re- 
garding the absent, and was handed the familmr old time- 
keeper with the remark that - he said you would call for 
it in a few days." and thus a silent good-bye had been 
sent him by the strange old man of honest intent and 
rnerous sentiment as he was about o leave his native 
Tand for .\nstralia. Mr. Griffith stdl carries be .^tch 
1 n.«- with cold in memory of that solitary fare- 
nrgteetnglli'^t him after' their life path, had 

^:.^ /-^^-^'^.^Hal^' 
atandwaskeptintbewmterof ISo^^by^^^^ 

and Mr Griffith, and in the Fail of lSo2 Mr. a. a. nu 
ftodiur. ur. ■ j^ became Hammack s part- 

''''' r^riffi hhavin^"-ne back to the States for the 
ner. Mr. ^nffith h;^'"= ■= ^^ ^^^^^^.^ to California in 
purpose of S;""^SjX' ,„. bride thatbad comewith 

srre^?rherTn the'new home, but was buried in eleven 

■ ""tttffb a hli--^;. and sUrted ia the mercan- 

sfiln:.' Neither of ^^^ ^;-:^-t:%^^t:. 

-- '^' rard^Sr^cratrit for them. That 
$75 per "^°°*^ ''"^^i^" ^ tept the first store was m 
old buUding -/^^^'^chinese "ash-house, bat now it is 

vacant, the C't'^r^f ^ , ^i^ thia to prtv<nd any 

to either live or icorl. 

•loon. «kik- tfa* Bpp„ rtorr «m for • Mmmie IMt. lU 

fir.1 tn the cx,amy. Utor Um bwMiMi w*- »^1 hT 3n,\g^ 

HnttoQ for « dv^Utif . l"]. : : 

post-offi(>MorpailnntMii> "! 

the pUco «her«Bll nuul (or ti , Kg,. 

log this je«i a po«t rwat* n , . ^ frv^m 

Brnicui and running to Kd 

"an. V»catillp, IVhr I'rv. ^ , , 

offi<* wa*oo tli- orwk noriU ^i M™.ii«.i.. .Vr. i 

iK'iBg the i».Bitnuwt.T. Volo *a. «l tVwhr.i 

J. .\. Button p<,Mtmk«tcr. «ad Kninht". !-indint! wu nJ)«.l 

(trattOD, *ft,T the Agfnl who oitlA)di>hi^ lb« ruiito. Mid 

CapUiu rp.lcgraff nai. 1I10 tn\ (xMiluiMlrr. Th»< nrntu 

was sisty milm long, and tho moil «-aArarn<<d o««r itooov 

a week on honu>back by the c<mtract»r, Mr, Switccr, or one 

of hia boy*. Jmlgo llutton wo* iH>it|nia>tcr nl Yo|.» until 

18»?l.w|iou ho waa bul*c««<Io.1 b* Mi-, Ciriffilh, »ho )i<<hl llin 

ponilion until 1870, and was suov-oolnl by W. S. llMlotou; 

ho by 0. V. Barko, the prveeot tooamWnt bving O. F. 


Ah early as 1853 Hammack and Huttuu aUrtiMl a black- 
smith shop, «nd the properly luuwu^l, in IttiVii, to O. W. 
Woodvard, who built the Oachcviilit Hoitio iu I8t)7. 

In 1855, n mercantile parlnvnthip nan foimvil bvtucim 
Hutton nod Urilfith (lint hutcd until IN.'i7, v\\vn the county 
Hcnt wa.1 moved to "Hultim'a," the nama that had brvu 
substituted for the old uno of Cochmiio'w Crovitii);; iiud nl 
the Knme time nnotht<r clmngo in tho nniiio id the villngo 
WAS maile from Uuttiai'it to Cnchevilli>, and a luun pint 
wan rccordi^d under thin hut name, October lOtli uf that 

From 1857 to 1800 there nnn proHjiority in Cooho* 
villo; with the seat of juatico cittahliMhoil, thoro ooui* 
menced the erection of buaincwi houxt-H uf vuriona kimlH, 
and it beoanio & lively little inland viltngr. The timt nowii- 
paper in the county wim started thfre in 1857, called the 
Yolo Democrat, and the lyixxllauil Dailij Danncrat of to-day 
is its direct lineal descendant. 

NnmerouH robberies have been npHnkted along the yoant 
in thut little toun. Griffith's store wnH broken into in Du- 
comber, l*riO, and %'A'iiH in money and a pair of gold brace- 
lets from tUo Hufo worn taken. Tho Kiimii year the wife of 
H. C. Yorby was bnrglarizcd, ami $I,'iOO wan cd>taincd by 
the robbers. Iu 18G1, April 14th, the County Troaduror'ii 
safe was robbed of $8,t<33.GH; and the county sent nan 
soon after removed back again to Wiuthinglon, and yraHU 
began to grow in the street* of Cachovillc. Mr. Griffith 
was again robbed May 8th, IHUI, by particH never dotocted, 
who broke into his store, and obtained 929'li and again, 
in 1878, three burglars made an entrance to his .ttoro; but 
being detected in the act made their crtCBpo, after oxohang- 
iiig a few Hbots at cIobo range, not over thirty feot, willi 
the proprietor. 

In October, 1870, a&addlcr, named W. H. Herron, whun 
under the influence of liquor, nhol and killed a saloon- 
keeper named Bamy Schultn. Ho watt ncnt to state prison 
for the crime. 

The history of the Cachevillo school, church Hociotics 
and floods have been given in chapters under their appro- 
priate headings. 

The town was given a new hope and vitidity in 1877, 
when the railroad passed through there, and now it is a 
quiet, sedate inland village with the following an a sum 
tolal'of its haziness entablishmcnts: ApOMt-offico (Yolo), 
express office, and depot, one chnrcb, one grudud school, 
one hotel, one doctor, one drug and variety store, agricultu- 
ral implements, one general rocrchandiHc store, one tinner, 
one meat market, one barber, one livery stable, one bar- 
ness-maker, one grain warehouse, one three story brick 
grist mill, two blacksmith shops, two shoe-makers, and 
three saloons. 

The business buildings are all of wood except three. 
The two stores and one occupied by a ahoe-makcr. 

TI11T.B0AD Fbeigots Shipped ritOMC.xHEViLLE TO Beodocwo 

OP IS79. 
In 1876, tons of grain.. 3,8761 Tons other freight 1314 

In 1877, total freights tons. . . - - .-■..- ■ ■- ■ 2,41t'| 

Inl878,tODsofgrain.. 1,4671 Tons other freight 171i 


In the state Agricultural reports of 1856, page 4, it is 
recorded that Jerome C. Davis. living on the lo lo side o 
Pnto creek, h.d eight thousand acres of knd one thousand 
of which were enclosed. It is also stated that he was 
^ri^ting by pumping water from the creek w,th a steam 




ii^ni: iUl be tad • U(«« p»mA orcbard. w««nl »bo«- , 
-*^l tavv^ gnpe Tiom. ihnm thoomad haad of Mttle, 
ftbo«t tbe M»« Dttsber oi ■bMf>, om bandred aod 6tt^ 
bone*; ud lb»» four hBi«»fed mcrm of whe.! and b«il«T 
bad piodoMd f.jr bim o^er ibirty bosbeU to the wrro tb»t 
«e«r. Id IMS. from lb« ume •oaree, it w r»i>ottftl that 
be h*d t»eBtT-<HM dUm o« f«»«, and (rotn lb* pnnt*-! 
Dtcttunal to Coagrm ■•»• bj bim wb«*n lobbving forihe 
Act that cwafinned to parcbMrr* >n good Uitb the " S«»- 
toaCaUe'laada. it i* notcl ibat in l«l, Mr. Vtkji" bad 
parcbawd in aJl o»«r tbirt<>«u tbooMod acre* of Ui»1. 
f igbt tbotuand tij{bt bandrcd aiiil vW'Xvu of «bicb be was 
then owner of upon wbirb b« bad* mit«^ <>' 
(enee, wm* of wbich coat liira ftCTen buii.Irc.i dolUni per 
mile. In nine Team, inclodiny 1H5;; nnd Ir^i:!. be paid 
|6,'295.63 taxes on tbat proiwrtr. 

In 1867. Mr. Davi. »oId 3,000 acre^ to W. C. Rice, D. 

C. Kaskin-/ Jobn B. Frisbee,* Ridor*aLd Rulos- 

Hoo f<»r $8ii.00i>. Tbew partii?* were the main men in tbo 
California Pfwific Kailroail whcrae; bot their first i»ay- 
ment not being made in aivorbuice wilb tbe contract, Mr. 
Davis rt^utod tbc property-, subject to tliu aale, to Wm. 
Ure-bacli, who ent«re<l into poAHCSsion. The parties par- 
chiwing vAoie forwar.! with the tonsiderution for tlie prop- 
wrty ill the Spring o( 1808, and Mr. Drcsbach became 
Ihoir teiiaut. The obi Davis homeiit«?nd was converted into a 
hotel, and run by Mr. Ure^bach, nnd wur cnlled the Yolo 
House. It was continued iw Bueli until about 1871. hav- 
ing various landlonls in the raoftntime. and ia now being 
necupiod by Chinamen, liarly in the year, Mr. Dreslmcb 
pnt up the large buildinj^ now known iw the Dreabiioh, 
Bane A: Co. store. It is one story high, has n forty foot 
front and a length of lUJ feet, and was origiimlly built 
near the Yolo Hou«o, and was 9ubau«inently moved to its 
present location, near the depot. It was the first building 
put tliere. Tbo town was after this given the name of 
Uavisville by Mr. Dresbach, althoogh it was not laid out 
untft tbo following November, the pkt being recorded on 
the aith of (bat iiiontli, in 18IJH. 

The second building erected wa« a hotel byT. G. Craw- 
ford and Joel Paruieter, in the Fall of ISGfl, that was given 
the name of American Houfle. This was followed by the 
Weber Saloon, put up in tbe southwest part of what is 
now the town, and later moved to its present site. 

Gen. W. H. Miirdeu purchased the Americun Hotise in 
June, lf»70, aud elianged its name to Marden House. lu 
1878, he enlaiged it to its present capacity of twenty ndght 
aluoping rooms, and the building is now a two-storj- one, 
hiiviug II froutige of one hundred and twonty-liva feet on 
Olive street and one hundred and nine on Second street. 
1 In 1870, I. N. Knight built the Occidental House on the 
northwest corner of Olive and Second streets. He failed, 
and the properly passed into the hands of Maurice Rear- 
don and was bnrned, the lot now being vacant. Richard 
Philiber put a restaurant building on the corner of Olive 
and First streeU tliat was purchased by J. W. GuEfordin 
1875, who enlarged it in 1870 to its present dimensions. It 
13 a two-story building with thirty rooms, with a fifty-foot 
front on Olive street; runs back along First street one 
hundred feet, and is now popularly kno^vu as the " Gafford 

(For history of churches, societies, aohools, etc., see 
chapters treating on those subjects.) 

Davisvillo was the first railroad station in Yolo county. 
Mr. Dresbach was the first raercbaut, tbe first Post- 
master and agent for "Weils, Fargo & Co. there, and his 
business transactions often reached $15,000 per month. 
Davisville was a young metropolis and tbe point for ship- 
ping and trading for a very large section of country. 
During tbat first year f i-ora fourteen to twenty thousand tons 
of wheat WAS shipped f mm there. Business lots were sold 
for as high as $700, but generally ranged from SlOO to 
$250 each. And with all this prosperity there was the ac- 
companying wave of debauchery and crime that seems to 
have become a never-tailing companion of excessive pros- 
perty in new towns. 

There has been but one murder, however, committed 
there. A number of railroad when on a genei-al 
drunk, opened hostiUties among themselves, and one 
piitlv was stabbed in the leg, from the effects of which he 
died' a few hours biter. It was considered somewhat 
strange that a wound in that part of the body should prove 
' so suddenly faUl, but the bgbt of a few more years of ex- 

• Sold thrix inttKsl to J. P. Jackson in mbuot ISfii In JS70 Dr. Hice 
died, and Ur. Jackson became lie atlornej for the vbole propertr. And 
Mr. Dresbith acted «3 fais sgent. One-&fii of lh^ real tstile was set off to 
Ihs iridow of Dr. Hic«. and she is nou- the o«iief of tbe old Daris home- 
stead. Host of the (arming Undi of all. ei«pt Mrs, Eire's, hkre Uen sold 
kt priws -varjing from JJO to $73 per acre. Mrs. Eire slill retains hers. 

io^Unc the following frotii ^^.^^^ 7,^; * ,, 
|Wm«ter at I>avi,v.lle. who ^''^^^^^^ ""'^^''^^^Z '' 
.here had been aerend c^ in U-e T^J'^lTZl 
b.l be^n shot throogh the boad. .vet t^^^« '^ X^;;,, | 
im.tan.-e. tbat he could remember of. in whicb iucli v,o 
had proved fatal. 

There have been five a^aanlta «i.b ^^-"^.J^P;";;: 1 
which wound, wer.. inflicted. The first was m 1« by a 
„lro npon a white man. with a raxor, m -hurh tlu> | 
aa^ulted party was badly cut about the face and head. , 
«upi>OM.d.obefatal. but he «oon --«-f " .^'^ "^^^ 
v,lJa negro assaulted by a white man m which the negro 
re^-eived'a bullet in the cheek, and if he has «.opp d un- 
ning since it is because his w.nd gave out The ntxt 
j Victim was Mr. Bullard. who in 1872 received a ouml er o 
cuU in the breast, and his a.«ailant was rewardetl by a 
i rce lodgment in the State boanling house at San Quent u 
; or two years. The fourth inst^inco was that of B \\ d- . 
who waa shot bv a saloon keeper through the head, the ball 
entering at the "side of the nose and pa-s«iug thmngb was 
extracted from the .kin on tbe back of his head or upper 
part of tbe neck. The fifth was that of Wm. McEntue, 
who was shot bv an unknown parly in 1879, the ball en- 
tering his bead back of and a little higher than the right 
ear, passed through and lodged above the left eyo, and he 

Two Chinamen have been murdered there, but this 
don't count, as -'the Chinese must go," and tlireo parties 
have committed suicide. The first to destroy his own life 
was a SwiRs jeweler named Jacob Fueg. who blew out bis 
brains with a pistol. The second wtis a shotmuker by the 
name of Thomas Cunningham, who cut bis own throat 
while laboring under the halluciualiou incident to delirium 
tremens, and the third was a .saloon keeper whose litiuor 
not being quite ati-ong enough, look a dose of chloral 

There have been two robberiea effected, and one attempt 
where the parly who was to bo robbed received them with 
ft six-shooter, which caused the thieves to decamp, leaving 
ft hat behind with a